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It. PETERSBURGa 


A JOURNAL OF 

TRAVELS TO AND FROM THAT CAPITAL; 


THRUUGH FLANDERS, 

THE RHENISH PROVINCES, PRUSSIA, RUSSIA, 
POLAND, SILESIA, SAXONV, 

THE FEDERATED STATES OF GERMANV, AND FRANCE. 


BY A. B. GRANVILLE, M. D. 


rjLB.; F.L8.i KAB.; ft M.RXS.; 


PhyBieian la Ordinuy to HiR-H. tha Dnka of Clarence t nijBlelan^AceeucheiiT to the Wntmln- 
Btor OmmI DlipenMn^'ead to the Bcnocottnit LjriiiK-ln InBUlutlon; Principal Phyalclan to the 
Rojai Motropolltan fawiMiT fbr Hick ChUdren | Hon. .Vunher of the Hojal Academx of Medicine 
of Madrid! Comap. MoaiMr of the Imperial Academj of Krienceii of Ht. Petcraburgh, and Hon. 
Member of the Imperial MediooA^hlrargicai Acadenu offtho aame town | Koreigo ABWclate of 
the Hojal Academy ^Heleaeea of Naplm i Member of the Plinlco-Mathematical Olat* of the Royal 
AoaderoTof Solenoea of Turin | of the Rpyal Academy of Hcienoea and BvliMj^tfM jaf Urns- 


aeis : Corinap- Member of the Medlco-ChUariiical 


the Natural Hlitorji Sooteu of Halle) Corretp. Member of iho PruBiian 1 
of the Philomathio and Phllatechalc Societiei, and the IforUu MtdteaU 
the I'hUmophlcal and Literary Society of Manchester | of the Gwrri 
Medical and Molentlllo Societioa of Marmllca, Florence. Flame. Val d'r 
and Member of the Boyel College of Phyaiclani In London. 


IN TWO VOLUMES. 



VOL.V. 


SECOND EDITION 



CAREFULLY aRVISED, AND WITH CONSIDBBABtS ADDITIONS. 


LONDON : 

HENRY COLBURN, NEW BURUNGTON STREET. J 






TO 


HIS MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY 

KING GEORGE IV. 

UNDER WHOSE PATERNAL AUSPICES AND MILD SWAY, 

GREAT BRITAIN 

HAS ATTAINED, AS WELL IN WAR, AS IN PEACE, 

A degree of glory 

UNPARALLELED IN FORMER TIMES; 

THESE VOLUMES, 

INTENDED TO DESCRIBE THE CAPITAL 
OF A 

POWERFUL AND ALLIED MONARCH, 

ABE, 

WITH HIS MAJESTY’S VERY GRACIOUS PERMISSION, 

MOST HUMBLY AND RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED 
and DEDICATED BY 


THE AUTHOR. 




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ILLUSTRATIONS. 


VOL I. 

Page 

Statue of Peter tlie Great . . Frontispiece. 

Map of the Post>Roiitc . . . . • xxii 

Plan of Brussels .... . . .42 

View of the Park, and of the Palace of the States- General at 

Bnissels . . . . . .52 

Timber Raft floating doxra tlie Rhine . . .118 

Castle of Rheinstein, and view of the Road along the Left Bank of 

the Rhine . . . . ,134 

The Castle of Johannisberg on the Rhine, belonging to His High- 

ness the Prince Metternich • . . 142 

Plan of Frankfort ..... 150 
Plan of Weimar , . . . . 206 

Plan of Leipsig . . . . . 233 

I'hc New Royal Palace at Potsdam .... 252 
Plan of Berlin . .... 257 

Tlie ITnter den Linden«Promenade .... 259 
'J'riumpbal Arch, erected near tlie Riga Gate at St. Petersburgh, 

to commemorate the return of the Russian Guards from Paris 396 
The English Quay at St. Petersburgii . . . 425 

The Imperial, or Winter Palace, at St. Petersbui^h, seen through 

the Tropheal Arch of the Etat Major . . .511 

Plan of the Petit et Grand Hermitage, w(th the Theatre . 520 

Theatre of the Hermitage on the Great Quay . . 532 

Plan of St. Fetcralurgli . . . . . 557 

VIGNETTES. 

Flan of the Penitentiar}', or Central House of Correction at Ghent 28 
Churrli of St. Bavon . . . . . S3 

The Belfry 33 

Front of the Palace of the New University at Ghent . 34 

The King's Palace at Brussels . . . .60 

The Prince of Orange's New Palace at Brussels . . 50 

The Tlutel de Villo at Brussels . . . .56 

The Church of St. Michael and St. Gudole, at Brussels . 58 

The Tower of Jauseuius at Louvain . . .68 

The Echo of Luriey, on the Rhine .... 133 
Ducal Palace at Bieberich, on the Rhine . . . 143 

The Library, and Upper Gate on the Mein, at Frankfort . 154 
The Rumcrbeiger at Frankfort . . • .155 

Schiller's House at Weimar .... 217 

The Markt Plate at licipsig . . . . 234 

The Royal Chkteau at Potsdam • .255 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 


Page 

3G The Brandenburg Gate, at Berlin .... 262 

37 The Frendi Church at Berlin . . . . - 264 

38 The Royal Chateau, and Lang* ribriicke at Berlin . . 269 

39 The Arsenal at Berlin .... 270 

40 The New Theatre at Berlin «... 284 

41 The University of Berlin ..... 290 

42 A Droshky ...... 406 

43 A Sledge ..... 407 

44 Cottage of Peter the Great, and Summer Palace at St. Petersbui^h 555 

VOL. II. 

45 The New Palace of Ills Imperial Highness the Grand Duke 

Michael at St. Petersbui^h . , Frontispiece. 

46 The Admiralty and Boulevards . ■ . . 55 

47 Castle of St. Michael . . . . .79 

48 The Imperial Academy of Sciences and Observatory . 105 

49' View of tlie Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, on the Quay the 

Neva . . . .138 

50 Ground Plan of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts . .139 

51 Church of Our Lady of Kazan . ‘ . 182 

52 Ground Plan of the same . . . . 184 

53 The Bridge Isaac and New Churrii .... 195 

54 The New Exchange and one of the Rostral Columns . 297 

55 Villa of Yelaguiiie « . . . 506 

56 Plan of the City of Warsaw ..... 526 

57 Palace of the Minister of Finance, at Warsaw * . 542 

58 Plan of the City of Dresden .... 576 

59 Dresden from the Bmr Bastion in Nenstadt . . 578 

60 The Royal Japanese Palace and Garden at Dresden . 594 

(i1 Dresden, as seen from Riicknitz, the position occupied by the 

Allied Armies in 1813, with Moreau’s Monument , 627 

62 The Fortress of Kiinigstein, on the Elbe . 632 

63 The Lunatic Asylum at Sonnenstein, on the Elbe . . 633 

VIGNETTES. * 

64 ITieSwaika 387 

65 Kiilatchnoi Boy (Fist Fight) . . . .389 

66 A Milk Woman . . . . . . 407 

67 A Sbitenstchick . . ... 412 

68 Government Palace at Warsaw . . . 641 

69 The Picture Gallery at Dresden . . 599 

70 Plan of the same . . . . .601 

71 Goethe’s House at M^eimar ..... 653' 



PREFACE 


TO THE SECOND EDITION. 


If the disposal of a large Edition in the brief space of 
eight months, be a just criterion of the indulgent approha- 

tioii with which a voluminous work has been received by 

« 

the public ; the Author of “ St. Petersburglf' has reason 
to be satisfied witli his su(!cess. To render that work still 
more worthy of the ])atronagc it has obtained, the Author 
has, with great diligence, revised and corrected the present 
Edition, and added to it such information as he has been 
able to collect during the short time that has elapsed since 
its first publication. The additions, he trusts, will be found 
important; and although they are considerable, he has 
been able to accomplish their insertion into the volumes 
without increasing the size of the latter, by compressing 
more matter into each page, and by omitting questions 
and passages, either not altogether relevant to the main 
object of the work, or simply referable to the Author’s 
own private affairs. Of the latter description is the ex- 
pose of a certain transaction with the University of London, 
which the Author deemed it incumbent upon him to detail 
at full length to his readers, as in that trrasaction great 



viii 


PREFACE. 


iif[ustice had been done to him, of a public nature, by one 
of the managers of tliat Institution. The occasion for that 
expose having, since, become matter of very subordinate 
consideration, the Author has dismissed the question al- 
together from the present Edition. 

The avowal contained in the former Edition, of the 
principal motives which led, first, to the journey to St. 
Petersburgh, and next, to its publication, has also been 
omitted on the present occasion. The writer who noticed 
the Author’s work in the Quarterly Review, having dis- 
approved of such an avowal, and condescended to make it 
the subject of his biting ridicule, there remained no other 
alternative to the Author, than to suppress it. He now feels, 
with that learned critic, that the public could not, “ eitlier 
now or ever, care one straw” what became of the Autlior, 
let him stay or begone, write his travels or hold his peace; 
and that it was impertinent in him to have thought other- 
wise. But in his defence, the Author may observe on this 
])oint, that he was muiled by the apparent interest with 
wliicli he fancied tliat the public read the repeated an- 
nouncements of the “ goings and comings” of other indi- 
viduals ; such, for instance, as those of the Junior Secretary 
of the Admiralty, himself a writer of travels, and perhaps 
a critic. The Author reasoned thus : if it be deemed ne- 
cessary to acquaint the public that a Junior Secretary, 
whose absence none can miss, (for there are plenty of other 
subalterns to supply his place,) has left his post, when- 
ever that personage proceeds on a visit to some dock- 
yard: how much more necessary must it be for a phy- 
sician to three public Institutions of considerable mag- 
nitude, and who is not without private practice, to in- 



PRBFACK. 


ix 


form those by whom ho gets his bread, of the motives 
which led him abruptly to absent himself from his nu- 
merous duties? In thus reasoning, however, the Quar- 
terly Critic has made it manifest, that the Author of 
“ St. Petersburgh” had assumed too much importance to 
himself, and had, in fiict, been guilty of vanity; a fault to 
which the same critic has horn pleased also to ascribe the 
“ long list of titles” appended to the Author’s name, in the 
title-page of his work. That critic objects to these “ titles 
manifold.” As well might he object to the spelling of 
wheel/w/TOW with two /s, when one w'ould suffice. The 
fact is, that custom has sanctioned the practice in both 
cases ; and custom is as good an authority as the dictum of 
a Quarterly Reviewer. The best part of the joke, however, 
is, that one of the most distinguished writers in the periodi- 
cal in question, and a marked poet, has set and followed the 
example, of adding “along tail of honours to a short title- 
page.” The thing itself is too paltry to merit even so much 
notice as that which is here bestowed u|>on it; but it might be 
asked, whether, if the tacking of F.R.S. to an author’s name, 
when in the enjoyment of that distinction, be orthodox prac- 
tice (and the compiler of the history of Voyages into the 
Arctic Regions, among many other writers, has proved it by 
his own example) ; the adding of any other academical dis- 
tinction, of equal importance, Im* not equalbf proper ? In 
truth, can an author, who has had the good fortune to arrive 
at a plurality of such distinctions, insert any of them and 
omit the remainder, without offence to those from whom 
he has received those honours? Be this as it may, the 
Quarterly Critic will be glad, at all events, to learn that his 
apprehensions, lest the objectionable “ string of initials” 



X 


PRKPACK. 


should be looked upon as chaff* that cannot catch old 
birds,” instead of being “a passport for tlie Author’s 
volumes to the shelves of the learned,” have proved ground- 
less ; for at the time of the Critic’s “ unprejudiced estima- 
tion” of the “ two fat volumes” a])pearing in the redoubtable 
Quarterly, those volumes had already found their place on 
the shclvi?s in question, in pretty good numbers ; and soon 
after, the entire Edition attained an ccjual honour. This re- 
sult, tile Author is inclined to ascribe, in a great measure, 
to the flattering manner in. which upwards of twenty 
Periodical Publications, in the short space of the two 
months which followed the apy)earancc of “ St. Peters- 
liurgh,” reported to the public their favourable opinion of 
that work : and he takes this opjiortunity of thanking them 
for their impartiality. 

Much as the Author must regret any farther intrusion 
on the attention of his readers in a mere Preface, there is 
one point on whicli he must beg to be allowed to be heard, 
for the purpose of giving the most unqualified contradic- 
tion to certain assertions of the Quarterly Reviewer, which 
are meant to affect the originality of “ St. Petersburgh” 
and the judgment of its Author. Those assertions are, 
that the Author has borrowed largely and injudiciously 
from Captain Jones, whose travels were published about 
two years ago by Mr. Murray, but have never been 
honoured with a notice in the Quarterly Review, nor 
have as yet, been reprinted. The words of the Quar- 
terly Critic are these: “We do not hesitate to say 
that his (Dr. Granville’s) Picture of St. Petersburgh, 
contains the most copious and detailed description of the 
gigantic edifices of this extraordinary city, which has 



PREPACK. 


XI 


hitherto been laid before the public and further on,— 
“As to the Russians generally, and the Russian man- 
ners and character of St. Petersburgh, we must yield 
the palm to Captain Jones, from whom our Author has 
largely^ but not judiciously borrowed^ 

This is a deliberate misrepresentation of facts. 

First, as to borrowing largely. There are, in the Au- 
thor’s work, five quotations from Captain Jones’s Travels, 
amounting altogether to about Jorty-Jive lines ; and let the 
Critic, if he can, produce evidence of more, either directly 
or indirectly expressed. 

Then, as to borrowing “ not judiciously.” The said 
extracts or quotations are upon naval matters, and are 
purposely introduced ;vith Captain Jones’s name, as a most 
excellent authority in support of the Author’s own state- 
ments, or in default of the Author’s personal obsei*vation of 
some of tJiose matters. Can this be called an injudicious 
proceeding ? But the real motive of the Reviewer’s double- 
headed shot, fired at the naval Cstj^tain and the Autlior, 
under the guise of a simple expression, “ not judiciously,” 
would appear to be the fact, tliat tlic testimony of that 
officer, contained in the quotations or passages alluded to, 
is uniformly favourable to Russia ! Ilinc ilia lachryma ! 

With respect to the alleged superiority of Captain 
Jones’s description of the Russian manners and character 
of St. Petersburgh (in which it is to be presumed 
Russian society is included) ; those readers who have not 
perused that officer’s volumes, will be surprised to learn, 
that not only does the Captain not profess to touch, with 
l^ecoming extent, on those topics, but that, in good truth, 
he has not touched upon the major part of them ; and that, 



xii 


PREFACE. 


in fact, the state of society has been wholly overlooked by 
him. 

That part of Captain Jones’s Travels which has a re- 
ference to the Russian capital, forms a very small portion 
of his two volumes. It is coni})rised in three letters, ex- 
tending to about two hundred and fifty pages, containing 
a great variety of dissimilar subjects, mixed up indiscri- 
minately ; while tlie part of the Author’s Travels, which is 
devoted to the same object, consists of nearly seven hun- 
dred closely-printed ])ages, the matter of which is methodi- 
cally divided iiit<> subjects, including those that relate to 
the manners of the Petersburghers, the character and 
physiognomy of the capital and its society ; all which are 
accurately detailed and discussed, .and have entire and 
distinct chapters assigned to them. Will the Quarterly 
Critic inform his readers, in what portion of the work on 
which he devolves the palm of superiority, the writer of 
it lias described the general and panoramic appearance of 
the Russijin capital,— its minute topography, so as to 
enable a stranger to find his way readily, — the internal 
arrangement of the houses, — the fetes, dinners, and evening 
parties, — tlie most distinguished living individuals, — and 
the present state of science, learning, education, and medi- 
cine ? Where is it that he has developed the structure of 
the Imperial Government, and the constitution of the aris- 
tocracy, hierarchy, and great officers of the Court ? Has 
that writer entered into the statistics of the capital, its com- 
merce, its religious institutions, and the amusements of the 
higher as well as of the lower classes of society ? Has he 
detailed, at equal length with the Author of “ St. Peters- 
burgh,” the machinery of the important establishments 



PA SPACE. 


\iii 


of that city, civil, niilitary, and naval ; or taken so ex- 
tended a view of the markets, the police, the regulations 
for foreigners, tlie state of the law, and the presiMit con- 
dition of the serfs ? Is there, in good earnest, the slightest 
evidence of all, or most of, these iiiiportant subjects (the 
aggiTgate of which, forsooth, constitutes tlie character of 
St. Petersburg!!, and the niamiers of its inhabitants,) liav- 
ing been treated at full length in any of the two hundred 
and fifty pages of the volumes preferred by the Quarterly 
Reviewer to those of the Author.? If the Reviewer had 
read lx)th works, (as he would have the public to believe, 
in order the better to mislead it,) he must have known that 
such evidence was altogether wanting ; and, therefore, to 
have advanced, in the absence of that evidence, an opinion 
tlius easily refuted, while it bespeaks no honesty of pur- 
pose, shows, also, that the Revievver’s ])rofessed “ un- 
prejudiced estimation” of “ St. Petersburgh,” like Jiis iiitem- 
perate, gratuitous, and unsupported attack on the Sove- 
riagn and Government of Russia, is, to say the least, a 
glaring specimen of perverted judgment. 

Thus freed, as he trusts, from the only incubus which it 
has been attempted to impose on his volumes, the Author 
once more intrusts them into the hands of the public, with 
the same request with which he first committed them to the 
press ; namely, that they may be received as a minute, and, 
he trusts, a tolerably accurate account of the actual state of 
the Imperial residence of Russia, embracing every subject 
which is likely to be of service to those who intend visiting 
that capital, where they will find no Cicerone, nor modem 
printed description of the city to guide them. To this the 
Author has added as much collateral information as he 



xiv 


lUlKI^AOU. 


was able to bring together, touching other countries 
through which he travelled on his way to and from St 
Petersburgh, occasionally making use, for that purpose, 
of materials which he had collected in the course of formei 
excursions ; but most explicitly disclaiming every extrane- 
ous assistance from books, except wliere he has purposel} 
(| noted them in illustration or coiToboration of his owr 
statements. 

The number of embellishments contained in the fbrmei 
Edition, has been increased in the present instance, by the 
addition of a Map of the Post-route, described in the 
course of the volumes. By means of this, and by the in- 
troduction of a variety of subjects, descriptions, anecdotes, 
and personal narrative, the Aut]i6r has endeavoured tc 
render his book less dry and more useful to travellers than 
& mere Here des posies, 

1(), Grafton Streef, Berkeley Square, 

71 %, 1829 . 



CONTENTS 


OF THE FIKST VOLUME. 


PART FIRST. 

JOURNEY FROM LONDON TO ST. PKTKRSBURGIf. 


CIIAFTRU I. 

FLAKDERS. 

Departure from I.ondoii. —Dover. — Advice to Invalids, — Steam *packet.— 
Uemedies against Sea«sickness. — Calais. — Reciprocal r(mtrasl. — Colony of the 
King’s Bench.— A Fashionable .Self-exile.— C^ast lloafl.— Improvements at 
Dunkirk. — Douancs.—Ostend.— Dreadful explosion. — Count Capo d'lstrias 
and the late Dutch Ambassador in Loudon. — Ostend Oysters. — Bruges. — Sun- 
day Catechism. — Ghent.— Central Mouse of Correction.— The New University. 
— St. Bavon. — ^'I'he Belfry. — Botanic Garden and Botanic Smnety . — SaUms dt 
Flore, — Exhibition of Paintings. — Modem Flemish Painters.— Canals. — ^Agri- 
cultural Aspect of the Country.— Approach to the Capita). Page 1 — 41. 

CHAPTER II. 

Brussels.— Great improvements and extension of tlie Town. — Boulevards. — 
English Colony.— Liberty of the Press, and Caricatures. — Enterprising and 
pirating Booksellers. — Curious mixture of Catholicism and Idolatry. — The King. 
—The Prince of Orange and die Grand-duchess.— Royal and Princely Palaces. 
—Fire at die old Royal Palace.— The Theatres— -The Park.— The States-Ge- 
neral.— The AlUe Ferte^^Palais de Justice.— Political Pandemonium.— The 
Hotel de Ville,— St. Gudule.— David, the French Painter.— The miraculous 
Wafers.— The new Lottery.— Climate.— Hospitals. — Doctors and Pharmaeiens. 
— Reguladons respecting foreign Physicians. — Cabinet and Collections.— In- 
tended Observatory.— Monument to Rubens. — Departure from Brussels.— As- 
pect of the Country.— Laechen.— The towns of Vilvorde audMalines, and the 



XVI 


CUNTKNTS. 


Steeple of Antwerp (Jatliedral. — Louvain. — University.— Hotel de Ville. — 
Tower of Janscnias.—f-liinjitf.— Statistics. — Posting.— Post Maps.— Car/e 
Generale Adniinixirativr. — Liogc. — Another rniversity. — System of Education. 
— Establishments for gratuitous instruction to the industrious Classes in the 
mechanic Arts. — General Statistics of the Kingdom up to 1827. — Currency. — 
Expenses of living in the Capital, and in Provincial Towns. — Miscellaneous 
Observations. — Road to Aix-la-CJhaptdle. . . Page 42 — 81. 

CHAPTER in. 

CIS-RHCNANE mUSaiA. 

Aix-la-(^hapelle, (Aachen). — Recent improvements in the Town.— Inns. — 
The Munster. — ^(’orutiatiou (.'hair.— Remains of Charlemagne.— Holy Relics.— 
New Theatre. — ^Redoute; ami liccnstsi Gambling — New Pump-room and 
Fountain.— Season for bathing, and drinking the iniiicnil waters. — Nature of 
the Springs. — Direction to invalids who iutcml to visit them. — Mode of living 
during the bathing season. — Expenses. — Other objisrts worthy tiie atteution of 
strangers at Aix. — 'I’he Salle du (‘ongrts. — ^Thc allied Sovereigns and Sir 
Thomas J^awrence. — JCnvirons.— Le Louislxirg. — Salvatorherg. — I lorcelle. — 
Mouey-chaugei-s. — Road to Cologne. — First view* of the Rhine. — The Town of 
Cologne. —Cathedral. — 'I'ho Catholic Hishops arul their government. — ^'I'he Lion 
and the (,'anons. — ^’I'he intrepid Hourguemestru. — Church of St. Peter. — Rubens* 
celebrated painting of the Cmcifixion of that Saint.— Monument to Rubens.— 
The three Farinas.— Receipt for making Eau dc (Cologne.— Navigation of the 
Rhine. — Steam -Iwat — ^'rimber Rafts. . . Pago 82 — 116. 

ClJAPTFJl IV. 

Bonn. — Medical School.— Collections. — Roman Relies.— View from die 
Terrace of the Royal Chateau.— Tlie Seven Mountains and the Dragon Rock. 
— Godesberg.— Rolandseck. — ErpUer Ley BamUfdsen , — Vine trees in the 
Rock.— Remagen.— Mineral water at Tunvustein. — Audernneh.— Inferior 
Rheuish wines. — Heavy duties. — (Joblentz— The Moselle, and Moselle wines* 
— Hotel de Treviw. — Grande Place. — ^Russian Commentary on a French Monu- 
ment.— The ThuatrG.-^'hillcr's Roil’ers.— General aspect of the Town. — 
Modern Fortifications. — Bridge of Boats— Fort of Ehrenbreitstcin.— Mi- 
neral waters of Thalborn— Boppart. — St. Goar. — The Virgin of Lurley.j — Castle 
of Sebonberg. — Bacharach— Ileimberg and Soneck. — Rheinstein. — Bingen. — 
Roman Bridge over the Nahc. — ^'I'he Klopp. — ^I'he Biiigenloch and Mause- 
thunn. — ^'fomb of the prefet Holtzausen— Crossing die Rhine to Riidesbeim— 
The Rheingau. — Steinlicrg.— Johannislierg— Ca.sde and cellars of Prince Met- 
ternich. — Markobrunner. — Bieberich Schloss.— Wealth of the Duke of Nassau* 
— Scltzerand Ems mineral waters. — Wisbaden. — Favourable aspect of the town. 
—Time for drinking the waters.— Mode of living, and amusements at W iibaden. 
—Road to Frankfort. ' . . Page 117i*-l49< 



CONTENTS. xvii 


C HAITRlt V. 

CONFEDERATKO STATES^ OF GERMANY. 

Frankfort. — Situation.— Constitution. — Population . — Striking appearance, of 
some parts.— New Buildings. — Modem Oates. — The Zeil. — Streets in the Old 
Town. — \'illas. — Ilctid-quartm of (^Continental Bankers. — The late Mr. Bcth- 
iiiann. — Ariadne. — Will. -The Hessian Monument and the boulevards. — 
Homan (Catholic Cathedral.— The Biimcr. — ^I’he Oolden Bull. — The J .ihrary. 
—Collections of Natural History.— Hospitals. — Sinentific Societies. — ^'I'he Poly- 
tcfhnic Society, or Mwjhauics’ Institute. — The Casino.— Book and Printsellcrs. 
— The Fair. — The Theatre. — Stacdel’s Institute. — The Fine Arts and Native 
Industry.— Public Kxhihition. — Palac'e of the Knights of the Teutonic Order. — 
Juilen Gassi!. — Rothschild, Senior.— The Russian Minister at the Diet. — 
Prince ]\lctteruich and Pozzo di Horgo. — ^I’he (^ourt J’uppics.— Coinhinatioii of 
wit and delicate cpicui ism.— Singular Meeting. — Society.— Promenades, — 
('limale. — Practice of Medicine. — Su|)crior Inns. — Observations on. and gene- 
ra 1 list of, R henish W ines, with their Prices.— Cure de ramus. Page 1 50—1 84. 


CHAPTRll VT. 

Knvirons of Frankfort— The Ridge of Heyrich.—Hanau.— Improving ap- 
jjcarance of the Country.— Chaussce.— Peculiar construction of the houses.— 
I’anoramic description of the road through Oelcnhausen, Salilmiinster, 
Schlilchtem, and Ncwhof, to Fulda. — ^Improvement of the latter towm since its 
secularization.— F.isenach, — Luther’s concealment. — Tndustiy of the inhabi- 
tants. — Kisenach pipes.— GoUia.— The late J>uke. — The Duke of Saxn-Co< 
hourg inherits the ]*rin<'ipality, and assumes tlm title of Gotha. — Puhlir; build- 
ings. — Celebrated collections. — Baron Zaidi the astronomer. — Baron Grimm— 
F.rfurt. — Fortifications.— The Emperor Alexander and Napoleon. — Descrip- 
tion of the Road from Fulda, through Erfurt to Weimar. — Aspect of this town. 
—Market Concert.— The Ducal Palace.— The (5rand-<luke.— The Park.— 
Goethe’s Villa. — ^I’he Belvedere. — ^'Fhc 'Fheatre.- -The Stadtkirche. — I’he .\llen 
Kirchof. — Nadeschda Yanowsky. — Schiller without a monument. — Table 
d’Hote. — Digestion and Indigestion. — Abernethy and Dr* Paris. — Industric- 
(.’omptoir— Bertuch and Dr. Froriep.— English Academy and English Resi- 
dents . • • PRg® 185—225. 


CHAPTER VII. 

SAXONY— CF.VTRA1. PRUSSIA. 

Road to Lrtpsig— The Kosen. — Salt-water Baths.— The Valley of the 
Saale.— Singular coincidence and conttast-Nihil— Monumental column to 
VOL. I. b 



xviii C0NTKNT8. 

the Duke of Brunswick near Eckai^sberge. — CoWe^ where Klopstock was 
educated.— N aumbu Fg.‘— Kotzebue's drama. — IMineral Spring. — Weissenfels.— 
Autopsia of Gustavus Adolphus. — Lutzen. — Prussian Obelisk in comme- 
moration of the battle of 1813.— Gustav us Adolphus' Leipsig.— 

General appearance of the town. — Autumnal Pair. — Tlic Markt Platz , — 
Booksellers.— Cheap editions, and Knglish books reprinted.— Print, Map, and 
Miisic-sellcrs. — Leipsig Almettes . — Inns. — I’niversity.— The Observatory.— 
Church of St. Nicholas. — The “ Feast of all the (it!rnians." — Hydrography of 
the town. — Ponialowsky. — Wittenberg. — German Beds. — Reminiscences 
and Colossal Statue of Luther. — His burial-place in the ('athedral.- -Melane- 
thon. — P.iintlngs of Lucas (Iranach. — Luther's Boom in the Augustine Con- 
vent. — Autograph of Peter the Great— The Jug and the Album. — The Berlin 
Hoad. — Approach to Potzdam. — ^'I'he Royal Chstteau. — The sword of the Great 
Frederick and Napoleon.— The Palais Xeuf.—Sans-souQi.— Magnificent ap- 
pearance of Potzdam— Palaces conveited into Road to Berlin. 

Page 226— 256. 


CHAPTER VHI. 

PRUSSIA. 

Berlin. — Striking appearance and extent of tlic Town. — The principal Streets. 
— Unter den Linden.— Polsilam Gate. — Brandenburg Gate.— Churcheg— 
Squares.— The Park and Public Gardens. — Museum.— The Royal Palace.— 
The Arsenal. — (llolossal Statue of Bliicher. — Generals Bulow and Schamorst.— 
Inns.— Th(; Opera-House. — Mademoiselle Sontag. — German Opera and Ger- 
man acting.— The Schauspiek Haus. — King Lear.— Grand Concert-room.— 
The University— The Professors. — Its Cabinets.— Collccstions of Anatomy and 
Zoology— British Museum and English travellers.— Institutum Obstetricum.— 
Hospital of T.a Charit6.— Medical Practice.— Remuneration for medical at- 
tendana*.— Price of Medicines fixed by a tarif.— New Berlin Pharmacopceia.— 
Professor Hiifeland— Ilis opinion of Phrenology . Page 257—308. 


CIIAITEH IX. 

BERLIN CONTINUED. EASTERN PRUSSIA. 

Royal Egyptian Museum. — Passalacqua and Baron Minutoli. — Baron 
Alexander Humboldt.^] I is course of Physical Geography.— Scientific Aca- 
demies.— The Royal Library- Collections of Paintings. — Arts and Manufac- 
tures. — Sculpture. — Charlottenburg.— The late Queen of Prussia. — Popular 
character of the King.— The Princess de Leignitr..— Ball at the house of the 
Echanson du Koi.— ^tate and Ion of Society— Influx of VoieigneTSc-rMilitaiy 
aspect of the Town.— Departure from BerUo.-— Panoramie descriptioii. of the 
road towards the Russian Frontiers, through Cmtrio, Landsbeig, KoniU, 



CONTENTS. 


XIX 


Maiienliurg, Elbing, and Konigaberg. — Antediluvian rocks. — Teutonic 
Castle of Marienburg.^The Vistula.-— Commerce and fertility.— Fraucnbcrg 

and Copernicus. — Appearance of Kunigsberg.— The harbour of Tillau. ^The 

1 own.— The Cathedral. — The Philosopher Kant.— The Observatoiy^— The 
Strand. — Tilsit.— The Niemen. — Alexander the First, and Napoleon on the 
raft.— Memel.— English sailors.— Exchange of money.;— Last Prussian Sta- 
tion.— Prussian and Russian Frontiers.— Douane—-Polangen. 

Page 309—357. 


CHAPTER X. 

aussiA. 

The Jews of Polangen. — Amber and amber trinkets.— Russian Posting.— 
Podoroshna.— Kurlandia. — Forests.— Statistics. — Roads.— Topography. — Mit- 
tau. — French Ancien Regime.— Princess Michael G— .— The Governor 

Baron de II. . — New Roads and Canals. — Corn -harvest. — Smuggling 

on the Coast.- Great public works in progress in the province of Kurlandia. 
—Palace of the ancient Dukes of Kurlandia. — Precipitous descent over the 
Aa.— Riga.— View of the pwina.— The Bridge.— Picturesque distribution of 
the Town. — ^Marquess Paulucci.— General Cobley. — Passports.— Police regu- 
lations respecting foreigners. — Interior of Riga.— Public Buildings.— The 
oldest house. — ^The new Suburbs.— Liberality of the present Emperor.— News 
of the capture of Erivan. — Commerce.— Inns.— Saving of bed-room bells.— 
The Post Road.— Volmar.—Dorpat.— The University.— Professors Slriive 
md Ledebuhr.— The Livonian Noblesse.— Specimen of modern Academical 
education in Russia.— The Lake Peipus.— Monsieur Joukowsky.— Wander- 
ing Jew Minstrel. — A new wonder Uxt a season in London.— Fortifications 
of Ivangorod.— View of the Gulf of Finland.— Macadamized roads.— New 
Post-houses.— Narva. — Kupen. — German Colony.— Paper Manufactory.— 
Imperial Palace. — Strelna. — Noblemen’s Villas. — Entrance into St. Pe- 
tersburgh. . Page 358—397. 


PART THE SECOND. 


CHAPTER I. 

7ZCTT7RS or ST. PXTEEBBUROB. 

General Cwp ML— Situation, t^ography, and extent of St Petersburgh. 
—Companion between St. Petorsbuigb in 1801 and 1627.— Improvements and 
great additions.— Necessity of n modem Description for visiting that Capital 

h 2 



XX 


CONTENTS. 


witli advantage.— Plans of the Town.— Us divisions.— Tlic Stieets.— The 
Neva.— llivers and ('anals. — Bridgi's . — Vmit Isaac.— 'J1ie Quays.— Advan- 
tage of walking in St. Petei-shiirgli. — Panonnuie |ir()ii!enadfs.— Statue of 
Peter the (lie it.-- 1 erUivOiiie butl's-eye view of llu; city. — As(;ent to the Tow'cr 
of the Admiralty for tluit J»ll■^^o^e. — Striking and imposing spectudc.— (ic- 
ncral appearance of the Stivers, Puldic Buildings, J louses, (.'hurclu’S, Alili- 
tary Barracks, Maneges, Sijuares, and (iaidens.— Model in alto-relievo of 
the City of St. J’eterslmigli. . . PagcdOl — 430. 


(uiAPTEii rr. 

Conveyances to and fmni St. Petershurgh.— -J’osling regulations, Telegas, 
Kihitkas, Horses and lacklo, Diligiuices, Steam-vessels. — Formalities to he 
attended to hy Fondgners on their arrival at, during tlii^ir residiiiice in, and at 
their departure from St. Petersburgh ; Passports. — Cnstoui-house.— I’ormission 
to introduce books. — Hotels and reiuly-furnisluid apartments. — T.aeipiais do 

IMace and Servants. — F.<|iiipagcs (Hose (.larriagcs, Drusclikyes, Shslges. — 

Divisions of Society. — Diil'ercnt classes of Nobility.— The great ofHcers of the 
Court. — The Ministers of State and Foreign Ministers.— The Hereditary Nobi- 
lity.— Heads of Imperial Departments.— Mil lUrry ollicers of liigli rank.— The 
’I'itular Nobility. — The lihcial professions. — Tin: Kviployt's of Coverniuent. — 
'J'lie Alereliant-s. — Number of Foreigners in St. Petcrshnrgh. — Unssian inhabi- 
tants.— Ucinarkahlc feature in t he character of the .Russians. — Busy appearance 
of the population.— Privileges uud new regulation respecting Foreigners. 

Page 431—474. 


CHAPTER III. 

nimate. — Facts rcsixvling it. — Personal observations of the Author in \o- 
vemlwr and December 18i7. — Nature of iIm- prevailing Diseases.— Necessary 
precaution against cold in and out of doors. — Stoves — 'I beir construction and 
nianagemenl.— (.'lotliing. — Baths. — ^’J'licir description and cHeirl. — Falls of Snow. 
—Snow flril'ts. — High winds. — Frc«!/.ing of the River and Canals. - Removal of 
the. Isaac and other Bridges on the Neva— Inconvenience resulting from it.— 
Aurora Borealis. — Summer Season.— Rapid X'egiitatiou - Summer nights, — 
Emigration to the neighbouring Islands and Villages.— Autumn. — Inundations. 
— Accimiit of the Jmindatinii of 1824.— Philanthropy of the Em})crur Alexander. 
— Charity of the Russians. . . Page 475—510, 


CTlAFfER IV. 

Imiierial T'alaccs In St. Petersburgh.— The Winter Palace.— Apartments of 
the Reigning Empress, of the Empress-mother and of tlie Emperor— Alarhle 
JIall.— Bauqu(;ting-rooni . — Salle de St. Gearge ami Salle Blanche . — ^^Miliiaiy 



CONTENTS. 


xxi 


Gallery by Dawe, and Fete of its consecration.— and Pclit IlemiiLT^je 

lecture Jloonis. — The iVIusical ('lock. — ^'I’he TTorloge Paon The .Magic 

Secretaire. — ('ollriction of Prints, Medals, and original iJrawings. — Pensile 
Gardens. — 'I'he Theatre of the llemiitagt;. — ^The Raphael Gallery. — Mr. Dawe’s 
sturlio. — Palais (IhqM'-leflT. — (!abinets of Cameos, Intaglios, and Anli({ues. 

-Gallerie tie Malmnisou . — Tlie Library. — Voltain; and Diderot's books.— 'I'lie 
Marble f’alace. — ^'The 'I'aurida Palace. — Grand Ball-room and Winter Garden. 
— Palais Anitchkoff. — The Imperial IMcws. — I'he New Palace of the Grand 
Duke Michael — Architect llossi. — Wooden House of Peter the Great and liis 
Summer Palace. . . . I'ageSll — GSrr. 





form of a marche-route and posting diary, 

Kept from day to day in a journey from London to St. PeteTsburgh, and back, by the 
Author, in which the distances are marked, and the amount of expense noted ; with 
the smallest number of horses and drivers req[Uired for a traveller and bis servant, 
with a light open carriage, or calash, according to the regulations of each country, as 
well as the best inns and places of resort, with other necessary observations. 


Counns Dim-lc Am-uiii U 

iJiiouga N«mes of Ihr. lu Post- State Slate ol 

winch Dale, pi inripal Towns miles, Nu. oi No. nt of the 

wi! t and Pos(*liouses. leaeucs, Uurws. Diivers. health, weaiher. 

8 1 f t 


LONDON 

Miles. 

Dartford 18 

ROCHES r£R 15 

Sittinghouriie 1 1 

(1) 

CANTERBURY 18 

DOVER (2) 18 

£u!;li^h milr>. 76 


CALAIS (3) Vr.nch 

a 3d horse, SI K Poslls. 

months in wintci 

Oravelines 2| 

a 3t1 hersA sis 
moDltis in wintrr 

niTKKlRX 2 

a Id horse all the - 
year round 
Douant. * ** 

The fVvntlere, Ueues 
are 4 lieun trom 
Dunhirk 

Furn^ 5| 


£. ».d.£.$.d. 
1 7 00 4 0 


Hones postil, 
f. e. f- e. 


The amount of turn- 
pikes mi this line uf road 
IS about lUs, 


(8) .Ship Inn. 
Voikllmil. 

SieMiii Vi sm I, 

The S.il.iniai.dir. 

Cliarpe foraCrfiiiareS 
feUiliras, pii<i<rii|in s io,, 
6d. eni'li, servaiii^ As, 

(3) The hnrsrs tiirounli- 
oui Fiance at 30 mms 
euch. 

On ciuillinit Calais pay 
one hall post above ilie 
ilisiaiires. 

The Frinrli postilioim 
are eiititlid iinly to 7A 
ceoliii'es, but tlietiavni- 
!• rs had In tier givi- 8 fis. 
to be civilly treated. 

At Ounkiikthe IIAti-l 
de Flaiiiiirs, 

The lieitr in Flanders 
is halt a French |iusle. 

The price in Flanders 
isidur.oi SMI.r. fm 
lacll horsi, and t-arh 


pSTEND(4) 2 


#,« 1.7» 


I 4th. GHENT 5 >86 

I Qiiadrecht 2) 2 50 1 1? 


had better he pant at the 
same late as lu Fraiiri', 
wliirh makes pt els. im 
8 lieuAs. iliougli entitled 
only to eight atubera. 

(4) Hdtel des Pays 
Bays, iofmerly Cour lin- 
penale. 

At Bruges, the Fleur 
de BI4. • 


At OhfDt, the ffhiel 
de la Paiite,Deiwrentlie 
fHiste box chevbax and 
thtTheeUe. 


Aische s ' S 0 1 41 
6th. BRUSSELS 3 0 1 41 
Secp.48.|ia«^ rji* 


H6tel Bellevne, 

— — De TEurofie. 
— — D’Augleterre. 




PRUSSIA. 1 FLANDERS. 


XXIV 


MARCHE ROUTE 


DiiUnee 
XtmesQflbe iuPoat* 
Dale. I firiucipal Towns miles, 
and PosMionses. leagues, 
vi-rsU. 


Bro. for. 45^ 

CORTEM- 

B£RO 

lOVVAIK (1) 3 

Tirlenumt 4^ 

8tb. St. Tron 4^ 

Grey 4) 


Assdantfor 
Tw»oii- SUte 
Mo. of Mo.ot , of 
Horses, nriveis. bealth. 

a 1 : 


4 SO 2 II 


Tim Belgian road. ai 
far as Battice, is just 
tolerable, and paved. 


(1) Hdtelde Cologne. 


Tlie“Pl4td'EUin»at 

Titlemont 


The “ 9auvage’’Ittn. 


Au Favilion Anglab. 


Battice 0^ .1 50 2 .»» 

PrmimDmant 

AIX-LA- (2) 

9th. CHAPELLE 6 CO 2 72 

Sec page 82, p.l. 32J 

Prussian 3 horses, j d”'’"- 
Mevleu. Ris.Or. Il‘«.‘^r; 

Julierg 1 2| 

Bergheira 2^ 3 3f 0 25 

10th. coiog».«( 3 ) .1^ 4 Hi 1 5 


Remagen 3 3 22^ I 0 

by the stoneson 
the load it is three 
and a hair 

Andernach 3 3 22i 1 0 


M 11th. GOBLENTZ 2 

J ' by the atones it is 

^ two aod ■ half 

S Boppart 2i 

St. Goar If 

Bacharoch 1} 



Boppart n 3 3} 0 25 

St. Goar If 2 5} 9 17i 

Bacharoch 1} 2 5| 0 171 

BXVOEM (5) 2 2 15 0 20 

Cmtthe 

Rhitu 

to 

airpEBHElM 


WISBADEN 3i 
Page 145, p. 1. 
Hoaehst 2^. 


4 Hi 1 5 
8 Si 0 25 


(2) Dragon d’Or. 
il6tel dM Etrangers. 

The road from Battier 
to Aix ia paved and very 
ludiffercttt. 


The charge in the. 
Fruasiau Provinces on 
Urn Hhiac is twelve ami 
a half silver groshen tiir 
ONch horse, and per mile 

(1 Ir, 61 cis.l-ti« mil'' 

equal to a Fiench postr, 
and three and three 
qiisrters silver gioshrii 
to the postilion ; but il 
bad better be oiir.thiiil 
ol a lhalPT, or tee lilvri 
groshen mmile. 


(3) H6tel de la Cour 
Iiiiperiele,orDuSt. Es- 
prit. 

Tliere are barriires to 
pay for at every consi- 
derable village or him 
let on this road. 

From Bonn to Biogeu 
the road is macadais- 


(l)H6teldeTr4vei,oa 
the Grand Place. 

(6) HftteldelaPbstr. 

The ferry’s charges lor 
■ carriage acrois, is Us' 
francs, iacludiug the pal- 

lengers. 


(See page ISO.) 
(See page 16S.1 




AND POSTING DIARY. 


XXV 


Country 

tbrongn 

vhicli 


D 


Anioufit 


Karnes of the i 

nPost- _ 

Posting. S 

Date. 

irineipal Towns 
nd Post-Jiotses. 1 

miUlS, 

PltUPS, 

(to. of] lio. or 
Elorsra. Dilvers. hr 




rents. 

« 1 

1 

” - “ 

— 

(j 

iTiiian 

Idi. k. I 

or. k. 




Fosles. 



Five 1 

2th. 

FRANK- 




Town. 

FORT (A) 
ott tJte Mein 

2 

6 « 

2 0 



lee p. 150, pan 1. 

1 

3 0 

1 0 

(rraihl 


UANAV 


4 30 

1 30 

duke 


Oelnhaiisen 

n 

Hannu. 


Siialiniinstcr 


lix, Gr. 

lix.Gr. 



1 

I 20 

0 16 



Schliichterii 

1 

1 20 

0 16 

Ilessi* 






(Jassel. 


Netihof 

1 

1 20 

0 16 

(H) 


FULDA (1) 

01 

1 9 

0 12 

Uraml- 

ilukeof 


Iliiufcld 

Bnttlar 

* 

1 20 

1.12 

0 16 



1 

0 16 

Wiii- 






mar. 


Vach 

Oft 

1 3 

0 12 

(t') 


Markfluhl 

n 

1 21 

4 20 



tiSSKACll (2) 

n 

1 3 

0 12 i 

(iotha 


GOTHA (3) 

u 

2 l.'i 

1 4 

(Jo. 


• (D) 


Ifor. kr. 

flor. kr. 

Iiurg. 


EBPUllT (4) 

(F) 

u 

7 30 

3 0 






PRl^S. 



Hix. Gr. 

[Rix.(ir. 

SIA. 

16th. 

WKIMAR{5) 

Seep. W4, part 1. 


2 0 

|1 0 

Duke 

rfSaxe- 


n 

2 0 

1 0 

Kekartsberge 

Wei. 




iiuir. 


Natwnburg 

1 

1 10 

0 20 

WlUli 


WeiBBenfelH 

1 

1 10 

0 20 

SIA. 





1 

(n 


. Liitzen 

1 

1 10 

0 20 1 

SAX- 

DNV, 

(K) 

’ 10th. 

LEIFSTG 

See p. »), vol. 1 

H 

1 21 

0 20 


DeUuach 

U 

1 20 

0 25 



Ritterfdd 

1 

1 10 

0 20 



Grttfenhaini. 




i 


chen 

U 

1 5 

0 21 

H 

X 

7J 


WITTKN- 






BKRG 

U 

1. 

2 0 

1 26 

as 


See p. 1244, vol. 



Bs 

{V) 


Kroppatadt 

1 

1 10 

0 80 




m 




Slate of 
, lUe 
wfailier. 


(A) Tlio t'iDtrgP tor 
eiuli horse is a florin 
and a hull tor a poste nt 
S milrs, unit 40 Icrt uliiris 
tor tlie pokliliiiii; one. I 
florin, «t hVaiilfort, is I 
rquHl lo till kn-ularrsi 
or tt fiancs, 1.5 rriitiirrs. 
(Sen puf;e ITQ) Our 
florin, liDwevi r, liait 
better bn given to llic 
postilion. 

The German |>-wlo is 
eiiual to Z ine>len. 1 
The perpeioul eliaiige* 
ut coins anti charges on 
tlin road from Frank- 
fort to Lripsig, are a 
creat source of luoon-] 
venience. 'I'hr tiavnl- 
Irr must, in a grral 
measure, ' trust to llie 
printed ticket given at 
each postc, before siarU 
ing, signed , by Uie | 

Inn rSlectcur. 


Li Paste. 


Time arc barri&ics to 
be paid at every town on 
this roati. besiiies the 
cliansseegeld.inriuderi m 
the rhargci made out ii 
‘ic printed ticket. 

(1) Inn, the Rauten-{ 
TranU, eacellent and 
civil people. 

(S) liH Poste, very 
compilable. 
(4>TI)ell0mUhkaiseT 
(9) Prince Hereditaire 
talrrableand the beat. 

(E;Tu the kingdom of 
Sasony, the tarit' for 
eacli boise is *j groshen 
a mile, equal to 1 franc 
bO cvnliiiies. (The Sax- 
on mile is longer.) Tliel 
Saxon lU-thaler, U 
gutlen groslten. equal 
'1 SfiraDCS go cniUimes. 
I’hr tarif for posii- 
ons ii4gu'' 
rn, wliicli 
doabled. 

In the various Duke- 
oms of Saxony, tlie 
tarif differs. 

(B) Hesse-Caasel. 
eleven gutten groshen 
per mile, and per horse. 

(C)Saxts-Veiaiar,ninr 
guiien groshen per wile 
and horse. 

(p) Ssxr.-Gotha, 
florin 19 krrulirrs per 
mile, and horse. 

dne third of e rix-| 
thaler had belter be; 
eiven to the pestilion 
for each mile every 

(tiTbetaiifforheisrsI 
,tn fols pert of Prussia 
ji 10 silver MOshrn 
' hotM per mile, or on 

ihii^ofariX'thaiiT. 



M ARCHB ROUTE 


Dutanee 

HramMoflhe imw. 8M® 

I>ate. priiicipid Town* milti, Nci.o» 

and Po*t-h«i»ei. Imkom. Horto*. Drlwro. WWW* 

vfKU. a 

Uoinuu 

Rix. Or. Rjn. Or. 

Bro. for. 29} 


Treuenbritzen 

Belitz 

FOT8DAM 

Zeblendorf 

aoth. BERLIN t 

See p. S57. part 1. 

Vogeledorff 


Landsberg 
Crow the riv. 
Warthe. 

Friedeberg 


11 1 20 0 25 

1| 1 5 j 0 21 

1} 1 25 0 26 

1 i I 10 0 20 


35} 

1 

i 


Meylen. 

3 

2 0 

1 0 

3i 

2 15 

1 7* 1 

4| 

3 5 

llli ^ I 

3} 

2 5 

1 2} 1 

3 

2 0 

1 0 i 1 

3* 

2 15 

1 n 

2} 

1 20 

0 25 

2 

1 10 

0 20 

i 2* 

1 5 

0 17} 

r 1* 

1 0 

0 15 

i 

1 25 

0 27*1 

■ ! u 

1 0 

0 15 1 

i 3 

2 0 

‘ *■ 


Petenralde 

Sehlochau 

ICOXITZ 
See p. 338, pert 1. 
Gunk 


8} 2 10 ! I 5 I 

3 2 0 I I 0 .1 
8 1 .10 0 20 


4} 2 25 1 12* 

pth. IVaffldwnfelde 2} 1 25 0 17* 

Staiigardt 3 2 0 1 0 

■"isT-- ■ - ■■ ■' ' 


The iBnie onght to 
be given to llie pooti- 
lion per mile. 


For the itete of tlir 


ten VII. and VII 
pert i. 


t On leaving Berlin, 
a charge ie made for an 
extra horse. 


the poslloute. 

From Hochaeit tt 
Kronne the road is not 
completed. 


A veiF reapeetal* 


An excellent iae. 

In many of ih* '*'• 
tioDS the road I* «fJ 

bad, and deep inland. 


An excellent 
landlord speaks Fi«it«* 


AND POSTING DIARY. 


XXVll 


DiftUocp Atfiodot Gpp i 

MaainoftlW inPoi'c- Poatihf. sute 1 

pi1iieipdTow»i .milM, Ho. of No. of of 

and PotlJiodwi. leagvoa, Hmn. DriTcn. l>^olth 

. >w>U. S 1 

Uorinan 

Mojinii. Ria. Or. Ri*. Gr. 

Bro. for. 56| 

DIRSCHAV 2 5 1 

The rigtula 

MABIRN- 

IIUHO(J) 2J 1 20 0 26 



2 26 

1 121 

' 

(1) A enod inn, the 
Hoelimeisti r. 

ai 

1 20 

0 26 


Since the new road 
has been made, tlicse 





uost-statioiis stand in 


2 0 

1 0 

i 

lieu of those printed in 




I 

the p6st books, or maps. 

2| 

1 26 

0 271 

; 

(8) SLadt Berlin. 
Nothing ran equal 

21 

1 20 

0 26 1 


the beauty of the luad 
from Virscliau to £1- 



1 

i : 

bing. 

21 




Badly driven on the 

1 23 

0 271 

1 

whole of this road. 



1 


: (3) Hctilich Haul. 

4s 

2 20 

1 10 1 


1 good, but gloomy. 


KLBIHO ( 2 ) 4 J I 2 26 1 12 i 

llutte ^ I 1 20 0 26 

Braunsberg 3 12 0 10 

Quilliteii 2 } I 1 26 0 27 i 

Brandenburg 1 20 0 26 

KONIGS. 

BERG ( 3 ) 21 1 25 0 27 J 

Cayxneii 4 s 2 20 1 10 

LABIAU 3 2 0 1 0 1 

Meblauken 4 ' 2 20 1 10 ’ 

Shillupischen 3^20 1 0 i 

T 1 L 8 IT ( 4 ) 3 I 2 0 1 0 I 

Ssamaitkeh- j j 

men 3 ^ 2 10 16 

Werdenbeig 3 f 2 16 1 7 i 

Norkaiten 2 1 10 0 20 

Prokul* 21 1 20 0 26 j 

MEMEL ( 6 ) 3 12 0 10 1 

Nimmeratadt 3 ; 2 0 10 

Frontier of | • 

Prwtia 

Frontier of I 

Uusria I 

Poi.AyoEH( 6 ) Of 0 26 0 12 l' 

iui 

Ventri. r.' k. r. k. 

Rutzau 261 23 62 0 00 

OberBartau 27 34 30 0 00 

Tadeken 25 22 60 0 80 

IbT 


Hones are changed 
at tlic post-house, at 
tba entrnnee of the 
town, and the traveller 
proceeds to embark on 
the ferrjp, crossing two 
branches of the Vistula. 


; The Tilsit road is 
: uninteresting, tedious 
broken, irregular, and 
! knee deep in sand. 

To those who prefirr 
the Sirand road, the 
following route will be 
of use— 

To tlulann Si meil. 

— Sariuii .1 — 

— Rosilteii 3l - 

— Hidden 3* — 

— SchwariB* 

• howl 4 — 

-^Memrl a - 

By the Tilsit toad, the 
distance is 30 and a hall 
meyien. 

Prisons preferring to 
go by the Strand, should 
despatch an esUfeite,or 
•vant courier, at each 
sutiou, to order tire 
horses, with a view to 

each mile. 

(i) A good inn, with 
“'•nie, aboui ihc 
middle of the town. 

(5) The R.uuiau Ho- 
. tei, dirty and noiay. 

I (6) A decent, bare- 
w*j«d, Je wish-house, 
or ia Poste. 

Ruasiun custon-liouse 
rt^e entnnea of the 

Harness three horses 
khnaii tf fii Aifsse. 


xxviii 


MARGHB ROUTE 


Country 

ihrouBh 

wliii-n 

— 

E 

Vamm of the 
rinripal Town* 
uil Puil-iiouses. 1 

liUucc 

Amoniat for I 
POMiUK. 1 

State S 

tateof 

Obiervationi. 

Date. 

niili'i, 

PanuM. 

No. of 
Torvet. 

No. ol 
hivrra. 

of 

irtlth. « 

the 

catlier. 


fTTi-rH 



VI IHit. 

S 







V 

Bro. for. 

wire. 

78* 

r. k. 

r. k. 



Id ttating Die niimbrr 
)f wr»t*, 1 follow 111 , 







treat and new post-maii 



0. Drogcn 

19 

7 10 

80 



)f liio Etal Alaior. h 
practice 1 found tin ili.. 
aiice of a few of tin. 


B2d. 

Schrundeii 
Tim Win- 

23} S 

1 37 

80 



lations marked in ilui 
nap and on the pilliiir. 
t<> di^tagree with tlie no. 


daUf n. 


•9 10 

80 



iuDOl the pobUmasler. 
who chaiged one, or 



f 

1 

Ck 

29 



two versts more, in |^^ 
leral ; but (hat occurred 



BekhofF 

29 

!9 10 

80 



only in a few places. 









N. B. The moDP) 

*2 

■ M 


Doldcn 

24 

21 90 

80 



mentioned here, is Ll;r 
paper louble of 1(X> co|i. 


m. 




80 



per kopecks each. 


MITTAU 

2fl 

25 20 



— — 

u 


The Aa, r. 
Olsiy 

21| 

19 37 

80 



The charge for thin 
horses in Courland, fo 



Cross the 
Dieina 



at 8 k. 









every verst, is go kc 





Horae*. 




prrks : and alUiouah tlis 
driver is not strictly ijJ 
tilled to any tliini;, u 
HO kopeek piece, (30 *1 



RIGA 

20* 

4 89 

80 





Ncuer Miihlen 

11 

2 64 

3 60 

80 

80 



silver, and equal to (U.! 
English,) is given lo 
each sution, or stigt.{ 

< 

Hilclienapholir 

13 



See p. 432—33. vol. i. 



TheAa,{2)\i. 






N. B. After Mitta 

D 


Engelliards- 

liof 

19 

4 56 

80 



the charge for liorw 
all the way to St. JH 
teriburgh, and thence m 
K obno.is B kopecks |id 



Hoop 

21 ' 

5 4 

80 



verst for each horse, »m 


Bdth. 

5 40 

80 



a20kopeek>plece lotM 
driver. 



Leii7.cuIiof 

224 



Tlie road is sandy, flaj 





VOLMAU 

19 

4 59 

80 



passing through fomtij 
and tedious. 



TheAa 

Staekeln 

23* 

5 64 

80 



During the firrt ! 
sutlons, beyond Bip 
the road is as bid as n 
can be. 





Gulboii 

214 

5 16 

80 





j Teilit* 

19 

4 36 

80 






1 Kuikatx 

22* 

5 34 

80 

1 

•j 



i 

1 


Uddern 

24f 

5 94 

80 




30lh. 








'•3 


Embaeh r. 
BORPAT 

29 

6 24 

80 






or Derpt 



llje siege from 



IgRpiiehr 

23* 

5 58 

80 



qia, in Use sumB'f- ' 
very heavy, on s«™“ 
ertheiindy fbretu. 



Torma 

23* 

5 58 

80 





Nennal 

25* 

618 

80 






Crtwi the Pun 

. 






■' 


Bern river, a 
eaaret^lrw 




' - 


- — 


AND POSTING DIARY. 


XXIX 


;ountiy 


Names of the 

Oistanee 
in Post- 

Amount for 
Posting. 

SUte 

which 

we 

DdS-e.l. 

Date. 

principal Towns 
Huil Post-houses. 

miles, 

leagues. 

versts. 

No. or 
Horses. 

3 

No. of 
Drivers. 

1 

of 

health. 




Bro. for. 

Versts. 

«')8i)| 

r. k. 

r. k. 




37th. 

Ranna Fuii- 
gurii 

14 

3 36 

0 80 





Klein Pun- 
gem (1) 

2Gft 

6 36 

0 80 





Yewc 

21 

5 4 

0 80 





Tchoudlcy 

12 

2 88 

0 80 





Vaivara 

18 

4 32 

0 80 





NARVA 

22^ 

a 40 

0 80 





Yamhoiirg 

205 

4 92 

0 80 





OjMjlie 

Ifi 

3 60 

0 80 


< 

X 

X 


Kxirkowitz 

22*. 

5 40 

0 80 



Koskova 

21 

5 4 

0 80 


A 


Kupen 

10 

4 56 

0 80 


1 



Strelna 

23* 

5 64 

0 iH) 




38th. 

St. PETERS- 
BURGH 

17* 

4 20 

0 80 

• 




From St. Pc- 

842} 







tcrsbuigli 





a 

ja 

fliid. 

84th. 

H7th. 

Opolie 

Yewe 

nORFAT 

VOLMAR 

RIGA 

OLAl 

MITTAU 

Vvrsis. 

103.5 

88 

133 

132} 

107* 

20 

21} 

3 11. 
r. k. 

5 
s 

0 

JB 

1 

V 

6 

2 

V 

i ^ 

iDr. 
r. k. 

i 

£ 

s 

I 

! 

m 



? 


1 




O 


Kalven (a) 

81} 

28 07 






Yanitchky (ft) 

13} 

330 

0 80 





Mecdikoutzi 

20* 

14 92 

0 80 



k 



672} 





Observations. 


Coast the Great Luke 
PeipMs. from Tienual to 
RannaPuiigi m, 

In Reiit-rdl it will be 
well to Ro prc-pari-iJ on 
this road with llie iie. 
cessary iilei>sils tor soar 
irpasts.and seldom stop 
I to sleep at an iuu on the 
load. 

From Nennal toPiin> 
R«rii the. suliuii is very 
hravy. 

fl) A very romforluble 
clean inn. 

The road improves to 
Narva 1 whence to tin 
capital it is equally as 
Qood as maiivol the new 
roads in Europe. 


At every station there 
is a now and rvcollent 
>intel iiUat'liod to the 
Post-house. 


Stationary from the. 
Si’ll) Oct. to 11th Dec. 


There are no lolls or 
chHUSsrs,Biid only here 
and there a brurhrfirlil 
ill Russia : murh less 
any droit de RraiSSage, 
or « ajenmeiiter. 


See antrcnient notes 
on tifb same subject. 


The horses from St. 
Prtcrsbarf!h to MitUu 
at 8 kopeeks each. 


(n) At 30 kopecks a 
horse. 

(h) ' At 8 kopeoks a 
horir, and the same all 
. the way to the frontier. 


XXX 


IIARCIIK KOUTU 



AND POSTING DIARV. 


XXXI 


Datt: 


OlBt. 


^th. 




Anmiat for 




Nainei»ftlM 

in Poll* 

Poatini, 

State 

State Q 


tM-incipal Towns 

miles, 

Mo. of 

1 No. of 

of 

the 

Observations. 

and Post’boukei. 

Irniiues, 

Horses 

[Drivers 

health. 

areatiirr 



vents. 


B9 





Poli'sli 






Bro. for. 

43i 


m 




Koolaky 

2 

12 0 

2 0 




Rozhan 

2 

12 0 

2 0 




Magnuszew 
The jVa«w, r. 

2 

12 0 

2 0 




PULTUSK(i) 

2 

12 0 

2 0 



(1) An excellent inn. 

Bzierzenm 

24 

15 0 

2 15 




The Bug, r. 







Zegnse 

2 

12 0 

2 0 



An excellent road du* 
ring the last four stages, 
Irailing to Warsaw, and 

YaUonna 

The Vistula, r. 

2 

12 0 

2 0 



a continued avenue 
throngh forests. 

•• 

fi horim. 

1 driver. 




WARSZA- 

WA(2) 


^horses. 

t driver. 




2i. 

9 0 

2 74 



(f) New Hotel de 
I'Europe. See Part HI. 

(Warsaw) 

Paste Regale 

Oltarzew 

1 

4 0 

1 0 




u 

6 0 

1 15 



A toll on the bridge 
over the Vistula, one 







rouble and a half. 

Blonio 

ll 

4 0 

1 0 




Moszna 

If 

7 0 

1 22 

2 0 



(3) A Poste Rovale 
boili to and Irom War- 
saw, to be paid for in 
addition to ine positive 

SOCHACZEW 

2 . 

8 0 



disiauoe. 

Koslowa 

If 

7 0 

1 22 




* LOWICZ 

If 

7 0 

1 22 




Fniewo 

3f 

15 0 

3 23 



The whole of this road 
is magnificent, and there 
are very decent inns, 

Kulno 

2f 

10 0 

2 15 



kept by Jews. 

Olazniowa 

2* 

9 0 

1 7§ 




Klodawa 
The Wmrta, r. 

2t 

11 0 

2 22 




Kolo 

2| 

11 0 

2 22 




Turek 

3* 

13 0 

3 74 




Cekowo 

2f 

11 0 

2 22 




KALI5Z(4) 

3 

12 0 

3 0 



' (4) Hotel de Pologne, 
the best, and only tola* 

PoMi Freest 





■ . f-.. 



95 


PRUSSIA. 





RAVAHIA, 


AND POSTING DIARY. 


xxxiii 


Names of the 

Distance 
in Post. 

Amount for 
[ PosUnfl. 

State 

prinripal Towns 
and Pos^honsnl 

miles, 

ICBflUfS 

versts 

No. ol 
Horsea 
2 

No. Ill 
Diivrn 

of 

health 

Bro. for 

(I. I Ilian 
Meyleu. 
. 80 

Rix. Gr 

■ Rix. Ol 



105th WEIMAR 
EitFunr 
GOTHA 
Eisenach 
Markshul 
Vadi 
Buttlar 
Hiinfeld 
107th FULDA 
Newhof 
Schliiditem 
Saalmunster 
Oeinhausen 
IIAKAV 

I FRANK. 

llOBth rORT 


3 2 0 1 0 

3 2 0 0 20 

3 2 0 1 0 

,,, Flor. k Flor. k. 
H 8 45 30 
Rix.Or. RiK.Or. 

4 1 3 0 12 

2^ 1 21 0 20 

4 13 0 12 

2 1 12 0 16 

2 1 20 0 16 

4'.1 9 0 12 

2 1 20 o'l 6 

2 1 20 0 16 

2 1 20 0 16 

3 2 18 1 0 

flor. k. flor. k. 

2 3 0 1 0 


N. B.— Althounh tli« 

wliiu;i IS itdvrtm cil, tlip 
lifloot luail III, lit Wi*!. 

rtlnr In Frank turl is us 
flood as 1 iouiiii It ill thi; 
summer. The Unaus- 
s<Si-.fleld and Uriifli seld 
arc vfiy liftavj oil this 
line or road. 


Hattenhcim 

CASSEI. 

Crouthe 

Rhine 

MAYENCE 

Niederulm 

Wdrstadt 

1 09th Alzey 

Kirdieiiubo- 

landen 

Standebiihl 

j Semliaoh 


UiTDian 

l’osn«s. 

1 3 0 1 30 


4 3 45 

1 52i 

1 2 15 

1 7h 

f 2 15 

1 74 

1 2 15 

1 4 

ft 2 15 

» 4 

ft 2 15 

i 4 

1 ]3 0 

1 .30 


RrUch-flold at Cassel,. 
90 kreutirrs. 

The peyment for 
iiorset u far as Saar, 
biiicli ii in florins and 
krpuiaen, as in the case 
ol FrankforU From the 
latter place to Forbacli 
tliiee florins loi 8 horsns 
and each pnstc. To the 
posiilions. oito florin and 
thiriy krcutiers each 
posw. 



XKXIV 


MARGHR ROUTR 



Date. 

Nameioftha 

)iltanci' 
11 Pos^ 

AmoBBt for I 
Pmtine. 1 

State 

State of 

Observations. 

wnwii 

prinripal Towns 

miles, 



of 

the 

we 


Mut Post-boases. 

leaenes, 

Horses. 

Drivers. 

liealtli. 

weather. 


pKMCd. 



versts. 

i! 







Bro. f<ir. 

Grimaii 

Postes. 

flor. k. 

ftor. k. 






7 






3 











KAISISS LAV- 






The whole roail i, 



TE&N 

Of 

2 15 

1 7i 



macadaoiiaed andbciu. 
lifui. 



Landstuhl 

1 

3 0 

1 30 






Bruchmiilbach 

Oi 

1 30 

0 45 






uoMnuRa 

Of 

2 15 

1 n 






Rohrbach 

1 

3 6 

1 30 




< 


SAARBnUCH(JL) 

1 

3 0 

1 30 



(1) An excellent inn 
at the post. 




12 






















gs 



French 

tr. et. 

fr. cl. 






Forbach 

Postes. 

H 

4 50 

3 0 



For rliarees in Frintr, 
see llie first page of iliis 








inarche route. 



St. Avoid 

2i 

6 75 

4 50' 





noth 

Fonligny 

CoiimjUes 

2 

6 0 

4 0 




H 

O 

% 

I 

3 0 

2 0 



maikedf an additional 
liorse IS renuired, or 
paid for, during; llm S 


Chaussy* 








winter monilis. 



(a)METZ*(2) 

24 

10 0 

5 0 



t At the stations lliui 

^ t 
1 








marked, an aildiiioaal 


Gravdotte 

2i 

8 50 

4 50 



horse must be taken, or 
the two paid for, ai 40 
sous each, all the jnr 

S' 


Man-la-Tour 

n 

3 75 

2 50 



round. 








(a) From Metz, » 



flarville 

14 

4 50 

3 0 



quaiter of a post is pai'> 
in addition; the sane 









at Chalons. 



Mauheule* 

li 

3 75 

2 70 



(8) At Meta, nn ex- 
cel lent inn, lldtel <<' 

i 


VERDUN 

2 

6 0 

4 0 



I'Kurope, Uuo do 
Cleics. 

s 


Domballet 

2 

8 0 1 

4 0 



N. B.— Whenever i 



Clermont en 






third horse is noted, ilu 
traveller has the optioi 



Argonnef 

If 

4 50 

2 70 



of paying 40 insteail « 
30 sous each horse, hii* 









retHining only two n 
them and the presni 
calculatiou ia marie o* 



St. Menenould 

2 

8 0 

4 0 





Orbeval 

1 

3 0 

2 0 



that nuderstanding. 

i 

llltb 

1 

> 

2 

6 0, 

4 0 




s 


CHALONS 
8ur Mame 

2 

6 0 

4 0 



% 



Gaalonst 

2 

a 0 

4 0 







29f 









AND POSTING DIARY. 


XXXV 


Couiiin 

tliinuRl 

which 



Distano 

Amount for 

T— - 

■r— 



Names of the 

in Post 

PmUor. 

State 


ObsPivalions. 

Date. 

prinripal Towns 

miles, 

No.ol 

No. o 

of 


Wf. 

pass'-H. 


and Post-housei. 

leagues 

versts. 

Horses 

e 

Driven 

1 

health. 

jweaihei 





Freiicli 

Postei. 

frs. cu. 

Ira. cu 






Bro. for 

29} 








Epemay 

2 

8 0 

4 0 

« 





Port4-Bin80ii 

2 

6 0 

4 0 






DOBHANS (1) 

1 

3 0 

2 0 



- (f) Wood iaii, the 
Cruia d’Or. 



Paroy 

11 

4 50 

3 0 




i 

I 


Chateau 

Thiemy 

1 

3 0 

2 0 


j 




La Fertne de 







0) 


wParia 

11 

4 50 

3 0 




£ 

es 


La Fert<^<sou8 









Jouarre 

2 

6 0 

4 0 






St. Jean les 
deux Jumeanx 

1 • 

•3 0 

2 0 




w 


MEAUX (2) 

n 

4 50 

3 0 



f8) After Meauxi the 

> - 


Claye 






great bpauty of the road 

1 


2 

C 0 

4 0 



ceases, and the paved 
avenues begin, ami con- 



IIONDY 

2 





tinue as far as Paris, 



6 0 

4 0 



One additional poste 
is paid from Bouily to 

PARIS 




11 

7 50 

5 0 

a 


j^iis, called Poste 


iiefth 

St. Denis 

1 

10 0 

4 0 



When a posto rojale 
is paid in addition to the 









regular distance, it is 



Moissellcs 

U 

4 50 

3 0 



usual to give the posti- 
lion his jmurboire iu 



Beaumont sur 






proportion. 

Quo additional poste 



Oise 

H 

4 50 

3 0 



is paid fiom Paris to St. 
Denis. 



Puiseux 

U 

3 75 

2 50 



Till! road from Paris 
to Calais is not so good 



Noailles 






as many others on tho 



11 

4 54 

3 0 



Coiiliueul.'aiid ought to 
he better, considering 




BEAUVAIS 

IJ 

5 25 

2 75 



how much it is Ire- 
qnenled. 



.Marseilles 






Tliere are three roads 



21 

6 75 

4 50 



to Calais ; 1. By Beau- 
vais: S. By Amiens; 3. 

By St. Pol and Ayrc. 
The lirsi is tlie shortest ; 




ORANVIL- 








LIEBS 

U 

3 75 

2 50 



but ail aie equally bad 
and uncomfortable, and 



Poix 

1} 





not creditable to Ihena- 



5 25 

2 75 



tion. Tire oavrment 
lasts ns for as Puisens. 



Camps 

11 

4 50 

3 0 



The Inns are very bad 
till you reach Beauvais. 


P 

Airaines 

11 

3 75 

2 50 






- 


651 







xxxvi 


MARCHE ROUTE AND POSTING DIARY. 


Country 

ihiouch 

Date. 

Nsnesof llie 

DiilHure 
in post- 
miles, 
leasues, 
versts. 

Amount for 
Postine. 

Stale 

Slate of 


whicli 

we 

passed. 

priuripal Towns 
and Post-houses. 

No. of 
Horses 

S 

No. of 
Drivers. 
1 

of 

health. 

the 

weather. 

Observations. 

FRANCE.' 


Bro. for. 

ABBE- 
VILLE (1) 

Noiiviuii 

Bernay 

Nampont 

PiTiidi 

PoM*-s. 

Hdj 

• 

21 

n 

1 

u 

fr<. cts. 

0 75 

4 50 

3 

4 50 

fis. cts. 

4 50 

3 

2 

. 3 

•‘'i. 


The traveller will UU 
care to arrive before sun- 
set, or to send an sviiui 
courier to the diff'enni 
lorliKed towns on tins 
ruud, or he tnay cliarm- 
to leinain out all iiii;lii, 
liHiticolaiij at Abhf. 
ville, Mdiilreuil, suii 
Calais. 

(l)Hotel de I’Europr. 



MOMTRKriL 
SUM >1EH 

11 

1 50 







Comiotit 

n 

4 50 

3 






Samer 

1 

3 

2 






BOTILOaNK 

2 

G 

4 






Marquit^e 

u 

5 76 

2 75 

i 





Haut-Btiissou 

1 

» 

2 





n7th 

CALAIS (2) 

fMMancke \ 

( Jt(U8UQ€ ) 

u 

1 8U 

6 

4 



(S) Anadditioual lull 
posie is paid on enur- 
ing Calais. 








(3) It is botjustio'lo 
say, that the Yuik lloUl 
is the most desirable A 
Dover. It is privsu, 
eleanly, moderate- in 
charges, and the aiun- 
dance and civility ol'lhr 
landlord, are of the btri 
description. 

General lecapitaUtion 
of Distancrstoaudrion 
St. P&tersbnrgh, 

g 

2 


■ 

DOVER (3) 

! 

cantgh- 

BlIEY. 

Sittingbourne 

8'tasui-s; 

P.iialisli 

1 Mties 

16 

16 

Carriage 

tl. 

3 3 0 

1 40 
|l 4 0 

Prrson. 

'£.s. d. 
10 6 

5 0 

5 0 



% 


HOCHESTEB 

11 

16 6 

4 6 






Dartford 

15 

1 2 6 

5 0 





U8th 

LONDON. 

16 

1 7 0 

50 



I ipll 




7« 







■ : 





■ l*‘ll llr‘= 



! 






i 1* III? 








■ = 

’ S«§*M 









, It 11 IK 



ST. PjETERSBURGH. 


PART FIRST. 

JOURNEY FROM lONDON ST. PETERSBURGU. 

CHAPTER I. 

FLANDERS. • 

Oepallure from London. — Dover.— Advice to Invalids. — Steam- 
packet}^ Remedies ^inst Sea-sickness. — Cai.^is. — Reciprocal 
contrast. — Colony of the King’s Bench.— A Fashionable Self-exile.-*- 
Coast Road. — Improvements at Dunkirk.— Douancs. — Ostesd.— 
Dreadhil explosion. — Count Capo d’lstrias and the late Dutch Am- 
bassador ill London. — Ostend Oysters. — Bruges.— Sunday Cate- 
chism. — Ghent.— Central House of Correction.— ^ New Uni- 
versity,— St. Bavon. — The Belfry. — Botanic Garden and Botanic 
Socie^. — Saio^ de Fiore . — Exhibition of Paintings. — Modem Flo* 
midi Painters.— Canals.— Agricultural AspMt of the Country.— 
Apprdteh to the Capital. ^ • 

About the middle of July 1827rat the condodon of 
what in London is called *^The Seam," 1 entered into an 
agreement to ac«mipany» on his return to Russia^. Count 
Michel Woronzow, a disthigiiished nobleman, high in the 
VOL. I. B 




REASONS FOR TUB JOURNEY. 


military service of his sovereign, who, with his Countess, 
had come to England for a few months, on family matters. 

I was the more readily induced to accept such an en« 
gagement, as 1 hoped, by extending my professional ser- 
vices, beyond the present moment, to two individuals, who 
had for a series of years honoured me with their confidence, 
to evince my gratitude to them for former acts of kindness. 

My own health, too, had bepome so indifferent towards 
the middle of the summer, in consaiuence of unremitting 
attention to a profession, of which it is not too much to 
say, that it is fully as arduous as^it is gratifying ; that my 
friends felt it necessary to recommend a temporary sus. 
pension from public and private practice, and an excursion 
to the Continent. 

About the same time, also, family affairs with distant 
relations of my own intervened, which required my pre- 
sence abroad ; and when my agreement urith the General 
was concluded, I had already taken st^s for absenting 
myself, for a very short time, from London, without caus- 
ing any inconvenience either to private patients or to the ^ 
public institutions to which 1 have belonged for many 
years. 

A journey to Russia, even in this wandering age, is not 
undertaken, for the first time, with the same light heart, 
with which the gay and the thoughtless leap into the 
britsika that is to Irad them safely at the Hotel de RivoUf 
or at some other equally extravagant establishment in that 
Babylon of Pleasures, Paris. English travellers, who have 
favoured^us'with an acepunt of thrir visits to that northern 
country, have taken to prevent all such plea8ing:un- 
pressions. As for myself, 1 confess, that op reading Clarke 
aiN^^yall, and other accounts of Russia published in Eng- 
land, I felt almost frightened at the idea of having to en- 
counter such an interminidile scries of privations anddiscpm- 
forts as the journey in contemplation was about to entail 
upon me, according to the testimony of those two writers. 



3 


BNGLISir WRITERS ON RUSSIA. 

And when I considered that, in addition to suffering all the 
inconveniences alleged by those gentlemen, I should have 
to return during the severe part of the winter, I began to 
think that, as the father of a numerous and young family, 
I had been rather too bold and heroic in engaging in so pe- 
rilous an undertaking. “ Mercy upon me T I exclaimed, 
after closing the ponderous quarto of the late worthy pro- 
fessor of mineralogy, and the lifter pages of the autlior 
of “ The Character of 4be Russians,'^-^^^ Mercy upon me ! 
1 am to be fleeced, cheated, and laughed at ; I shall lie with- 
out a bed, starve on black iM^ad, and swarm with vermin. 
The villages are of mud, and the towns of logs of wood, and 
the two capitals moonshine. There is no chance of seeing a 
handsome woman ; the gentlemen are all ignoramuses, and 
the common people brutes. The government is despotic ; 
the police troublesome ;*fmd the dogs bite differently from 
English dogs.* What is to become of me ! I had better 
go once again, iffl must go at all for relaxation, to the 
region of the plague, or to that delightful spot, Sierra 
Tjeone, or among the Johnny Newoomes at Jamaica, with 
the chance of catching the yellow fever for the second tiihe, 
than to expose myself thus to a certain martyrdom^ 

In this manner dj^d I, for many a day, ponder on what 
I was about to undertake; debating with myself, whether 
it might not be wiser to give up the thing altogether ; 
until at last,, recollecting that ! had read in some recent 
publications of English tourists, similar abominationi told 
against Italy, which, from expeririice, I knew to be as 
true as that St. Paul's iv the church in the Christian 
world, and the Thames the iargmt |iver in Europe^’ (two 
not uncoamidn exoriesiKHiB io (he mouths of some English 


* In Sll this there is no exaggeration on my part ; every assertion 
is to he found scattered hefli and there in the two works alluded to. 
The only diffeirence' is, 0^ there l!he aslertions are ^made with all the 
^vity of nieir hmAfiKHt; 

B 2 



4 


NOTES OP PREPARATION. 


travellers) ; I came to the resolution of suspending my 
judgnieht,’' till I had seen vrith my own eyes, heard with 
my dwn ears, and formed a proper estimate of “ things 
as they aire,^ ^om personal observation. The following 
pages will show how s^i^ably' I have been disappointed. 

. Tbc preparations for the journey, which had Injfore 
gone on rather sloWly, now proceeded briskly ; and in a 
few days I was ready to join my party. 

These preparations consisted ^iefly of provisions 
against the cold weather, in the shape of an enormous fur 
pelisse, arid a pair of very b^ts to pull over the 
ordinary ch/n/mte, which boots were made of sealskin 
outside and bearskin within, an article that proved of the 
greatest service to me iit St. Petersburgh; R sufKcicnt 
quantity of worsted, flannel, and chamms-leather apparel, 
a pair of leather sheets lined oft one side with Welsh- 
flannd, and calico sheets, in order to expedite the making 
of the bed ; a pillow, which serves to support your l)ack 
in the carriage, and your head at night by the addition of 
a pillow-case, together with a travelling-eap, plenty of 
linen, and the novek of Sir Waiter Scott. 

The ftbject and character of my mission required that 
I should have^ also, a sufficient quantity of medicines, and 
th^ necessary instruments for surgical operations in' case of 
accidents or broken limbs ; and 1 regret that, in addition 
to all these, I dll^ every remaining crevice of the carriage, 
which,! occupied sin^y, with books on physic and works 
of travds, and guides, and^maps^ without end,, all of which 
I fouiiil heafly useless. The first ! had no time, to read, 
becaiite’^I'had other thinga to 4o ;> thfti second I did not 
consutti beeimse I was liot' kmg?ia>discoveilSng|. that as 
1!|)ngs change^ imd primed pages do the latter can- 
not always be relied upon to a comet account of the 
tomer: ' ■ '?■. 

At lost, the day fixed for oiurdapartufie arrived, and the 
party set dflp, to Doveri on the 90th of September, in, three ' 



IMIVBR. 


5 


carriaged, (one of which carried the cook and the batlerie 
tie enkine^) on the best and finest road in England, and 
reached the York Hotel in. due time. 

As a professional man, acquainted with those diseases and 
constitiitiDns which are benefited by a residence* at the sea- 
side, 1 may be permitted, dn this place, to offer a few rc- 
niarks on the situation of this sea-port town. Dover is very 
much improved in its appearance within the last few years. 
It has been greatly eidarged, particularly at the south-east 
end, and in many parts embdlished. There is fair sea- 
bathing, with the b^t e^blishments 1 have ever seen on 
this coast for warm and cold sea-bath^ and for all other 
a])plications of sea water to the purposes of cleanliness or 
health. The new, as well as the old lodging-houses are dean, 
and on moderate terms. The dtuation of . Uiose nearest 
to the sea^side, facing* <he south and south-west, is highly 
desirable, gay, and warm. These are sheltered from the 
easterly wind, avis, also, the rest of the town, from, the winds 
of all the northern quarters, by the two celebrated ridges 
. rocks which flank the town, and wall it all round and behind 
to a gigantic height The air is pure, and by the recent 
improvements in the harbour, the retreating tide docs not 
produce that pen^rating smell which, to some delicate con- 
stitutions, is so unpleasant and injurious. The vicinity of 
Hint chalk hanging in large masses, about the outskirts of 
Dover, prevents all moisture from long loitering in the 
atmosphere that hovers over the town. 1 have often had 
occasion to rematrk, while cruising in a man-of-war, a great 
many years ago, in this part of the Channel, that during 
ilamp and very foggy day 8^ ^ when* the ^h<de line of coast 
was aitfeetded from our vkw by a dwse atmospherei the 
white cliffs of Dover and the town wm the first to <in||pge 
out of this concealment; not» as in ordinary cases, by the 
gradual rising (ff the fleecy, veil which hung before, them, 
but by the almosti sudden absorption of the vapoury aU 
mosphere whi^' promptly ' disappear^, while the ; other 



6 


ADVICE TO INVALIDS. 


parts of the coast, as Deal, for instance, continued in 
obscurity. 

To these local advantages, which are almost peculiar to 
this place, others are to be added, which are decidedly 
unique, ani of the greatest value to the resident invalid. 
1 allude to the facility of transporting oneself to a totally 
different country and climate in a few hours--aiid to 
the daily agriment of witnessing as much of the bustle, as 
is agreeable, attending the arrival and departure of sove- 
rdgn princes and subjects, of every colour, character, and 
degree, both males and females, with their bags and bag- 
gages, their smuggled articles, and articles which one would 
be paid for to smuggle. Then the pleasure of being the first 
to hear the news from foreign parts, and of listening to fifty 
harnhoches telling stories in every language on the surface of 
the globe, which, by bving at DoVer, one is sure to enjoy, 
is, with many persons, an invaluable recommendation to a 
country residence. To hypochondriac patients, too, this 
very circumstance renders Dover a far preferable sejour to 
any other. Persons suffering from what have been styled , 
stomach and liver complaints— labouring under dyspepsia 
or indigestion, after having gone through a regular course 
of blue pill, or carbonate of soda ; breakfasted on brown 
bread and swallowed loads of mustard seed with bttle suc- 
cess, will find a residence of two or three months at this 
place more productive of good, by simply attending to 
diet and using the sea-bath. To the bilious, instead of 
taking constant medicine, 1 recommend embarking, when 
the day is fine, on board a jsailing-packet, and cross over to 
Calais or Boulogne, in hopes of bmng made sea-sick. This 
operation empties the stomach more effectually than can be 
dmn^ by means of emetics, so justly esteemed in cases of ob* 
structed or regurgitating bile. This plan may be adopted 
twice or three times in the course of a two or three months' 
residence, if occasion requires it, and should invariably be 
followed by equitation, or airing in a carriage, extended to 



8T£AM-PAGKBT8. 


7 

somcdifttance in the country. With these recommendations, 
1 have sent to Dover a considerable number of patients 
within the last eight years, all of whom have got well, and 
have liked. the system and place exceedingly; and as the 
people there ore civile and all the necessaries, as well as 
luxuries of life, are to be procured at a reasonable rate, 
there appears no reason why Dover should not be included 
in the list of those sesrport towns which enjoy the patronage 
and good opinion of the London physicians. 

To people who are not invalids, but who arrive at Dover 
to get out of it and across the water as fast as they can, 
the establishment of steam-packets on tliis station has 
proved one of the greatest blessings. Certainty and dis- 
patch are two requisites which, until the adaptation of 
steam to navigation, travellers could only bespeak from the 
drivers of post-chaises* and stage-coaches. They can now 
he looked for at sea, where their value is much enhanced 
by the recollection of former disappointments, cruel deten- 
tions, and many hours spent in endeavouring to, reach, by 
, zigzag lines, the wished-for port, which we may reach now 
straight and speedily. , * 

The two Government steam vessels at this port, wliich 
carry the mail, and start every day, except Sunday and 
Monday, are on a large scale, and extremely well con- 
ducted. The command of them is confided to navid officers, 
which circumstance is alone a ])owerful reconunendation. 
Our party had no farther trouble about embarking than 
that wliich attends the mere matter-of-form examination of 
the baggage by the Customrhouse officers. The very serious 
inconvenience and delay experienced in pulling carriages 
to pieces before they were shipped, which used to occur 
not many years age, no longer exists,;, as carriages^ all 
rizes, with aU thear^^. packings, , fure embarked on b^aref the 
steamer at a short notu%, and without the least dii^culty. 
Ours were put on bpard the Salamander, a very liandsoiue 
and fast-sailing vessel, with two eiigincs of siAty-horse- 



8 


SBA SlCKNBSfik 


power; and we followed them soon after, crosstog the 
Channel in two hours and a half. 

Sea-sickness has ppszled more grave doctors than one. 
Most, nay, all of them, have ransacked their brains to dis- 
cover in what it consists, and what it arises from ; when it is 
plain enough that it consists in. vomiting, or ini something 
like it, and must arise from the peculiar motion of the ves- 
sel, for nolxxly is sick on shipbmird in a pond. Better it 
had been, to have applied themsdves to the discovery, more 
mpyrko^ of something that would prevent so disagreeable a 
complaint. But this is left to old women, like some other 
branches of physic ; and we are indebted to them for the 
knowledge of certain articles which are said to be infallible, 
sucli as a sheet of white paper laid on the chest, or an amulet 
of yellow saffron sewed up in a green bag, and applied to the 
pit of the stomach. On the present'o'ccasion, having neither 
of these at hand, 1 had no other resource but to submit to 
fate, and much good it did me. 

To the Countess, however, of whose health I had taken 
charge, and who, I und«%tood, suffered considerably from 
sea-sickness, I admimstered, immediately before embark- 
ing, forty-five drops of laudanum. She remained dur- 
ing the whole of the passage in her own carriage, and de- 
clared to me, that not only she had not bem ill, but 
that she had not even experienced the slightest of those 
appalling qualms which rob the checks of the most stout- 
hearted of their bloom, and unman us ail. Assuming the 
state of the stomach during sea-sickness to be one of irrita- 
bility, this happy effect of opium can readily be under- 
stood. 1 again tried it on my return to England, and with 
the same success. This hint, old as it i% may be of amioe 
to many who oevev heard of it before. V 

What a contrast is presented to us at the termination of 
an eight league voya^ i We left behmd us an open town, 
fearlessly spreading its dwellings on either side, on the sea- 
shore; and we now stand befoi^ another town, the'houses 



DESSKIN’S, THE SHIP, AND THE YORK. 9 

of which are huddled togethef by ramparta and parapets, 
within which there is no admission, but through particular , 
gateways. When we embarked, the quay was lined >vith 
a great multitude, dressed almost uniformly, and well-be- 
haved ; at our landing, we had to pierce a throng tliat 
crowded the mole, vociferating in every key-note of the 
treble scale, variously agitated, like the paste-eels that one 
sees through the microscope, and looking not unlike the 
motley group of beggars that besiege the avenue of a con- 
vent abroad on almsdays. Once safely landed, on your 
way to an inn, this reciprocd contrast is no less striking. 
The guide, whose services you have accepted, addresses 
you with all the eagerness md empressment peculiar to his 
nation. His “ d rimtant^ and “ Umt ik mite^ pronounced 
at your least word of command, is accompanied by a bust- 
ling vivacity that bespeaks the earnestness of compliance. 
The waiter, on the other side of the water, whose trifling 
assistance you have requited with some few shillings, 
thanks you with a low murmur and an awkward bow, quite 
in cliaraoter with his ‘^Coming, Sir !” bawled at the sound 
of your bell, but accompanied by action ill suited to the 
words. Here you walked on easy trotloira from the inn; 
across the Channel you pick your way through mud and 
filth on a rainy day, or get your ankles dislocated by the 
slipperiness of angular stones in dry weather. When you 
enter l)essein’’s at (^lalais, the magnitude of the establish- 
ment, the size, and height, and number of the apartments, 
with their trumeaux, ormolus, and damask curtains, strike 
you with astonishment ; for you have just left the York, 
or the Ship, with their four-feet square parlours, and a 
narrow ^sage leading to them, instead of an extensive 
courtyard and garden. But aT l)essdn’8^> the 

apartments^ nre uncarpeted^ some of the floors are of the 
colour of boiled lobsters, and the hearth^ blaek and 
slovcnlyvomits more smoke tlmn wamth, from the tindery 
faggot, that disap|)ears, like tKc' vanities of this world, in 



10 


A FASHIONABLB EXILK. 


a minutC) and the green billets that hiss and drop tears, 
and now and then shoot a small fiery rocket into your coat 
or petti-coat ; whereas, at the Ship, or at the York, the 
Wilton and the Brussels are equally spread under your 
f(>et ; and a heap of blazing Wallsend within the bars of a 
bright grate, give out a cheerful and permanent warmth. 
Then cornea the important point of eating, upon which 1 
scarcely venture to say much, as I am only sensible of the 
contrast existing on that score between the two countries, 
without being a sufficient judge to decide upon it. The 
late Dr. Kitchener used to say, that a French potage is 
worth a whole English dinner; and he was a great au- 
thonty in such matters. This contrast may be pursued 
farther, but I must leave it to others to asbertain if it 
exists equally in matters of greater importance. 

Calais, sinc:e the peace, has becoihe, for the English, the 
asylum of the unfortunate. The gentleman who is not 
clever enough to cast up his accounts with Government, 
and yet likes not to receive a lesson on the subject; he 
who has mistaken the debtor for tlie creditor side of his 
cash-book at his banker's; a third who is tired of the 
persecutions of the Stulzes and the Nugees ; another who 
has had the misfortune to be cast in a few thousands for 
an “ affaire de tmr T all these, and many more, find a 
comfortable shelter in this colony of tlie King’s Bench. 
Besides the great advantage of being aide to roam to a 
greater distance than in the mother-country, and staying 
out after dark, which the colonists enjoy in this place, 
there are other conveniences and facilities belonging to 
Calais, which render it a desirable re^ence. 

We learned that one of these voluntary exiles, once the 
leader of ton, not «t all an enemy to snuff or to the boxes 
that 'hold it, is lodged very comfortably at a bookseller’s, 
not a mile distant from Dessein’s, and that he has been 
resident there for the last ten years, without once sleeping 
out of the house. He lives rather retired, but objects not 



A FASHIONABLE EXILE. 


11 


to the visits of many of his old friends, who, on passing 
through Calais, maJte it a point to call on this exquisite 
specimen of the refined gentleman. His mode of living is 
rather monotonous and sedentary. He writes and reads a 
great deal, or converses with his landlord, who is a most 
intelligent person, formerly an associate of Miranda, with 
whom he went to South America. Although he complains 
of not being rich, his apartments are said to be furnished 
with the most superb buhl meubles^ most of wliich were 
purchased and selected by him with great taste, at Dun- 
kirk, to the amount of two thousand pounds. The land- 
lord speaks with great regard of his inmate, with whose 
whole hjistory he appears to be well acquainted. 

In my observations respecting Dover as a residence for 
invalids, 1 ventured to mention, as one of its advantages, the 
facility it afforded of changing climate in a few hours, by 
crossing over to Calais. There must certainly be some- 
thing more than mere fancy in the sudden improvement 
which many experience in their feelings and general state 
, of health by leaving England and coming to this place. 
This was strongly exemplified, in a particular manner, 
by the lady whom I had the honour to accompany in the 
])resent instance, as well as by myself, who had been much 
indisposed for a considerable time. The health of that lady 
had been, of late, very indifferent, but no sooner had she 
put her f(H)t on the French shore than she began to feel 
much less unwell; and in proportion as she penetrated 
farther into the country, so did her recovery proceed. 
Nor was the change in regard to my own indisposition less 
striking. In about four-and-twenty hours after my arrival 
at Calais, 1 had lost many of the most disagreeable symp- 
toms of my complaint. v ^ 

The three carriages were again put in motion on the 
morning of the 22d, when, having bid an afiectionate fare- 
well to Prince Gh— who had crossed over with us from 
Dover, and was on his way to Paris and Rome on a diplo- 



12 


GRAVKLINE8.— DUNKIRK. 


matic mission, we passed through Jju Porte du Nord^ and 
took the road' leading to Flanders. To judge of France 
by the appearance of the country through which this road 
passes, of the ill-cultiYated fields with their dwarf walls of 
mud, the marks of desolation and discomfort every where 
visifile, a stranger would feel tempted to think that he was 
among people either little advanced in civilization, or tired 
of civilization, and relapsing into a state approaching to 
barbarism. Nor is the condition of the road itself calcu- 
lated to inspire more reverence for the country. Roughly 
paved in the middle, with deep mud on each side, which 
is impassable during two-thirds of the year, and in the 
summer horribly dusty, it shakes carriage and passenger 
mimercifully, and has not one redeeming (piality besides. 
The dilapidated fortifications of -Gravelincs remind one 
of the signal defeat of the Marshal de Thermi's by the 
Lieutenant of Charles V. who, fearing that tlie Frencli 
might afterwards attack the town, ordered it to he sur- 
rqunded with walls and bastions, and made of it a regular 
fortified place, about the year 155H. The insaluhrity of 
(aravelincs is such, that the streets arc deserted, and the 
military have an actual dread of forming part of its gai*- 
rison, as the saying in the hVcnch army sufficiently proves : 

Dieu nous garde de garnisou, 

A (iravdines ou Briaiicou.’ ’ 

From Gravelincs, the road leans towards the sea-coast, 
and passes between a wide sandy plain on the right, and 
the shore on the left, and reaches Dunkirk after going 
through Mardyke ; a wretched place, ^ with the remains of 
the canal, ditches, and sand-pits, the work of Louis the 
XlVth, who intended it as a substitute for the port and 
citadel of Dunkirk, which the Treaty of Utrecht compelled 
him to demolish. 

Dunkirk is an important sea-port. The town boasts of 
having given birth to the great manner John Dart, and 



THK CA.NALfi AND TIIK AKSKNAl.. l;5 

has figured in the annals of many a bhxxly campaign. 
After Gibraltar, no sea*fortress has been more keenly ilis- 
puted. Burnt by the Ehgli^ in the fourteenth century, 
taken by tho Marshal de Th^cs, and surrendered to the 
crown of Spain many years afterwarils ; again conciuored 
by the Duke ITEnghien, and lost once more t# the 
Spaniards. Turenne t(X)k possession of it after the cele- 
brated battle “ des Dunes,’* in which year Louis the XIV t\\ 
surrendered' it to Cromwell, and recovered it from the 
Second Charles for the sum of six millions of francs. In 
modem times, too, even to the year 1798, tliis ill-fated town 
experiencetl a variety of vicissitudes from which it suffered 
materially. New fortifications have been erecte(l, and 
the old made stronger. Several new buildings have been 
added, especially large magazines, capable of holding a 
vast quantity of provisions for sustaining a long siege. 
Within the last few years, great and important impmve- 
ments in regard to the port and canal navigation have l)ecn 
effected ; and a large circular bason has been formed to re- 
ceive the water during the spring-tides. These and other 
measures are intended to facilitate t^c removal of tlic great 
bar of sand which lies across the harbour, and hopes arc 
entertained that the latter will, ever after, remain free from 
tliat impediraent to a safe navigation. 

I’he population of Dunkirk, which amounts to about 
twenty-five thousand inhabitants, has reason to njoice at 
these operations, as they must nwessarily prove very bene- 
ficial 10 the import trade, which they carry on with every 
nation in the north of Europe. The church of St. Eloi 
presents to the traveller one of the finest porticoes of the 
Corinthian order, with columns of imposing size and dimen- 
sions, erectctl in front of a building qf the most mesquin 
appearance. The- only other object worth noticing, is the 
bust of John Biirt, standing in the centre of the Place 
Dauphiney a square, planted with trees. In one of the 
principal streets is the Hotel de Flanders^ at which we 



14 pOUANIERS UN THE COAST. 

Stopped to dine, and were well entertained. The house is 
large, commodious, and clean throughout. 

On quitting Dunkirk, we passed through a gate which 
leads to the port, or arsenal, neatly paved, flanked on the 
right by clean and well-built warehouses, and on the left 
by #sort of open dock or canal, in which a great many 
galliots of from two to three hundred tons were lying 
fastened to the quay. The whole establishment appeared 
in perfect order, and we left it through another fortified 
gate, beyond which are drawbridges, moats, and bastions, 
rendering the town on this side almost impregnable. 

Our way now (for there is no road) lay over the sea 
sands, which the ebb-tide had shortly before left dry. 
The carriages, with the near wheels washed by the waves, 
rolled along, on this compact and smooth soil, at a brisk 
pace, till we reached the French frontiers at the termination 
of two posts ; there we were met by the Douaniers sta- 
tioned on the sands to receive the permit of transit for the 
carriage and luggage. One of these poor devils escorts 
the travellers as far as the Bel^an Line, marked by a so- 
litary poteau planted«in this sandy desert; and, having 
seen them safe out of France, returns to join his com- 
panions, who have not the most enviable situation in the 
world. 

The appearance of these poor people excites ' pity : they 
look the very image of disease ; and I have been told, 
that unless frequently changed, they fall victims to the 
unhealthy climate of the place. There is ho other road 
of communication, but this, between Dunkirk and the 
Belgian frontiers, for those who wish to go to Osten4 with- 
out making a considerable ditour» After travelling .for 
half an hour longer on the sands, within the confines of 
Belgium, the road takes a sudden turn to the rights over 
a narrow paved chaussfe, on which our progress was pro- 
scntly chocked by some good-natured and civil Doiiauiers. 



OSTEND. BARON F- 


15 


The finger-p(Wt8, with[tliis inRcription, Naer Veurne,'' 
next directed our steps to Fumes ; which consists of a long 
and narrow street, where we were soon 8urrounde<l by the 
whole population, looking more like ill-dressed beggars 
with sickly countenances, than happy villagers in their holi- 
day clothes. The canal from Dunkirk to Bruges passes 
through Fumes, where the principal port of the Unen manu- 
factured in the Netherlands is sold. We stopped, after 
another long stage, at Ghistel, to get fresh horses. These 
safely brought us, in the evening, before the closed gates 
and the forjtiiied bastions of Ostend, through which wc 
were not admitted until a messenger, dispatched to the 
governor, brought back the necessary permission. 

The Hotel des Pays Basy formerly La Cour Imperiale, 
is, as it were, the principal inn in the town, tliough barely 
comfortable. In the course of the night the steam-packet, 
which had left London the day before, brought, among 
other passengers, to the hotel, two distinguished indivi- 
duals, who Joined our party the following morning; these 
were the Count Capo dTstrias, and the late Dutch 
"Ambassador lat the Court of St, Jama's, Baron F — a 
name revered by all his countrymen for the zeal he dis- 
played in< their service, and dear to all his friends for the 
uniform suavity of his manners, his varied information, 
and his agreeable conversation. The latter, to whom I 
had the honour of being well known, was prevailed upon 
by Count Woronzow, to share with me the caleche as far 
as Brussels. The former preferred starting for that capi- 
tal the same day, by another conveyance, having business 
of importance ta airange there; connected with the ultimate 
object of ; his journey. The Count Capo dTstrias is one of 
those men whose talents, powerful imagination, and matu- 
rity of judgment, serve, sooner or later, amidst a variety of 
vicissitudes, to raise them to a lofty station in society. The 
success which has attended this statesman through life, 



16 


COUNT CAPO U'ISTRIAS. 


and the highly important part he is now called upon to tak( 
in * the regeneration of Greece, have thrown an additional 
interest on his history. He has long been, and is at this 
moment, to a greater degree, a proper subject of publii 
contemplation ; nor can the natur^ reserve of his private 
ch^ter feel offended at the notice I presume to take of 
him in his public capacity. 

Count Capo dlstrias was bom at Corfu, where he was 
filling a public situation of trust under Government in the 
year 1802, at the time of my visiting that island, and was 
held in high esteem by his fellow-citizens. , Corfu and 
the rest of the Ionian Islands, were then under the 
protection of Russia; but enjoyed a form of govern- 
ment of their own, as has been the case since their 
occupation by Great Britain. The Representative of 
the Russian monarch at that timo tesiding in Corfu, was 
Count Mocenigo; a nobleman who, by his impartial con- 
duct, had gained the esteem of persons of all parties. He 
lived in a style of splendour well becoming his high sta- 
tion, and it was at his hospitable table that I recollect 
seeing, for the first time, Count Capo d’lstrias. One could 
observe, even at that early period of that gentleman’s pub- 
lie career, that he possessed, within him, all the necessary 
elements' for ensuring his future elevation. Geneial Ro- 
mieux, the Representative of the French Consular Govern- 
ment to the Septinsular Republic, near to whom I sat on 
that day, said to me, pointing to the Count Get homme 
ira bien loin dans la carriere de la diplomatic. II ne lui faut 
que dcs circonstances favorables*” The Generd^s pro- 
phecy has loiig been verified ; but its final and most tri- 
umphant accomplishment is even now taking place, by 
the Count’s elevation' to the chief station in the Greek 
Government. From the year 1818, when Capo dlstrias 
was Minister Plenipotentiary from the Emperor of Rtissia 
to the Swiss Cantons, and for his firm and upright con- 
duct, was honoured with the right of citizenship by one of 



COUNT CAPO D'ISTRIAS. 17 

the Cantons, to the beginning of 18279 his career has been, 
with little interruption^ a constant succession of highly 
honourable distinctions. He assisted at all the most iiii. 
portant deliberations in some of those congresses of sove- 
reigns which peculiarly mark the diplomatic history of 
Europe during the last fifteen years ; and, on the part of 
Russia, affixed his name to the memorable treaty concluded 
in Paris on the 20th of November, 1818. In the full en- 
joyment of the confidence and good opinion of his Sovereign, 
the Emperor Alexander, Count Capo dlstrias followed 
his Imperial Master to St. Petersburgh after the signa- 
ture of that Treaty, where he assumed, in conjunction 
with Count Nesselrode, the functions of Secretary of State 
for the Foreign Department. The distracted state of 
public affairs in the infant government of independent 
Creeoe, in 1826, demanded the presence of a man of ener- 
getic mind, well acquainted with that country and the char 
racter of its inhabitants, accustomed to direct the engines 
of public authority, and familiar with those forms of gene- 
ral administration which are best suited to the capacity of 
infant States, and more in unison wi{h the interests and 
existing institutions of tlie nations most likely to hold in- 
tercourse with Greece. The representatives of that coun- 
try looked on Count Capo d'^lstrias as the only individual 
who united 4n himself all those important qualifications, 
added to an ardent affection for the land that gave him 
birth. On him, therefore, the unanimous choice of his 
fellow-citizens fell ; and he was proclaimed President of 
the Executive Government by the Greek National Assem- 
bly in the Spring of 1827* The letter in which the Count 
expresses his ^ntunents at this flattering mark of the high 
opinion of the Greek nation, is a document tc j full of in- 
terest, and too creditable to the writer, to be omitted in the 
present brief sketch of an individual, on whom the eyes of 
Europe are turned at this moment. My readers, there- 
fore, win pardon my inserting it in this place. 

VOL. I. c 



18 


COUNT CAPO D'lSTRIAH. 


london, Attgust 26. 

*‘At the moment of quitting the Russian capital, 1 have received, 
through my brother, the messages which your Excellency did me die 
honour to address to mci conjoindy with tlie Re})iesentatives of the 
Nation, to communicate to me two decrees, one of which places me at 
tile head of the Greek Government, and the other invests me witli 
power to negotiate a loan. Ever since the month of May, and since 
my arrival at St. Petersburgh, the public prints and private letters made 
me acquainted with the proof of confidence, so flattering and so solemn, 
which the Greek nation has just given in my favour. 1 will not exjiress 
to your Excellency and your noble colleagues, either the sentiments which 
die decrees now before me inspire, or the prayers which I offer to the Al- 
mighty that he may bestow upon you, gentlemen, and upon me, strength 
to obtain the object of the long and bloody sacrifices to which the Gnw'k 
people have submitted, and to which it still submits, in the hope of a fiii.il 
restoration. Tor the present, I sliall confine myself to giving yon an ac- 
count, in a few words, of what I have succeeded in doing up to this time, 
and in giving you the assurance of my entifOKlevotion to the cause for the 
future. 

" On hearing of the catastrophe of Athens, of the pecuniary embarrass- 
ment of the Provisional Greek Government, and of the sad necessity 
which forced it to contract a loan in the Ionian Islands, which could only 
have sufficed for a few days, T sent to my brother, a.s my only answer, die 
remnant of my moderate fortune. 1 instructed him to take a portion of" 
that loan, if it had been negotiated, or to deposit in the liands of the Pro- 
visional Goveniniciit die sum of 2000/. sterling, which I have placed at 
his disposal. At the same time I proceeded to call on llic Gi-ceks who 
possessed wealth in foreign lands, to follow this example, and to affonl 
you some assistance. These mea.sures have had some success, and ihv. 
Provisional Government, in consequence, is in a condition to meet its 
most urgent wants, for the moment; I say for the moment, for 1 flatter 
myself that, by die aid of (Jod and your wisdom, the Greek nation will 
shoidy receive more iinjxirtant succour. 

** In the present state of things, this assistance, in order to be effective, 
ouglit to have a double object. It ought to draw Greece from its fatal 
isolation, and put it in contact with the great European powem. It ouglit 
to procure fur it the means of existence agad of defending itself, till its Go- 
vernment can introduce something like order into die external concerns of 
die nation, and put it in a situation to provide for itself. It is with 
those two great interests that I am now exclusively occupied, and widi 
which I will still occupy myself when, on my way to you, I pass through 
Paris. Should Heaven continue to bless my efforts as it has blessed them 



COUNT OAPO D'ISTRIAS. 


19 


up to this day, 1 dare indulge the hope, that it will be merit to offer you 
some consolation, and diat the Greek nation will not refuse to me tlio 
powers which I ask, to regulate, in tlie legal exercise of tlie honourable 
functions which it offers me, all tlie necessary arrangements with the Courts 
which interest themselves in its behalf. 

1 will not lose a moment, for time presses from day to day, to decide 
for Greece the question of life or death. Doubtless the event is in the 
hands of God ; but let us not dissemble, that much depends on you, gen- 
tlemen, to render it propitious. Be assured such it will prove, if, faithful 
to the immutable principles of our holy religion, you labour unanimously, 
:ui<l with good faith, for our common safety ; some in carrying arms, not 
only with devotion and courage, but widi a perfect subordination to the 
orders of your chiefs ; others in administering the affairs of the country, 
for tlie country, and not for or against particulivr individuals or particular 
intei'ests. 

“ I pause here j and I resign, gentlemen, to your wisdom and your pa- 
triotism, the cam of weighing the immense responsibility which falls ou 
your heads. 1 shall have thq honour to share it with you ; but 1 hesitate 
not to repeat liere, that I caimo! share it with you, till after you shall have 
heard me, and that I myself shall have obtained from you all the confi- 
dence which 1 wish to inspire. 

“ Receive, &c. 

(Signed) ‘‘ Cavo D’Istrias.” 

However warmly the Count might have felt for the 
cause of Greece, the steps mentioned in his letter could 
not be. taken without the full consent of that Sovereign, 
wht), like his predecessor, had placed full confidence in the 
personal services of the Count, and had committed great 
trusts to his keeping. Count Capo d’Istrias, therefore, 
lost not a moment in laying at his Majesty’s feet the reau 
sons which compelled him to resign the honourable and 
flattering distinction of which he htKl so long been in the en- 
joyment in Russia; and the Imperial Rescript by whicli 
that resignation was accepted, must have been as gratifying 
to the retiring minister, who, to serve his native country, 
voluntarily abandoned all that can flatter a becoming am- 
bition ; as it is highly creditable to the Sovereign by whom 
it was dictated. 



20 


OSTBND. 


IJk\sb to the Senate. 

In conformity with the wish which has been expressed 
to me by our Privy Counsellor, Count Capo d'lstrias, we 
have consented to give him his full and entire discharge 
from our service. It is agreeable to us, on this occasion, 
to testify to him our entire gratitude for the enlightened 
sseal with which he discharged his functions ; for his de. 
votedness to the interest and glory of Russia; and for 
his attachment to our beloved brother, the late Emperor 
Alexander, of glorious memory, whose confidence he always 
fully justified. We take pleasure in assuring him of our 
invariable regard. 

Signed by His Imperial Majesty’s own hand, 

Nicolas.” 

Tzarkoselo, July 13, 1827- 

# 

It is generally known at this moment, that the Count 
has assumed the reins of the Greek Government, with 
the mutual consent of the several Courts of Europe most 
interested in the question ; having proceeded to his desti- 
nation escorted by jfome of Uieir vessels of war, and been 
regularly installed into his high office of President of the 
Hellenic Republic, to whose coffers he made a gift of one 
hundred and twenty-five thousand francs, the best part of 
his personal fortune. 

Ostend, entered on the land side, presents but a mean 
appearance, with the exception of the fortifications, which 
arc in excellent order, and completed since my former 
visit. A few of the streets are sufficiently wide, and 
here and there a church or a public building calls for more 
particular observation. The generality of houses, how- 
ever, have nothing in their exterior to attract attention, 
were it not for that symbol of curiosity, the reflecting- 
mirror, a double arrangement of which is seen fixed on 
the outside of each house, to one or more windows of the 
ground and principal stories, and in some instances to 



U8TBND. 


every window. This practice, intended for the purpose 
of espying and ascertaining the movements and faces of 
all those who pass before the house, without the trouble 
of locomotion, is uniformly prevalent in all the Flemish 
and Dutch towns ; and the traveller is first forcibly struck 
with it at Ostend, the entrance gate, as it were, of Flan- 
ders. The origin of this singular custom may, perhaps, 
be looked for in the times when these fertile countries were 
under the sway of the Spaniards, with whom that M(K)rish 
jealousy of husbands and fathers ever travelled, which 
kept the fdr sex not only within doors, but within window- 
! blinds. 

Far more imposing is the aspect of this small borough, 
if you sail before the wind into its capacious harbour, 
the surrounding piers^of which, formed of huge piles and 
cross-beams of heavy fimber, receive the packet in still 
water. The Commercial and Town-houses— -the oi}ening 
of the great canal — the vistas of one or two of the prin- 
cipal streets beyond the square— the lofty nairow tower 
. with its beacon-light — and the old and new forts, made 
bomb-proof and rendered ti^egnablc, one of which bears 
the name of the great General under whose superintend- 
ence it has been erected— form, collectively, a landscape 
worthy of the pencil of Ruysdael.* 

Although I had visited Ostend on two former occasions, 
and examined, then, its churches and public buildings, I 
could not resist the temptation of a. most lovely morning, 
to sally forth and survey the port and the recent improve^ 
ments and additions ; from all of which, I concluded that 
the present government is favourable to the interests of 
the inhabitants. But perhaps much of the comparative 
comforts of the people are due to the presence of a consi- 

• Or Vandevclde, as a reviewer in "The Quarterly*' will have it ; he pro- 
hahly never having seen any of the exquisite marine views by tlie former 
mster, who employed Vandevelde to paint the figures upon them. 



OSTBMD OYSTERS. 


derablc number of strangers^ ^ chiefly, if not altogether, 
English, who are settled here from motives of economy, or 
on business. 

The little spare time which remained before we took our 
departure from this place, 1 divided equally in visiting a 
most interesting patient, a connexion of the English Consul, 
for whom my professional services had been desired ; and 
in viewing the spot on which the tremendous explosion of 
the powder-magazine took place, on the 19th of Sep- 
tember 1826, from the eff(%t of which the town, and its 
inhabitants, suflered materially. The magazine was si- 
tuated between the two new barracks, and these, by the 
explosion, were nearly rased to the ground. It contained, 
at the moment of the accident, upwards of sixty thousand 
pounds of gunpowder. Several lives were lost, and a great 
number of persons dreadfully mangled or wounded, even 
at a distance from the spot where the fatal event happened. 
A barge coming from Bruges, which was at some dis- 
tance from Ostend, at the time of the explosion, was 
actually lifted out of the water ; when the bargeman, per- 
fectly terrified, plunged into ike canal, and saved himself. 
The amount of losses, from the damage caused to the 
houses and furniture by the explosion, is said to be nearly 
150,000 florins ; and it is by a miraculous intervention of 
Providence, that the whole of the military garrison of 
Ostend did not perish on the occasion, as the eighteen hun- 
dred men, of which it consists, are daily reviewed and 
exercised, opposite the magazine, at the very hour at which 
the dreadful explosion took place. The prevalence of 
fever in the town had, very fortunately, occasioned the 
removal of the troops for a time, and the discontinuance 
of the daily parade. 

Ostend enjoys great reputation with the Parisian gowr- 
for supplying those exquisite oysters, which form the 
glory of the Rochcr dc Cancale, and which arc presented to 
the guests at the table of the great, tntre potage ei houilU^ 



BBU6B8. 


under the name of “ huitres vertes d'Ostende.’’ 1 sup. 
pose, that if it were more generally known, that the said 
green oysters are, in fact, Colchester oysters, which have 
only gone through a short education at Ostend, the 
admiration for them in the French capital would sen- 
sibly diminish ; yet such is, in reality, the case. 

(3n quitting Ostend, 1 could not help being struck with 
the beauty and perfect symmetry of the fortifications at the 
Bruges Gate, — ^the magnificent locks, and other parts of 
the great canal, as we crossed over it ; forming part of the 
military works executed by order, and under the super- 
intendence of the Duke of Wellington, agreeably to the 
conditions of an express treaty. These works were done 
by contract, and many of them undertaken by Dutch 
builders and engineers, who, it is said, have not been very 
particular in the chdioe of their materials, or about the 
solidity of their structure; and it is feared, that notwith- 
standing the favourable appearance of their exterior, and 
the striking effect of the latter, many parts will soon give 
way, in spite of the great vigilance of the Duke's Aide-de- 
camp, Colonel Jones, wh^bas had the management of 
the whole. 

At Bruges we found an excellent entertauunent at the 
Fleur de Bli, which is the best inn since the suppression 
of the Hotel de la Poste. The accommodations are of the 
very best description ; and the house large, cheerful, and 
in perfect order. We were much struck with the superior 
manners of our hostess, a smart, piquantef well-dressed 
person, who does the honours of her establishment in good 
style. To persons of very moderate fortunes, who dislike 
not a quiet and monotonous, life, or the getting up with 
the lark, and the going to bed with the evening-star, Bruges 
offers, as a residence, many advantages. There are plenty 
of provisions and cheap. The shops ore well supplied ; lod- 
gings are reasonable; the people tracteble; and the only 
drawback is the want of go^ water, for a supply of which 



24 


CHURCH OF Hd'PBR DAME. 


ttie town depends on Ghent and the Scheldt The streets 
and the markets are spacious, and there is, at the extremity 
of the principalcanal,a verycapadousand deep basin, orport, 
which is generally pretty crowded with barges and galliots 
of heavy burthen ; Brugee being the point of union between 
the canals of Ostend and Ghent. The belfry, rising from the 
centre of the large building in which the cloth fair is held, 
is worthy of notice for its gothic structure and elevation ; 
as well as for its chime of beds, edebrated all over Flanders. 

the situatiem of the town, in the midst of a vast plain, 
cultivated for tlie greater part as grass fields, which come 
close under the walls and ramparts of the town, over which 
is a public walk, I fear that Bruges cannot be looked upon 
as a very healthy place. Yet I heard no complaints from 
any of the many English families who reside here, and who 
find great advantages in being able to educate their children 
at a small expense. The town offers to the literary cha^ 
racier and the lover of the fine arts, a sufficient number of 
public and private libraries and reading-rooms, and a very 
respectableacademy of painting, with a collection of pictures 
of merit. Among the churches, some of which are large, 
that of Notre Dame calls for special notice, on account of 
some valuable paintings which it contains ; the remarkable 
structure of the pulpit ; and the chapel of the Golden Fleece, 
in which are shown the two superb monuments of bronze and 
silver gilt, erected to the memory of Charles the Bold and 
his daughter Mary, the whole-length effigies of whom, of 
rich material, rest on the monument. This chapel is closed 
in by an iron railing, nor is it open without an offering to 
the poor in the shape of a couple of francs, put into the 
bands of the sacristan, who riiows and explains the monu- 
ments, after removing the wooden case by which they are 
protected. But the monuments readily explain their own 
purport by the endless variety of armorial escutcheons 
graven on them., with inscriptions in German and Datin 
characters. The Dukes of Burgundy, whose fame oc- 



SUNDAY CTATBGHISM. 


25 


cupied such a large space in the histerj of Europe as it was 
emerging from barbarism^ and whose dominions were com- 
prehended within such narrow confines^ were wont to dis- 
play^ on all occasions, the blazoned eagles, the rampant 
lions, and the lilies, with all the bars, vizors, and chevrons, 
that the minutest molecule of noble blood, brought into the 
family by distant intermarriages, gave them a claim to. 
How different from those mighty sovereigns who rule over 
fifty millions of people, and of whom 1 shall have to speak 
hereafter, whose remains repose uiider a simple unsculp- 
tured stone, inscribed with a single eloquent initial ! Of 
Bruges, history farther tells us, that in it the far-famed 
order of the ^Iden Fleece was founded, in 14130, by 
Philip-le-bon, Duke of Burgundy, father of Charles the 
Bold. 

While in the church Of N6tre Dame, we could not help 
stopping before a number of young children, of both sexes, 
arranged on benches placed, in the shape of a long pa- 
rallelogram, at the lower end of the nave. They were 
neatly dressed, but evidently of different classes of society, 
some being much finer than others. These little innocents, 
a few of whom were scarcely old enough to keep themselves 
steady on their seats, were thus assembled, at two o'clock 
on a Sunday afternoon, to hear the exposition of the church 
catci'hism from a young, smooth-faced, good-looking priest, 
in a white surplice, and with a cap of black velvet, resembling 
in shape a sugar-loaf, and terminating in a gay tassel of the 
same colour. Walking to and fro, and halting first before 
one, and then before another of the benches, he addressed 
his audience with all the ease and nonchalance oidSi instruc- 
tor who is on a familiar footing with fiis pupils; accom- 
panying his loud expressions with incessant gesticulation, 
and perpetually amilfog at the appearance of surprise which 
he observed depicted on the vacant countenances of the little 
ones, as he proceeded to explain to them the doctrine of 
the commandments. ' He ai^etsed his audience in the 



26 


PASSAQB-JBOAT TO 6HBKT. 


vulgar dialect of the country ; but 1 fancied I could, now 
and anon, hear a Latin quotaticm from the Psalma, parti- 
cularly when on the subject of penitence and abstinence; 
of either of which virtues he did not seem to offer in his own 
person a very bright or striking example. These domi- 
nical meetings of children and grown-up people, (for the 
same opportunity is afforded to the latter at another hour 
of the day,) must be productive pf much good, where the 
reverend teacher confines himself to a plain exposition of 
the laws of morality, which naturally flow from religion. 
But they cannot lead to good results when the mysteries of 
that religion, which require a becoming elevation of lan- 
guage to describe, and a superior capacity of the mind to 
comprehend, are attempted to be explained in a familiar 
tone, bordering almost on vulgarity. 1 have had occasion 
to witness the latter practice, on more than one occasion, in 
Homan Catholic churches. 

It was our intention to proceed to Ghent by the canal, 
which is both a better and a more agreeable mode of con- 
veyance in the summer, than the carriage, for those who 
are not much pressted for time: but the barge leaves 
Bruges at so early an hour jn the morning, that this idea 
was abandoned. The canal passes through a very fertile 
country, and at some distance on the right from th0 pest- 
road, until within about two English miles of Ghent, where 
the road crosses the canal, and continues parallel to it as 
far as the town. The passage-boat is very clean; the 
state-cabin neatly fitted up, and spacious : and the table 
(Vhbte well supplied, for the sum of five francs each per- 
son, including the passage-money. In this manner I went 
from Bruges to Ghent, in August I819« with a large party 
of ladies, all of whom were delighted with the trip. The 
boat started at five o'clock m the morning, and arrived 
early in the afternoon along the great quay at GQient. 

On entering Ghent late in the evening, we observed that 
the principal streets and squares were lighted with gas, 



GHBNT. 


27 


which gave a striking appearance to the Grande Place 
d'Armes, in which is situstt^ the H6tel de la Poste, where 
we stopped* This hotel has, perhaps, some of the finest 
and most superbly-fumishcd apartments to be found in any 
Hotel in Europe, with an imposing/apade, and a grand stone 
balcony running along it. It is, in fact, a real pa/azro. Un- 
luckily, neither the attendance, nor the other accessories of 
an inn, are equally good. The truth is, that so extensive 
can establishment cannot well subsist, in a place like this, 
with mere chance and transitory visitors ; the inhabitants 
not being in circumstances to support it. The conse- 
quence of this is, that the proprietor has been gradually 
falling into difficulties. It is but justice to observe, that 
the cximm is excellent. 

Ghent occupies a great extent of ground, and was 
formerly regularly fortified. The Scheldt and the Lys, 
branching off in all ways, not only surround, but inter- 
sect it in all directions. It is to be presumed that narrow, 
intricate, and crooked streets, were fashionable in the 
seventh century ; about which time the chronicles say that 
this ancient capital of Flanders was b^lt. It is impossible 
for those of Ghent to be more strictly consonant with that 
character, to the great danger both of pedestrians and 
others. The public walks, on the outskirts of the town, 
regularly planted with trees, and running by the side of 
the river and canals, are a striking exception. Many of 
these are of recent date. About the middle of one of 
them, on the north-east side of the town, and on the 
Coupure canal, which has a double row of large trees, 
stands a remarkable building, known under the name of the 
Central House of Correction. 

This establishment calls, in a sp^al manner, for the 
attention of the traveller. 1 examined it most minutely in 
1819, accompanied by the governor; since which time 
inany additions have been made to it; and two Latin in- 
scriptions have been placed on the right angle of the build- 




The Peiiitentiary, or Central House of Correction, at Ghent. 

The Mditig is in'thte' form of a perfect dctagon, in the 
centre of which is a spacious court, communicating with 
the different quadrangles of the ditablishment: each of 
these quadrangles has a yard ; and in the centre of that of 
the female quadrangle, or ward, there is a large* basm fuB 
of water, in which Ute female prisMm 'the linen of 
all the rest. Each prisoner sleepif-flone in a sniaO cell, a 
numbet of nrhich ail ranged atonjl' a wide and it^^lighted 
corridor. These cdls are kept Very dean, and are i*gn- 
larly aii^ every ^y, as the priikiers quit them etely in 



OR CRNTRAL HOUSE OF CORRECTION 


the morning not to return till night. There are a certain 
number of ateliers^ or workshops, which are occupiinl the 
whole day by the prisoners, except on Sundays and during 
the hours of recreation ; on which occasions, the prisoners 
arc expected to walk in the yards of their respective wards. 
Spinning, weaving, wool-carding, shoe and stocking making 
by machinery, and other branches of industry, equally use- 
ful, arc the principal occupations to which all the prisoners 
are expected to apply themselves daily. To the refractory 
and the unwilling, solitary confinement in dark cells on the 
gnmnd-floor is assigned, agreeably to the rules of the 
house. This species of punishment has been found to have 
the happiest effect. The articles manufactured by the pri- 
soners are generally intended for the army, the navy, and 
the colonies, or for the general service of the prisoners in 
the kingdom ; and the price of the labour, which is fixed 
according to a printed scale, is paid to them by the Trea- 
sury. Of the total sum. Government retains five-tenths in 
respect to prisoners condemned to what is called correctional 
punishment; six-tenths in respect to those condemned, d la 
* "^reclusion, or imprisoned under rawtial law; and seven- 
tenths in regard to those sentenced to the travaux forces. 
The remainder is divided into two equal parts; one of 
which is allowed to the prisoners weekly for their ]fK)cket- 
money (zag~geld), and the other goes to form a fund, 
which is delivered to the prisoners on their being dis- 
charged, in Older that they may have the means of settling 
themselves, once more, and respectably in the world. 

Religious service is performed daily, at wliich all the 
prisoners attend. For this purpose, a church is erected 
in one of the wards. Instructions in reading, writing 
and arithmetic, as well as on sul^^ts of religion and 
morality, are given to the prisoners of both sexes by an 
hstituteur and Imtitutrice^ Tl^ Canteens, at which the 
prisoners are allowed to buy refreshments under strict 
regulations, are kept by the officers of the establishment ; 



THE PENITENTIARY. 


and the profit arising therefrom is reserved for rewards to 
the industrious and the intelligent. The number of the 
prisoners, at the time of my visiting the establishment 
some years ago, was 1300, eleven hundred of whom were 
constantly employed in the different manufactories, or in 
the duties of the prison. The different wards serve to keep 
separate the prisoners guilty of heinous offences, from those 
who arc committed ibr misdemeanours only. The women, 
the children, and those advanced in years, have likewise 
distinct quarters. For a great number of years, this 
establishment cost annually to Government 50,000 florins; 
but by the present arrangement that expense has been saved. 
That portion of the building which is just completed, has 
cost the sum of 438,247 florins (about 41,000/. sterling.) 
There is one great objection to this universal system of 
prison discipline, which has been obviated, I believe, in 
the Penitentiary at Milbank (an establishment mani- 
firstly in imitation of that at Ghent, though infinitely 
superior in regard to cleanliness and intemfd arrange- 
ment), by a judicious selection of prisoners. The objec- 
tion in question is, , that the system has been equally 
applied as a. punishment for the most atrocious crimes, as 
well os for the most venial offences. Thus, at the time 
of my visit, there were in the prison no fewer than eleven 
. persons convicted of cutting and maiming, manslaughter 
or murder;- twelve or fifteen who had been guilty of 
rape, and three of arson, with a large number of persons 
committed for swindling and begging in the streets or raga- 
bondage. Although these several classes ore k^t sepa- 
rate, and so far the plan is worthy of imitation in all 
prisons ; the knowledge eff the fact lliat the same system 
of coercion and punishment is adopted for tlie graver crimes, 
as well as for those of a lighter cost^ easily reconciles those 
guiky of the former ta : their iriminal habits, and renders 
the smaller delinquents more indifferent to proceed farther 
in the career of iniquity. Besides which, there is in such 



THB FIRST OIL-PAINTINGS. 


31 


a system a pritm fade act of injustice. Probably some 
alteration has taken place in it since, at which the friends 
of prison discipline would not fail to rejoice. 

The Cathedral of St. Bavon, of which the Gnniok arc 
justly proud, has the same defect which many other cathe- 
drals have, that of being erected without an open s))ace, 
or area, around and in front of it. This is, without 
doubt, one of the handsomest Gothic buildings in the 
Netherlands. It is divided into three aisles, by a double 
range of columns, of alight elegant form. Twelve chapels 
arc disposed on each side ; and these, as well as the choir, 
are in good keeping with the rest. In the choir are the stand- 
ards of the several Knights of the Golden Fleece, who 
assisted at the Chapters of the Order, held in this church, 
in the 15th and 16th centuries. The choir, with its two late- 
ral aisles, raised by a flight of steps above the floor of the 
body of the church, and with the principal altar in front, 
surmounted by Corinthian columns of the whitest marble, 
with the statue of the Saint in his ducal robes, and two 
colossal statues by Van Poucke, of the A|)ostles Peter and 
’ Paul, likewise of fine Carrara marble^ present a very impos- 
ing coup d'ail I'he stalls of the Canons in the choir arc 
excellent specimens of curving in mahogany, and are said to 
be the finest of the kind. They cost 46,000 florins. There 
arc four great candelabra, of an antique and classic form, 
whicli the verger assured us came from the old Church of 
St. Paul in London, and were supposed to have belonged 
to Charles the First. 

The pictures of merit in the Cathedral of St. Bavoh are 
numerous: but those of the brothers Hubert and John 
Van Eyck, the first and successful promoters, if not the 
inventors of oil-painting, placed iti the tenth chapel, are 
jastly considered as the most precious productions of the 
Flemish school^ and the most remarkable of their kind 
in Europe. Th^ consist of one large^ and thi*ee smaller 
paintings, in the highest state of preservation. The 



32 THE BBliPky. 

subject of the first, is the blessed l^b, surrounded 
by Angels and Saints, besides a great number of figures 
on the foreground, many of which are portraits, and 
two of them are said to represent the two brothers. The 
other three pictures represent our Saviour, holding a 
sceptre of crystal in one hand, the transparency of which 
is most wonderfully imitated, — ^the Vir^n Mary seated 
on a throne,-^and St. John the Baptist. These four pic- 
tures had each folding doors, or pannels likevi^ painted 
in the most masterly style, by the brothers Van Eyck. 
Six of these pannels, after passing through many hands, 
have at last found their way into the cabinet of, the King 
of Prussia} Wbo ii^eeid to have paid four }|i^]rcd>|M 
eleven thousand for them.^ The p^ures 

selvcs had beeu cgSsd away by the French 
Revolutiosvury wear, aud placed in the 
they retu^ed: to Obebt in 1815. There 
pictures by George de Grayer, which are 
The object, however, which attracts most notice in the 
interior of the church, seems to be the pulpit, placed on 
the right side, and about the middle of the nave. It 
is from the hands of Laurence Delvaux, a native of 
Ghent. It is worked in marble and oak, and consists 
principally of a group of two figures, representing* Time 
and Truth. The steeple is not the least remarkalde part 
of this grand building. It is two hundred and seventy- 
one feet high, and terminates in a platform, to get to 
which it is necessary to mount four hundred and forty-six 
steps; but we were amply repaid for this trouble^ by the 
magnificent panorama presented to our view* from that 
elevated situation. , 

The people of Ghent boast «mudi of their belfry. It is 
very lofty, and remarkable. f<w being ten feet widi» at the 
top than at its basis. It is of a square form, and had a 
chime of twenty-eight beUs, wdghing collectivdyr above. 
63,777 pounds, which {dayed different tunes every hour, 



THE BRLPRY. 


3 » 

half houf, and quarter. The French carried them away. 
The two woo(d--cut8, here introduced, represent this tower 
as well as the cathedral. 



The Bclfiy. Church of St. Bavon. 

•• "’The only other great public building I visited at Ghent, 
was the palace of the New University, which, for chaste 
design, combined witii a rich and imposing style, yields 
the pahn to few modern buildings, and is superior to any 
building erected for the same purpose. The front is com- 
]K)sed of eight Corintliian columns of proportions similar 
to tliose of the Fantheon at Rome. The capitals, in 
particular, are most beautiful and correct copies of those of 
the temple of Antoninus and Faustina. A bas relief now in 
progress in the studio of Mons. de Calloigne, is intended to 
be placed in the pediment. It represents Minerva endow- 
ing the town of Ghent with an University, and delivering 
up tlie academical /ivsees. Round the goddess are grouped 
the different Factilties with their attributes. The Rivers 
Lys and Silcheldt occupy the angles of the pediment, and 
on the frieze is the following inscription : ' 

VOL. I. D 



34 


THE NEW DNIVERSITY. 


AUSPICE . GULIELMO.I. ACAl). CONDITORE 
POSUIT . S.P.Q.G. M.D.CCC.XXV1. 



>r ( 

I'ront of the Palace of the New L iiiversity . 

The principal entrance is throuj^h a large gate, with 
folding doors, worked in bronze, under the ]iortic(t, lead- 
ing to a magnificent vestibule, surrounded by a double 
gallervj and built in the style of the ancient Therma-. 
The apj)earance of this first part of tlio building recalls 
to mind the beautiful vestibules of the palaces at Rome 
and Florence, and the pavimentum stiperbum of Horace. 
The vestibule receives light from two semicircular win- 
dow's, measuring thirty-four feet, placed in the circum- 
ference of the vaultetl ceiling, which is supported by four 
columns, and eight pilasters of the (/orinthian order. This 
vestibule will be adorned with the busts of such of the 
Belgian princes as have been distinguished for the pro- 
tection they granted to science and literature, from the 
time of (vharlemagne down to the present day. The prin- 




THK NRW UKIVKRSITY. 


35 


cifial and grand staircase, each step of a single block of 
wliite marble twenty feet long, is placed facing the en- 
trance. At the first landing it branches into two o})p()site 
flights, Icailing to the principal doors of the Hall of Aca- 
demic Promotions, or Senate House. The centre of the 
floor of tlic landing-place represents a very large rose, 
executed in mosaic. 

Galleries run along the side and front part of the 
staircase, ornamented by six Doric columns, supporting 
a vaulted ceiling, with a central cupola, terminating in 
a lanteni, adorned with the signs of the Zwliac. In tlie 
angles of the ceiling, there are figures of Fame distri- 
buting crowns. In eacli space between the triglyphs of 
the frieze, medallions of the lieiuls of distinguished snvems 
have been placed, executed in wliite marble. Inhere arc two 
side-doors, and one in the centre of the gallery, at the to[) 
of the grand staircases, each of which is composed of two 
handsomely carved caryatides of white marble, supporting 
ii rich entablature, crowned with well-executed busts of 
^jM-inerva, Apollo, and Themis. 

'I ’lie Hall of Promotion, as it is caHed, (the Hotuiidttj) 
is ex(|uisitely beautiful, of a circular foim, and arranged as 
an a^nphithcatre, terminating in a raisixl jdatforin, on which 
are the seats for the Sena Ins AcademkuSi and tribunes for 
the candidates. Above this platform and all round the 
hall, runs an open gjdlery with eighteen Corinthian columns, 
and tw'enty-four flutecl pihisters placed on a handsome 
styhibate. These columns supjiort an ample cupola, which 
is richly ornamented with octagonal and other compartments 
in till* form of lozenges in relief, containing bold ami w'cll- 
Gwcuted fie urons within them. The cupola is surmounted 
hy a lantern. 

Above the tribunes of the candidates, within a kind of 
sacelliim, hung with the richest crimson velvet, is placed a 
statute of the King, the founder of the University. The 
saccllum is surmounted by the niyal arras ; whilst those of 



36 


THK NRW UNIVERSITY. 


the University ore placed on the left, and thme nf the City 
on the right. In the ymnnels between the pedesUds of the 
columns; there are twelve medallions of celebrated charac- 
ters, all natives of the Netherlands ; such as Erasmus, 
Yesalius, Van Helmont, Grotius, Boerhaave, &c. 

This rotunda is entirely of white Scagliola ; the gallery 
is accessible through eight folding doors of solid mahogany, 
and of superior workmanship and large proportions, em- 
bellished with ornaments, which, like the balustrades of 
the tribunes, and those between the columns, are of bronze 
gilt. Some of these doors are made to open on the prin> 
ciple of what are called sympathetic hinges. The benches 
for the senators and distinguished visitors have the form of 
antique couches, and these, as well, as tlie furniture of the 
whole gallery^ are covered with crimson stuff. 

The four distinct divisions of this magnificent edifice, so 
imposing from the unusually gigantic dimensions of the 
parts, namely, the Peristyle, the Vestibule, the great Stair- 
case, and the Rotunda, form the most striking ememble 
that the eye can compass at one view, among the finc.st^ 
btlldings of modcriiF days, in this or any other country. 
It is by far the handsomest architectural monument conse- 
crated to the arts and sciences now existing in Europe. 

The University was founded by the present King, in 
September 1816, and was inaugurated in October the fol- 
lowing year, in the presence of the Prince of Orange, at 
the Hotel de Ville, The first stone was laid in the month 
of August 1819- This institution is governed by a presi- 
dent and a college of curators, ^he Count de Lens, who 
is governor of the province, was president last year. The 
curators are the Prince de Gavre, and Messrs. Van Toers 
and Van Grombrugghe. There are • nineteen professom 
and a secretary-inspector, Mona Comelissen. AHbougb 
quite in its infant state, the University has already l}een 
productive of much good to the town, and, vis :w;el£>fie-. 
quented. The number of students ammi^twv 



THB MKDICAL PROFESSION AT GHENT. 37 

more than five hundred. There are twenty-nine gratuitous 
presentations of two hundred florins each, founded by 
Government'; and the town has imitated this example by 
establishing similar presentations. I'he different collec- 
tions of natural history-^particularly those of Zoology and 
Mineralogy, are worthy of so splendid an establishment. 
The former is one hundred and twenty feet wide, with a 
double range of very handsome cases, containing tiie spc- 
cimens^ kept in excellent order and well-arranged. The 
latter is one hundred and thirty feet in length, is lighted 
from the top, and contains already upwards of seven thou- 
sand specimens of minerals, the arrangement of which is 
also beautiful. Another gallery, in every respect similar to 
that of Zoology, contipns the instruments and apparatus 
for the lectures on natural philosophy and mechanics. 
There is, likewise, a respectable collection of Comparative 
Anatomy, and a cabinet of medals, together with a library 
intended for the use of the s^dents. This library, since 
the addition of the Ijooksrof Mons. Xommens, which the 
King purchased for 30,000 florins, and afterwards presented 
to the University, ambunts to upwartls (if 60,000 voluiies. 
Mons. L. himself has been appointed librarian, and public 
o()iniqn speaks highly of his erudition. 

The original formation of this very pmmising establish- 
ment,— ^the manner in which the professors were elected, 
— the sseal and judgment disfdayed infonning the Mu- 
seums, ^nay the building itself, with its internal arrange- 
ment, decoration', and imposing grandeur of the dilFerent 
htdls destined for the performance of the public acts; 
as weU as the distribution of studies, and the regular- 
tkri of the whole, ! would humbly but strongly recom- 
mend to the serioua consideration of the rulers of the 
intended London University. 

The provision thus made at Ghent for the education, of 
a large number of* medical iflen, will jirobably, have the 
pnrriding the 'good people of: that dty with more, 



3B 


BOTANICAL GARDBN. 


if not with lietter medical asBistance. At presenty in a 
]K)pulation amounting to about sixty thousand inhabitants, 
there are practising, by authority, and in a regular man- 
ner, only twenty physicians, eleven surgeons, five ac- 
coucheurs, one dentist, and thirty pharmneiem. In iill 
the princifjal towns of the province*, there is a Cmtmn- 
mm Saiiitaire, of which th*e principal physicians, surgeons, 
and apotiiecaries of the district are members. They act 
under the sanction and authority of the governor in all 
matters concerning the public health and the exercise of 
tlie mwlic'al ])rofession, with certain powers, and serve 
gratuitously. 

There is at Glieiit an excellent llotanic Garden, and a 
Botanic Society. I'he former was founded in 1797» under 
the Ke])ub]ican Government of France, out of the gardens 
and orchard of tlie sup|)J*essed Coifvtuit of Bandeloo. It 
then took the name of the Ecoie ties riftntes, A fourtli 
part at least of the ground, as at present laid out, is 
planted with pereuniid herbacec»us plants, arranged ac- 
cording to the Linnean system, and is emphatically called ^ 
VMcole. In the back-ground of this rte/e, as if to cast 
over it the influence of his elligy, stiinds the bust of the 
illustrious Swede, ])laced on a monument, and shadeii over 
by the grac.efiilly falling streams of a weeping willow, be- 
hind which rise a iiumlxT of lofty Lombardy poplars. 
In the other divisions of the garden, there are an ever- 
green or winter grove —a rosary — ^a large basin for aquatic 
plants, sup()lied with water from tlie Kiver Lys — the 
hot-houses, and an Arboretum fructiferum. The whole 
establishment is deserving of commendation, — is rich 
in plants, of which there ore 1,2()0 genera, and ^,600 
species — and is well conducted. The charming vistas, and 
deliglitful walks, to be found in difterent parts of the garden, 
with the rich foliage of the slirubberies, and a number of 
statues after the antique^ with the busts of the most oeb^ 
brated botanists of the kingdom^ give it more the appear* 



FESTIVALS OP FLORA. 


39 


ance of a private pleasure-ground, tastefully laid out, than 
of a public establishment, intended for scholastic ediicji- 
tion. When I had the pleasure of walking over every 
part of this garden with M. Mussche, the head-gardener, 
in the summer of 1819, that gentleman was proposing a 
great number of improvements, most of whieli have been 
since carriecl into effect, as I find on inquiry on the present 
occasion. M. Mussche has published a welt-arranged 
anti systematic catalogue of the plants to be found in the 
garden ; which is not only valuable in itself, but of great 
assistance to those who visit the establishment with a view 
of studying its contents. 1 found him full of general in- 
formation connected with his favourite science, ready to 
answer all my (luestions, and possessing those ])owers of 
conversation, which give pleasure at the same time that 
they convey instructioif. 

A public exhibition of the finest and rarest plants, in 
full bloom, takes place twice every year in Ghent, under 
the auspices of the Royal Botanical and Horticultural 
Society. The first of these is on the 6th of February, 
the second on the 29th of June. » These meetings are 
styled the Festivals of Flora, or the Salon (Tlliver^ and 
the Salon tVEtL Amateurs, as well as gardeners, send 
the rarest and most novel plants, as the re})resentativcs 
of their gardens and parterres. The reunions^ to w'hich 
these exhibitions give rise, are most splendid. National, 
as well as foreign amateurs, on such occasions flock to 
(Rient, the Viile privilegiee de Florey as it has been called, 
and from distant parts, to witness a display of the gay- 
est and richest productions of Flora, not only the most 
beautiful of the kind, but perfectly unique, in Europe. 
The festivals generally last three days, and are counte- 
nanced by the presence of the highest public authorities. 
At the conclusion of the period, a reward, medal, or other 
token of approbation, is bestowed on the plant which has 
been judg^ to be the finest, or the most rare: and the 



40 


WORKS OF FLEMISH ARTISTS. 


names of all such plants, with those of the ownei’S, are 
inserted in the public paprs. These public exhibitions 
have tended to extend, improve, and give a stimulus to the 
cultivation of ornamental plants, which are to be met with 
in and al>out Ghent in the greatest prfcction. 

In the Rue de Luxoraliourg is a large building, in which 
the Royal Society of Fine Arts liolds its meetings. The 
principal room contains the pnxluctions of the pncils of 
David, Van Asscli, J)ucq, and others ; and of the chisel of 
Calloigne, one of the best living sculptors in Flanders, 
Godecharlcs, Rude, and Van Poucke. It is opn every day 
for the admission of strangers. Under the immediate di« 
rcction of this Society, a triennial exhibition of the works of 
living artists takes place. The latter are allowed to send 
in their productions, from whatever part of the kingdom 
they may usually reside in. Frobi this circumstance it 
happens that paintings, which have been seen at the ex- 
hibitions of Antwerp, Brussels, or Bruges, make their 
appearance once more in public at Ghent. The general 
character of their pictures is that of a close imitation af^ 
the minute and finished details of the productions of their 
more celebrated predecessors and countrymen. But in 
colour and invention they fall far short of them. In r(^ard 
to purely historical paintings, the Flemish artists lean 
more to the French than to any other modem School. 
Probably the presence of David, who for many years ex- 
ercised his art at Brussels, may have, in some measure, 
favoured this partiality for a School, which its wannest 
admirers dare not consider as the best. 

VThile on the subject of painting, 1 must be permitted 
to say, that the amateur will find, in the private cabinet 
of pictures of the Chevalier Sebamp, Rue des Ghaufips, 
some choice specimens, particularly the celebrated grappe 
de raisin by Rubens, and a beautiful jmrtrait of Van 
Dyke by himself. The great affability of the hospi^ble 
proprictbr.is an additional temptation to visit his v^uable 



ROAD TO BRUSSELS. 


41 


collection. A civil note, rcciuesting the necessary permis- 
sion, sent the day before, is the only ceremony re([uisite. 

Since ray last visit, I find that Ghent has gained con- 
siderable advantage by the opening of new canals, par- 
ticularly of that of Temeuse, which joins Ghent to the west 
Scheldt, in a northerly direction. Another canal, lately 
projected, between Tournay and Courtray, will bring the 
former town in direct communication with Ghent. The 
Steam-packet Company at Ghent liave j)rofited by all these 
means of internal navigation, and established steam-vessels 
on the ])rincipal rivers and canals. They started last year 
one of these conveyances, or pyroscaphen^ as in some parts 
of the Continent they attempt to call them, between Ghent 
and Antwerp, to carry both passengers and merchandize, 
with an engine of for{y-five-horsc |X)wer, which performs 
the whole distance in eight hours and a half. 

Cut it is high time to hurry out of this pleasing and 
agreealilc city, connected with which there are a thousand 
interesting recollections. 

Travelling at a moderate rate over a paved road, which 
is a real curse to the tympanum of travellers, though the 
jolting may not be unfavourable to their health, we i)assed 
through several very neat towns, and a highly-cultivated 
champaign country, extending right and left in every va- 
riety of undulation. The gradual, yet sensible improvement 
in the aspect of tlie country, is here, perhaps, more striking, 
from the circumstance of the traveller having just quitted 
that part of France where Nature shows herself in the cha- 
racter of a step-mother, and Art in that of a lazy daughter. 
The natural features of the ground over which we passed 
are pleasing ; and the state of cultivation visible on every 
side, bespeaks care and intelligence. The little town of 
Alost is one of the neatest I have seen in Flanders. The 
approach to the capital, on this road, however, is not so im- 
posing nor iso cheerful as on the Louvain and Namur roads. 



42 


BHiJSSBLS. 


CHAPTER II. 

FLANDKR8. 

BaussELs.^Treat improvements and extension of the Towiir-Boiilo- 

vaids.— EnigUsh Colony.— Liberty of the Pivss, and Caricalines 

Entcrprizing and pirating Book»dlers.— /^'uriuns mixtuic of (,!atlio- 
ticism and Idolatry,— Tlw King— ITie Prince of Orange iuidthe Grand- 
duchess.— Royal and Princely Palaces.— Fire at the old Royal Palace.— 
The Theatres^— The Park.— ITie Sbite^^enerals.— Tlie AlUa Verif.— 

Pa&dr de Juf/fcc.— Political Paiulemoiiiura Hotel de ^'ille.— 

St. Gudule.— David, tlie Inench Painter.— The miraculous tVafers.~i 
The uew Lottciy.—Climajc.— Hospitals.— Doctors and Fliarmnnais.— 
Regulations respc^cting foreign Ph^icians — Cabinet and Colle(;tions.— 
Intended ObserYfitory. — Monument to Rubens. — Departure fmm 
Brussels. — Aspect of the Country. — Lacchen.— The towns of Vilvonic 
and Maliiies, and die Steeple of Antwerp Catlunlral. — Loo vain.— 
University.— Hotel de Ville. — Tower of Jansenius.— Climate — 
Statistics.— Pasting. — Maps — Carte Genmile Adminislratii'c.— 

Li£ 0 £. — Another University. —System of Education — EsUiblishmcnls 
for gratuitous instniction to the industrious Cl^usses in the mechanic 
Arts.— General Statistics of the Kingdom up to 1827. — Ciirreuey. — 
Expenses of living in the Capital, and in Provincial Towns— .Miscel- 
laneous Observations Hoad to Aix-la-Chapelle. 

It is tlie fashion for every traveller of distinction, on 
arriving at Brussels, to hasten to the far-famed H6iel de 
BeHevuCi at the risk of being sent back ; fur it is almost 
always full, and all vacancies are filled up as soon as 
they occur. The nobleman with whom 1 was travellings 













BRUSSELS. 


4;^ 


}ia(l bespoken apartments at this hotel, which wc wcrt' 
“lucky enough to find unoccupied on our arrival. Few 
hotels are more favourably situated than this; but my 
commendation cannot extend farther. The charges are 
extravagant ; the attendance, where the traveller has few 
or no servants with him, is very indifferent ; many of the 
bed-rooms for single gentlemen are small and inconvenient. 
Tlie wide stairs and corridors, leading to the private apart- 
ments on the principal and second story are, like all sucli 
public avenues abroiul, washed and scrubbed' only occa- 
sionally ; and altogether, the establishment is susceptible 
,of many improvements. As usual, however, in thest^ large 
inns, the essential part (for some travellers at least), to 
wit, the CHftiwe and the contents of the cellars are capital. 
At least, so I have heard connoisseurs say. 

Brussels lias receive(r considerable extension, and has 
bei'ii greatly improved within the last few years. The 
greatest improvement of all, however, has been the de- 
nu)lition of the old Kamparts which went round the old 
r<m'n, and the substitution, in their ])lace, of one of the 
linest ])romeiiades, or lloulevards, in Kurope. On the one 
siile of this extensive public walk, rows of magnificent 
lnMises, each with a garden before it, and much resembling 
h^nglish houses of the first and second class, have been 
(‘reeled, and are mostly inhaliited by Knglish families, 
llrussels, indeed, may be said to be, next to Paris, the 
largest Knglish colony on the Continent. It is computed 
tiuit there arc; at this moment not fewer than six thousand 
Knglish residents at Hrussels. Nor is it to be wondered 
at. ( -henjiness of living, and })lcnty of amusement and in- 
struction ; liberty of thought and conscience ; mild govern- 
mt nt and agreeable societyj are things not of every day, 
nor to be met with every where. Yet for all this, some 
change is now taking place in the disposition of foreign 
.icsidents towards this capital ; and during the last year the 
.^Uiniber of them had sensibly diminished. 



44 


BRUSSELS. 


At the hdtel we found Lord Herbert, now Earl of 
Pembrolce,’ a nobleman remarkable for Bis highly polished 
manners ; and the PHuce Charles Lieven, attached to the 
Russian Mission! Count Capo d’Istrias joined us, once 
more, at dinner ; and in the evening the minister of Russia, 
Count Gourief, with his lady, who is by birth a Naryschkiiie, 
visited the Count and Countess. It was impossible not to 
be pleased with the agreeable manners and superior c(in> 
versation of both ; but the lady ]X)ssesses, moreover, many 
of the superior attractions of her sex. The more opportu- 
nities I have of conversing with Count Capo dTstria.s, the 
more convincwl I feel of the justice of public opinion 
in regard to his merits. On one occasion he discoursed 
at full length on the state of Greece, and the form of 
Government best aidapted for that country. On a subja*t 
that had lieen so long and so often* discussed, I should have 
thought it ini})ossible for any one to offer any thing new. 
The Count, however, proved by his opinions, corrolwrated 
by facts, and by an up|ieal to long experience, that much 
which is novel, striking, and important, remained yet to be 
told on so interestiiig a subject. His notions respecting 
finances and loans, in |iarticular, made a great impression on 
my mind. I had never heard those questions treated in su 
original a manner ; nor was 1 the less struck by the pnidencc? 
and caution which seemed to mark the sentiments of this 
statesman. The facility with which, while speaking, he re- 
ferred to certain facts, led me to remark to him that his 
memory appeared surprising. He assured me that the com- 
pliment must not be generally applied, and that he never had 
any memory for precise words and numbers, but only for ideas. 
In support 6f this assertion, he related an anecdote respect- 
ing his adtoissibn as Doctor of Philosophy, in the University 
of Padua; ' ' On that occasion he had endeavoured fu bommit 
to merriOTy his thesisj which had been previously approved 
of by the proflhssors, with a view to bis defending it accord- . 
ing to custom. But bn mounting the rostrum, not a wofd 



anecdote op count capo n’iSTRlAS. 45 

could he recollect of his composition. He knew well 
' enough what it wds all about — ^recollected the arrangement 
of the diderent paragraphs by the help of the ideas which 
each contained ; but the words, tlie provoking words, es- 
caped his mind's grasp. He hummed, and made the triple 
bow to his audience twice over, and stood mute: when at 
last, tired of this mummery, he took tlie thesis out of his 
picket, and began reading it aloud, very coolly, to the 
• great amusement of the whole assembly. 1 take it, 
that this is, in fact, the best kind of memory for men 
of business : that, namely, by which things and ideas are 
^retained, rather than mere words and the arrangement of 
phrases. We saw a good deal of this distinguished in- 
dividual during our stay at Brussels. His personal ap- 
pearance is striking. The squareness and great elevation 
of his forehead — the actraordinary size of his ears, con- 
siderably detached from the back part of the hcad-«>and 
ilie remarkable paleness of his complexion, give him a 
very peculiar character. He has a quick and brilliant eye, 
and a fdeasing mildness in the expression of his counte- 
nance. This nobleman, who, for the interest of Greece? 
had resigned the best portion of his moderate fortune, and 
was now journeying towards the seat of his Government, 
declined every assistance proffered to him, travelled in the 
diUgence^ and with a view of being wholly unfettered by 
foreign influence, had formally resigned all his pensions 
and other pecuniary emoluments. It is to be hoped that 
the Greek nation will jirove worthy of such personal sacri- 
flees, by the support they will give to the government of 
their distinguish^ countryman. 

One of the characteristic signs of a free Government, 
the liberty of the press, exists in this city, in its most 
unlimited sense, '[j^ere is no censure in the Netherlands ; 
every bpdy may think, writ<^ and speak as he likes best. 

, Legal res^nsibiljty attaches to autliors for any practical 
harm they may cause by their writings^ but no farther; 



46 PIRATING BOOKSKLLERS AT BRUSSELS. 

and it is only justice to say, that few, if any instances of 
that liberty outstepping the bounds of propriety, have 
occurred, in which injury to imlividnals, disrespect to 
Government, or contempt for religion, have arisen. I'lio 
same liberty is extended to the crayon, which has been 
granted to the press, — and the political or satirical carica; 
tures published at Brussels are numerous. ^I’liey arc an 
improvement on French caricatures, but sadly inferior to 
those of this country. Without a number of written 
lables, their figures are mute, their grou])s silent, their 
inventions unintelligible. 

The great military encampment and reviews held at 
St. Orner last Autumn by the French King, at which 
the Prince of Orange assisted, led to the publication of 
a caricature in which a Giraffe (then a popular animal,) 
dressed in the uniform of the Fr6nch Monarch, was seen 
led in procession by a jiriest, who is ordering the military 
preceding the procession, to lay hold of whatever tiuy can 
find that is g(X)(l, and to find the best lodging for “ La 
plus grande bote du monde.” I’here is neither truth not 
wit in the insinujition. 

The general knowledge of the French language Avhicl) 
prevails in the Netherlands, espeeially at Brussels, has 
induced several very enterprising booksellers in that capi- 
tal to reprint not only the standard classical works of 
French authors, but also every modern production from 
the Paris jiress likely to sell, particularly novels, ronifinces, 
plays, political and satirical works, and books of travels, 
which are sold to the public for half the Parisian prices. 
This practice is said to have extended so far, that Tarlier, 
one of the principal publishers, had reprinted, in the course 
of the first six months of 1827 j 318,615 volumes, the value 
of which amounted to 1,183$315 francs. In order to put 
a stop to this piratical manoeuvre, so injurious to the book- 
selling trade of France, the principal publishers in Paris, , 
such as F. Didot, Gosselin^ Renouard, Treuttel sxA 



RELIGIOUS PROCESSION AT ERUSSELS. 47 

AViirtz, Sautelet and Bachelier, formed tliemselves into a 
. company for the purpose of establishing a depot of their 
own editions at Brussels, with the intention of selling them 
at the same low price at which the Flemish editions are 
sold. This attempt has been met by another company of 
Flemish publishers, who, by uniting their capitals, hope 
to be able, in their turn, to undersell the French. At the 
same time, they have }K'titioned Government for protection 
^in favour of national industry, and for an augmentation of 
duty on books im])orted from France. The French are cer- 
tainly treated as th(?y deserve in this matter. One of the 
grumblers at the contrefa^on of his editions by the Brussels 
booksellers, is Didot, who himst^lf scruples not to join that 
most ])iratical, yet useful publisher of Ia Rue Vivienne, 
Signor Golignani, in the immediate reprinting of every 
English work which envoys a high degree of popularity, 
and which they sell at a most tempting, and eonserpiently 
to the English publishers, ruinously low price. “ Fiat 
justitia."’ 

It is only in Roman Catholic countries that instances 
of religious eeremonics, bordering oi^ ridicule, are to be 
met with. A procession takes place uuiiually in this town, 
the nature of which leads me to make this observation. 
Brussels is reiuarkable for its many ]HTennial fountains, 
which are much more convenient than pumps. In most 
of these fountains, the water is distributed sparingly, but 
uninterruptedly, in small streams, which arc generally 
made to come from tlie mouth of animals, or human 
Hgures. One of these, remarkable for the irreverent idea 
of its composition, is situated at the comer of the Rue de 
t I'hnve. It has been called the 
fjfui mhigit, and rejiresents the figure of a naked child, in 
bnnize, of excellent workmanship, supplying the requisite 
Jilet (r eau. This fountain is celebrated all over Flanders, 
and held in such reverence, that whenever a religious pro- 
i;§ssion, OP kermesse^ takes place, in which the Host is pro- 



THB KING OF THS NBTHBRLANDS. 


nienaded under a baldaquin through the streets, escorted 
by the military, and preceded by a great concourse of 
priests and monks, followed by a still greater number of 
the inhabitants ; the little person is dressed up for the oc« 
casion, in a laced coat and cocked-hat, a sword, the 
cordm rouge^ with a proper contrivance in his dress fur 
the continuation of the act, which he never ceases to per- 
form, even during the passing of the religious procession 
before it. The statue is die production of the celebrated 
sculptor Duquesnoy. It bears also the name of tlie 
oldest burgher of Brussels.’* The Archduke Maximilian, 
and Louis XV. made a present to it of several sumptuous 
suits of clothes ; and the latter went so far as to bestow 
upon it the Cross of the Order of St. Louis. Several 
citizens have left legacies to it ; and there is, actually, a 
valel de chambre lielonging to the little gentleman, who is 
well paid to dress him on every gala-day. The following 
inscription is properly adapted to it : — 

Mil nuditd n*a rien de daiigcreux, 

Sans peril legardez moi fairc ; 

Je suis ifii comme Teufant heuroux 
Qui fait pipi sur !e sein de sa m^re.'’ 

To judge by the improvements which have taken place 
in the Netherlands within the last twelve years, in every 
branch of the Government, industry, manufactures, and 
revenue, by the increase of population, the advancement in 
the 'Career of political existence, the greater number of 
comforts which the people enjoy, and lastly by the extended 
embellishments of the capital ; it is impossible not to adnik 
that the country has materially benefited by the change 
in its political constitution. The head of the Government 
too, must be wise, as well as popular, who can originate, 
and by his fostering care promote and secure so many 
advanta^s to liis people. Tlie King is said to be indj^ 
fatigable in this respect. He is his owii minister 



THE KING'^S palace AT BRC8SKLS. 


49 


finance; and frequently suggests measures, which so\c- 
reigns of other coimtries are accustomed to have sug- 
gested to them. The hereditary Prince, who has had the 
invaluable good fortune of beginning his career under an 
adverse star> and hiui been taught how tol)ear its malign 
influence, by some of the greatest men in England under 
whom he serveil-^promises, by his conduct, a succession 
of happy and brilliant years to the Flemish nation. His 
amiable consort, the Princess Anne Paulowna^ Grand- 
duchess of,, Russia, enjoys likewise, and certainly no 
princess ever deserved it more, the greatest popularity, 
i have heard her spoken of in ternis of admiration, 
l)ordering on enthusiasm. TOls. - is not extraordinary, 
when it is considered to wlnii royal stock tliis princess 
belongs, and under whose, maternal care she has been 
educated, , ,, . 

The royal palaces are anioqgst the most attractive 
buildings in Brussels. The King’s Palace, as now consti- 
tuted, presents an inqxising front, two hundred and forty 
feet in length. The centre is occupied by a handsome 
portico, lately erected, fadh^ the prihcijxal walk of the 
park ; beyond which, and vis^~vis, is the nnignificcnt 
palace ^f the States-Geueral. It originally consisted of 


two distinct buildings, one of which had belonged to the 
Austrian Plenipotentiary resident in the Netherlands, and 
the other contdnei.the public offices for the Secretai-ies of 
State, In the former of these, the General Assembly of 


the, so styled^ Bdgian Republic, was held in 1790 . Napo- 
leon inhabited, it in 10079 with his drs^, imd three years 
afterwards, with his second wife. The situation is, per- 
haps, one of the prettiest in l^rop^,,for-a town residence; 
it is flanked by two of the finest stiwts in' the world, the 
Rfte Pucale^ ^nij the R^e RojjaU^ the fornier of wliich 
condsts ,of apd from hebind, it 

«ommai^ a the 

V-Ob. I.' ^ " 



50 THE PRINCE OP ORANGE’S NEW PALACE. 

de NamuTy with the aspect of the beautiful country 
beyond it. 






THKATRfiS AT BRUSSELS. 


51 


seating a running colonnade along the principal story, im- 
posed on a rusticated basement. It is situated in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the King’s |)alacc, and at tlie begiiming 
of the Rue Ducale, Extensive gardens are attached to this 
palace, at the back of which, runs the Boutevardde Namur. 

The .Palais (T Orange, or the Old Court Palace, sitiiatc^d 
at a short distance from the handsome Place Rot/ale, is a 
long parallelogram, with some additions at the north-west 
•ami south-east angle. In front of it is the Botanic Gar- 
den; and the use to which the palace itself lias lieen 
applied, since the Court no longer resides in it, has given 
to the capital the enjoyment of a Museum of Paintings, a 
public library, and a cabinet of natural history, under the 
same roof. This precious assemblage of useful and va- 
luable objects, was threatened with comjilete destruction by 
fire^ on the thirt^th of January 1827- I'hc fire began in 
the imini^iate vidnity of that end of the wing occupied by 
the library, which contains the editions of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Fortunately these, as well as the jiaintings, were 
preserved, but some of the MSS. and many important 
papers in the archives, were consumed by the devouring 
clement. It is fearful to reflect on the irreparable loss 
which a mere accident of a similar nature may occasion 
to the nation, in consequence of the unsafe situation of 
the numerous objects contained in this ancient palace. 

There tu-e two theatres in Brussels. The Theatre Roii/al, 
or Great Theatre, is perfectly new, and has only been 
opien a very few years. It stands opposite the Mint, and 
r^er at some inconvenient distance from the fashionable 
era! of the town. It is insulated, with a handsome street 
on three of its sides, wd a square in front. The perir 
style is ornamented by eight ionic cdludms, and all round 
the building runs a piazza, which gives to it an imposing 
air, whfle walk to the inltfifbitants 

and-fir^l^^ -.iutmor in 

them, subdivided into so g^t a variety of coin})artments, 
E 2 



THE PARK AT BRUSSELS. 


quet, Loges, Lo^es 

. „ .9 {heatyenly spot!) 

-£||j^lish money, ^itbljs house ai^< performed, comedies as 
tragedies^ t)ie ipM opc^a,;f>^^^£|^^iently 

1^^ on a large scale. "Ipfe^ • perfonnancj^;;^^^^^ 

. ';@(^|^sipini^^ also __ 

.-.It is i#tu.at^\.in 

thC^rpark, i^ut the eathince k hue de htkiihjit. 

It is very 8ma||' of a drcular foiHhri, 
boxes. It wa^igfeai^y embellished aboiil yi^iagOj 
and - k much i^qujkited. Ilie piiids: :^c the ptaces 
is about two sliilling.s suid eight<pcn6e, or Onc' florin and 
ahalfl ...V;.-; V.: L' 

But the great point of attraction in Brussels k^ i^ith^t 
doubt, the Park j OF ornamented gardm; for it is more l^e 
a garden than a park, although the former denominative 
given to it. The ground which it occupies, meiiring 
from soven^to eight hundred feet in one direction^ and 
about five hiin^cd and Mxty in the other, is tastefully 
laid QU^ ip made of it as so small a 

space- would interscctedyby two transversal 

the 

'ihiddie^'fluiilt^^ A 

^itiire, white 

#»«r 


id 

“ i^ery class oi 

‘V 

Brussels, it enjoys a fine air,' and is become the centre of 








PALAIS DK JUSTICK AT BRUSSELS. 


53 


the fashionable quarter. But the promenade most din- 
lingme is AlUe •oerte : which runs along the side of 
the Antwerp Canal, is planted with majestic lime-trees, 
has a centre road for carriages, and two lateral walks for 
])eilestrians. The concourse of ])eople, and the display of 
luniuty and fashion, and at the same time, of every thing 
that is considered splendid in the way of equipages and 
dress, are considerable, and every day repeated. 

A natural feeling of curiosity led me to view the palace 
of the States-Gencral. This very handsome building, as 
I before observed, faces the King'^s Palace, with the Parc 
between them. It is of a much more imposing architecture 
than the residence of the Sovereign ; but too much com- 
])resscd laterally, and quite spoiled by the side wings. 
Side wings, indeed, have proved stumbling-blocks to more 
than one architect, as we have more than once seen at 
home. The interior, including the principal staircase, and 
the hall in which the Deputies of the three States, nobi- 
lity, clergy, and the p(?oplo, meet, is worthy of the repu- 
tation of M. V under Stracten, one of the best architects of 
the country. The relief in the pedim^^nt is the work of 
Monsieur Godecharles. The Hall of meeting is in the 
form of a semi-circular theatre, and resembles much the 
Chamber of Deputies in Paris. The meetings, too, take 
place much in the same manner. 

1 ought nut to omit in this place, to notice another public 
building of great merit, the Palais de Justice: because the 
great and handsome portico in front of it has only been com- 
pleted within the last four years, and the Palace is one of the 
many architectural improvements that have taken place in 
Brussels since the appearance of the latest accounts of that 
capital published in this country. The colonnade is hand- 
sonv?, and the surmounting pediment is of fine proportions. 
The allegorical groups are appropriate and well executed, 

^ Walking up Regent-Street towards the Place Roy ale 
one morning, I remarked no fewer than three of those 
cons])icuous individuals who, by ill-timed and ill-judged 



54 BRUSSELS, THE RENDEZVOUS OP FOREIGNERS. 

attempts at innovations and reform in their own country ; 
by their endeavours to change the tuum into meum ; and 
who by the sentences with which they have been visited in 
consequence by their own Governments, have acquired a 
certain degree of celebrity. This class of people is very 
numerous in Brussels, and consists of recruits from almost 
every part of Europe. There are, in the first place, the 
regicides and the Napoleonists, from France; next the 
Constitutionalists from Spain and Portugal; after which 
come the Revolutionists from Piedmont and Naples ; and 
these are folhiwed by the discontented from the Austrian 
States in Italy, and from the New States of South Aine- 
rica ; all equally driven from their homes during the very 
extraordinary txicurrences which have marked the last 
twelve or thirteen years. In faert, the disaffected of all 
countries, who formerly used to ‘resort to Home, are now 
assembled here ; and what i» greatly to the credit of the 
Government, are not molested as long as they conduct 
themselves discreetly. Doubtless the knowledge of this 
fact is the princi]ial reason for so general an assemblage of 
this class of person^ at Brussels; but it is not improbably 
that some other cause for this political phenomenon exists, 
which it is not easy to ascertain. 

In looking over the map of Europe^ the ])ossitiility of 
dividing it into moral as well as physical regions, cannot 
fail to strike those who are conversant with the manner 
in which people of a certain desmiption congregate in 
particular towns or districts. Malte Brun has divided 
Europe into several geographical groups. Humboldt has 
drawn particular lines to mark the regions of heat^ on the 
globe. Naturalists have assigned to particulmr families of 
animals and plants, certain localities ; and it might not be 
difficult to i)omt out the several quarters of the ^obe 
in which particular classes of individuids who are compiled 
to leave their homes, prefer passing the remainder of their^ 
lives. This might be called moral geography ; and s 



MORAL GB06RAP1IY. 


55 


{Specimen of the elasdiication to be adopted for sudi a 
science, I would propose the foUowing luibitaU for each of 
the corresponding groups — thus : 

The invalids of all nations-*Nice, Genoa, Pisa, Rome, 
Naples. 

The artists of all nations^Ronie and Florence. 

The gourmands of all nations — Paris. 

The defaulters, and the runaways of all nations — Calais, 
and Boulogne. 

The monopolists, the speculators, and the projectors of 
all nations — London. 

The iiheraui and the disaffected of all nations — Switzer- 
land and Brussels. 

Here is Monsieur or Le Chevalier P— , Le Marquis 

St. P ; II General P 11 Consiglier R., who wrote 

a curious work on Constitutions and Representative 
Governments. Le Comte S, M., wlio was “ not elected ” 
into the nobility club, (a tolci^ble sort of Almack's, by 
the bye, and “ Travellers” of Brussels,) — with the id genus 
omne, the mere enumeratioivof whom would fopn a goodly 
episode in an epic poem on Revolutjon. There is, how- 
ever, an intruder among them, whose proper locality, ac- 
cording to my geographic^ arrangement, ought to be the 
fourtli in my list ; Kl Seuor M— , whose pecuniary spe- 
culations ai^e c(|ually notorious in Paris, Cadiz, London, 
or Norwich, where he was for a time at a siundslill^ is not 
deserving of the honour of parading his ex:iled person will* 
men of family^md real personal worth, whose only fault 
has been a desire to see “ Chaos returned,’' under the mis- 
taken plea of poU^cal reiteration. 

To the lovers of Gothic architecture^ Brussels presents 
two excellent s|)eciinens of that style in the facades of tlu* 
Hqtcl de Villcj and the church of St. Gudule; the former, 
with its light apd> singular tower, measuring as many feet 
in height as there are days in the year, and surmounted by 
tltj equestrian atatuo of St. Micbad, made of gilt copper, 



56 


HOTEL OE VILLR. 


is held td be the finest Gothic structure of the kind in th* 
country; The statue of the saint is seventeen feet high, 
and yW looks like a cornmon-sized vane. The Municipal 
GoVdi^nient and the director of police, occupy several 
of the many handsome apartments into which this build- 
ing is divided. One of these is hung with very liand- 
some figured tapestry, from the designs of Charles Lc 



Tli^ VMleatBnuida.- <. 

Brun. Another; similarly decdirtrted, is ■rertai’kablc Art* a 
very excellent painting on the ceiling by Janstens, rej^ 
sentiiig the Great Council of the Gods. 

St. Oudule has an incomparable advantage in point, of 



tomb of THB PAINTKB DAVID. 


57 


lerspective over most churches of tlie Gothic style. Its 
ituition at the top of a hiU, or o-scending street, heighten- 
d stai more by a flight of thirty-nine steps, gives it aa 
BiDOsing air which it otlierwise might not have as a Gothic 
emple from its mediocre ardiitecture and the unfinished 
itate of the two towers. This cathedral, or prmiin Eglise 

ie Bruxelles, as tlic inhabitants prefercalling it, was founded 

ievin hundred ami twenty years ago, and rebuilt one hun- 
:1ml and seventy years after. It bears the conjoint names 
:,f the patron saint' of the town, to whom it was dedicated 
in the first instance, and tl^t of a native female smnt, who 
was likewise declared patr^s of the capital. The mortal 
remains of St Gudule, or her Wi/ re/ics, as they are (ailed, 
which had been transferr^ to this church from the Castle 
of Ham some centuries b«^, were l(»t during the irruption 

of the Calvinists in the wars flf religion. 

In point of sculptural, p^al, and architectural embel- 
lishments, the interior 
churches of the same siae # style of 
can only notice in this pulpit, wl^ formerly 

belongiil to 

extraordinary ^ ®* ** 

from |he year l^t 
of thjiViaiKiU teppli 
which are certojidi 

kii4|l^ve Nothiiurcwicqua 

of:^||aibiursi^^f.( 

!W<«^chur^, 

dulB 

JLl!^Sh!w!«!Sn'Elro^ ‘!'® P^- 

vioueassei|t.of ;^3oyei!tHBe!jtv,i,A!’!^^ vf*V **i, *'^Vani1 

cdebrated French painter, whp.lpngww'lfd at Brussels, a 
bore so signal a part in the early revolution of his country, 
' it was. supposed that, the necessary permission for erectjng 


|?dating 
of two 


Mil 



CHURCH OP 8T. 6UDULE. 


m 

R monument to his memory in St Gudule, would not be 
obtained by his children; but the result of their applies, 
tion to the King for that purpose waa far otherwise grati. 
fying to them^for His Majesty, with a becoming liberality 
oi BGntiment, instantly granted his assent to the measure. 



The^Cburch of St. Micha^ and Su Gudule, at Bnissels. 

Before 1 dismiss the subject of churches, and of St. 
ciule in particular, 1 cannot forbear saying a word or two 



THB MIRACULOUS WAFERS. 


59 


respecting the miraculous wafers, which are shown in that 
church, and the melodramatic history l>elonging to them, 
of which several illustrative tapestries, as beautiful as paint- 
ings, exist in the same church. From these pictures it 
appears, that, during the persecution of the Jews in Brus- 
scls, one of them, who was both rich and spiteful, wishing 
to insult the religion of Christ, induced one of his own 
creed, by means of a large sum of money, to commit the 
sacrilegious act of forcing open the tabernadeyjon the altar 
of St. CatherineVXSbapeV and stetd from it tlte consecrated 
wafers, used at tfe: oi^ to the amopiji^biof sixteen, 

amongst which th^ wiw^biie larger .than tte^j^t. The$(» 
wafers he afterWai^ csairi^ to his employerj|[^who resided 


at Knghicn, wherditis said, the Jew and ^ 

their time in votiuting ijmprecati^^ on- thei^|K^presentu- 
lives of the rcid aeeocding to the 

Roman Catholic creed. Shortly after, the ar|gmal perpe- 
trator of the saerRege wiBii fou^ murdered un- 

k|^wn person; upon which Us widow, terr$^ at having 
ill^er posse8sion>^(eajrful 4 c^ 
tlj^^nsecrated to the Israelj^ of B^^s, who, 

lft$|hose of fin^en, l^sed ftemseives ; 
lating these iimoc^tijsymMs of 
iffanatics cai^^ theiil; hatred so ikr, ia i 
with th^^^ixngnardsj to the table 
^ipiNttered.' .>^||is..'last’' ai^'-df. barbarity py&al 

£pr^;i|^ pun^^^iBpl. , Tlj^ft" Sacred .wafers Aj^ed iim 
! and fell senseless to the This 



and thra^ 

Uieft as wefl 

miracle of the blood were diily attested, they were taken 


bri^^',:thewiM^ 



uut, paraded about the streets, their flesh tom with hot 
pincers, and at last burnt alive^ at a place called Iia Giosse 



60 


THJ4 NKW LOTTERY. 


Tour. From that time every Jew was, by a decree of tJu* 
Duke of Brabant, banished fn>in the country. 

.After the recovery of the miraculous waters, a dispute 
arose as to which of the churches should have possession 
of, them. The priest who had ivceived them from tlio 
Jewess, clainieil tliem for his church ; but the chapter of 
St Gudule insisted on their right to the property. This 
altercation was at last put an end to, by a coinproini.se, in 
virtue of which, thirteen of the snndl wafers were surren- 
dered to the priest, and the two remaining small ones, with 
the largest, given over, in full and perpetual possession, to 
the church of St Gudule. In this church they are pre- 
served and worshipped, under the name of the Miraculous 
Wafers, (18^!) They are contained in a very rich 
frame, fixed to a cross of gold, and are carried in soleinn 
procession once a year through die principal streets of 
Brussels. 

Let us now turn to a far different subject, and con- 
trast tlie one with the other. Gambling goi*s on at a 
great rate in Brus.sels. Where there are idlers, and those 
have a crown in theii^ pocket — cards, dice, and La liou- 
lette will not be idle. But the spirit of gambling has at 
aU times been more or less encouraged in most of the 
principd States of P^urope, by the perpetual exam'ple of 
Goveminent lotteries. Austria, Prussia, fVance, par er- 
celletwCf Italy,, and even Spab^ and Portugal, have, or have 
bad their lutteries, or means of getting at a little more pf 
the. public peculiumy beyond what is absorbed by direct 
or indirf^t; taxation. Russia is npt amenable to ..this 
cluqfge, peitber is England now, thanks to theimprpv^ 
moral feeing .of public, as well as private mem Ji) 
adopting this species of financial resource, the kingdom 
of the. Netherlands has not been behind hand. , Until the 
present year the system <of lottery gambling, under , the 
special :authority of Govemraeut, was the . same which 
obtains ia France.. In future, however, the Netherlander# 



CAMBLINC AT BRUSSELS. 


61 


are to have the benefit of a new scheme, which is sup- 
posed to be the production of a great man, well versed in 
financial projects. By this new scheme, the chance of 
gaining the largest prize will be as one and seven-tenths is 
to one hundred ; and the chance of getting nothing at all, 
as one hundred to eleven and thirty-sevenths. Government 
will have a sure gain in it, of nine per 1(H), much alniiit the 
same chance that Orockford’s banker would have, and is 
admittM that he have, when ‘‘ fair play” is “ the go,” 
if that individual kept a Rouge et Koir table. One fourth 
of the price of the ticket is assigned for stamp duty ; and 
tlie Tre.asiiry will receive (for the service of the public 
of course,) at each drawing of the lottery, 207 i ()00 florins, 
besides a farther pnyfit of thirteen per 160 out of the 
capital subscribed by the players, to be expended in 
setting up and puttin|^ in motion the machinery of the 
new system at each drawing, such as collector’s poundage, 
sjilaries to clerks, rent of houses, and other unavoidable 
expenses. It follows, that any given number of the public 
agreeing to subscribe to a lottery of this description ; or, 
in other words, any number of persons agreeing to sit 
round the Government gambling table, and take their 
chance, after putting their respective stakes into the pool, 
must submit to seeing an aliquot part of the sum-total of 
those stakes, equal to twenty-two percent., taken from the 
])ool, before they will be allci^ed to try their hick ivith 
what remains of theit own nloney . Assuredly none of the 
proprietors of Saionsy Tlelhy Redoutes, Fishmonger HuUSy 
or under whatever d«*liominatiori we may please to desig- 
nate those highly repi*obat^ rendezvous of vice, can pito- 
l)ound a more ruinous combination of chances to the un- 
fortunate gambler ! i ^ . 

The climate at Brussels aiid of' its environs, isj’^ctally 
speaking, salubrious, and pafticidari^ so to strangers. The 
rainy season is the Autumn, 'wheti It ^iouirS klihost hiidefe^ 
santly— -the Winter is mild. Iti the yea)* 11^26, thete 



GLIMATB OF BRUSSELS. 


had not been a day of frost, and in the succeeding year 
there were very few days in which the thermometer hail 
been at the freezing point. This is a fortunate circuin, 
stance, as there is, in general, but indiffei^tit provision 
made in-doors for supporting a rigi>rous winter. 1 am in- 
formed by a gentleman who favoured me with this informa- 
tion, that the general standard temperature of December 
and January, is lietween 40 and 50 degrees of Farenheit. 
Late in the Spring, and during most of the Summer, the 
weather is in general fine. I have experienced excessive 
lieats in August, and even at the present season, Septera- 
ber the 26th, 1827, the air is so close, that I have joined 
in the evening the crowd out of doors and walked as 
they do, “ cap in hand,'* to catch the least refreshing 
breeze. On the whole, I should say that the town of 
Brussels is rather a favourable rbsidence for persons of 
delicate constitution, who are obliged to avoid an insular 
atmosphere and its injiudous vicissitudes. The fogs, how- 
ever, w'hich prevail much in February, March, and April, 
have great influence on the state of health. 

This is proved bjr the number and character of the 
diseases admitted into the public Hospitals, which 1 had 
a full opportunity of examining on a former occasion* 
The largest hospital is that of St. Peter, in which there 
are about 400 beds; that of St. John is incapable of 
holding more than half ^t number. Neither the 
locality, nor the distribution of the building, is favoura- 
ble ; and Brussels may be said to be still in want of a 
general hospital worthy of the station it holds, amongst 
the capital cities of Europe. . Both buildings were for- 
merly conyents, erected for a very different object, and 
ill calculated for their present purpose. That of St. 
John< is situated in a narrow and crowded street Here 
the ** Administration des Hopitaux" hdds itiji^vineetings, 
and superintends all matters connected with the exeircise 
of the medical profession. The Hospitals are, as far ;is 



STATE OP MEDICINE AT BRUSSELS. 


63 


arrangement and internal regulations, nearly on the 
footing of those of Paris; Init tliey are neither so elean, 
nor so spacious. The most prevalent disorders are con- 
sumptions, and typhoid and bilious fever, particularly 
(luring the Suninier. The greatest mortality occurs in 
February, March, and April. In a population of 84,000 
inhabitants, the numlier of deaths is annually about 2400, 
or one in thirty. 

Brussels is not a town to look for very old people. 
Few instances are recorded of life extending beyond 
eighty years. 1 cannot say 1 admire the practice of me- 
dicine as far as I have had an opportunity of seeing, 
and hearing of it, in many instances. Its general cha- 
racter is that of non-interference until it has become 
too late and unsafe to interfere at all. Yet there are se- 
veral well-educated and ^respectable practitioners. With 
one or two exceptions too, the apothecaries' shops, or 
pharmacies^ are in a very indifferent state. By examin- 
ing, closely, into one or two of tlie principal of these 
establishments, and looking over several of the prescrip- 
tions that arc about to be compounded, and witnessing 
the manner in which the medicines are prepared, it is 
not difKcult to judge of the state of practical medicine 
any whore. ' From these sources of information 1 have col- 
lected nothing very satisfactory at Brussels ; and I am not 
at all surprised that the num^us English residents tliere 
vshould give the preference to their own countrymen who 
settle in that city as physicians and surgeons. 1 have, 
however, heard as many complaints amongst the English 
at Brussels, as I had v in Paris, of medical ^len from 
their own country coming to settle . amongst them in 
the character of physicians, who .have, periiaps, as 
much right to settle diere in any other capacity. This 
will ever be more or less the case, where there is great 
temptation, and no respmoudbility. The Flemish Govenir 
ment has, indeed, strictly adhered to thdr regulation of 



64 STATE OP SCIENCE AT BRUSSELS. 

not allowing foreign physicians to settle without previous 
examination, and without obtaining a licence to practise, 
which licence is seldom granted without the restricting 
and illiberal, condition, that such foreign physicians shall 
only practise among their own countrymen. An English 
physician, a Dr. Newbold, has -been twice condemned 
by a sentence of one of the Civil Tribunals to pay a 
fine of fifty florins for practising among the natives, he 
having received the King's permission to practise among his 
own countrymen only. The physician who is most in 
vogue amongst the English, is Dr. Tol)yn, said to be a 
very respectable man. 

Brussels offers every opportunity to the man of science 
of passing his time profitably, as well as agreeably. The 
cabinets and collections in the Old Palace are always acces- 
' sible, and present several series of objects in natural history, 
sufficient to inspire attachment to scientific pursuits. The 
present Botanic Garden is open to the public in the most 
liberal manner ; and when the new garden on the Boule- 
vard du Nord shall be finished, that most interesting branch 
of natural knowledge will have an establishment inferior 
to none in the most favoured cities. Astronomy, too, is 
shortly to be cultivated in Brussels with increasing zeal ; 
and by an arrke of the King, passed in 1826, an obser- 
vatory is to be established forthwith in that capital. 

Since the year 1816, the||oy8l Academy of Sciences and 
Literature of Brussels has held a respectable rank among 
the institutions of that class in Europe. Their meetings 
take place once a month in the Old Palace. The number of 
ordinary mi^bers is limited, and t^ey have a fixed stipend. 
They are presided over by the Prince de'Gavre; and 
their secretory-general, Mons. Dewez, to whom I had the 
pleasure of being introduce by General Fagely is a g^> 
tleman of great attainmentSr The academy haa: dneaify 
published three volumes of memoirs ; some iait iriiieb are , 
of considerable merit. 



THB FINE ARTS AT BRUSSELS. (>5 

The fine arts, too, are fostered by an academy, wliich 
has produced some eminent artists. It holds its meetings, 
as 1 have already stated, in that curious old builcfing, the 
Town Hall, where an annual distribution of prizes takes 
place to tlie pupils, w’ho receive instruction gratuitously. 
Indeed, the taste for tlie fine arts may be said to be gaining 
ground throughout the kingdom ; and with it, the reve- 
rence and esteem for those of their /jountrymen who have 
(listingiiislied themselves in their several departments. 
Thus Antwerp, which possesses already the most brilliant 
numorials of Rubens in every ])art of the town, is about to 
erect a monument to that great master, which will cost 
nearly 500,000 floruis. It is to consist of a oolossal statue 
of the])aintcr in bronze, twelve ieet high, standing on a 
pedestal sixteen feet in height. 

Brussels is lighted whh gas, on a most liberal scale. 
The streets are generally clean, and many of them spacious. 
The police, without being troublesome, is active ; and 
every convenience that renders life comfortable, is to he 
pnwurc^ without much trouble; but the refinements, many 
of them essential, which are to be found in England, are 
Ntiii a desideratum in this sojourn of lilxTal ease, social 
converse, and cheerful gaiety. 

I’he loveliest day in September smiled iijwn us as we left 
Brussels on our road to the Rhine. Again I had the good 
fortune of being accompanied^ Banm F— — , wlio de- 
termined on going as far as Frankfort with the Count and 
Countess, for whom he entertains the warmest friendship. 

The country through which we travelled appeared to be 
in the highest state of ctiltivation ;• the soil rich and deep ; 
the crops abundant. The country people were busy in 
up their potatoes^ of which they have a particular 
liind, very small, and -with ai exceedingly fine, yet firm 
skin, and a jn^ nutty taste than those of England. 

, At the distance uff about a mile and a half from the 
town, there is a ptiblic-house, calk’d placed oit 

■ VOL. I. I? 



ENVIRONS OP BRUSSELS. 


an eminence, from which the eye embraces a most magni- 
ficent panoramic view, over an extensive country, embel- 
lished with handsome villas, and comfortable, neat, pro- 
sperous-looking villages and hamlets. Casting our eyes 
towards the road on which we had been travelling, Brus- 
sels was seen, stretched as it were at our feet. A little 
nearer, on the left, is the King's country residence of 
Laeken, with the Senne gliding smoothly in front of it. 
Farther on, and between the canal of Boon and that of 
Louvain, in the midst of a most fertile valley, rises the 
town of Vilvorde, with the fine steeple of Malines in the 
back-ground, so well disposed in the arrangement of the 
landscape, that the two seem buj^one extensive settlement ; 
while in the distant horizon, now free from even the small- 
est speck or cloud, the lofty tower of the Cathedral of Ant- 
werp is pencilled out with a precision, which the fiery sky 
behind it renders more perceptible. Tuniing to the right 
of the road, the Royal Pavilion of Terviicren, erected by 
the Prince of Orange, pleases by its freshness and modem 
architecture. In it the Prince, with his Royal consort, 
spend, it is said, in ihe enjoyment of domestic liappiness, 
and superintending the education of their children, those 
hours which are often wasted in frivolity by other. princes. 
This seat is not far from the celebrated forest of Soigne. 
With a succession of similar landscapes, the road^ which is 
in excellent order, and by^its undulations enables you to 
seize, at different moments, the most prominent points, 
terminates at the gilt iron railing or Gate of Louyaiu, into 
which town it descends very rapidly, but not , until it has 
afforded you an opportunity of siurveying that ancient and 
once splendid seat of one of the most flourishing univer** 
sides in Europe. Every where throughout this line of 
communication, the appearance of plenty and comfort 
greets the eye. 

Louvain is still the seat of an university, which report 
states, to be in a flourishing condition, although only re-^ 



LOUVAm. 


67 

established within the last ten years hy a decree of the 
present Sovereign of the Netherlands. In the year 1826 
the number of students amounted to five hundred and 
ninety-three; in 1827 it was more considerable. Some 
celebrated men, well known in Europe, are professors at 
this university ; such as Van Mens, professor of chemis- 
try; Pagani, the mathematician: and Lanthier, the teacher 
and demonstrator of anatomy. I’he university has an ex- 
tensive library, a laboratory, cabinets of anatomical and 
other collections, and a botanic garden. On piDceecling to 
the inn, we passed liefore a very remarkable Gothic build- 
ing, called the H6tel de Ville, having three stories, eacli 
with ten Gothic arched^aaid double windows, and a pro- 
fusion of delicately-chiseled ornaments; four angular tur- 
rets, carved presque i jottr from the ground to the very 
summit ; and a shorter tbrret, rising from the centre and at 
one end of the roof. Within these turrets, spiral staircases, 
richly cut, are seen through the open and elegant two-light 
windows, which occupy the octagonal sides of that portion 
of the turrets which is raised above the roof. The latter is 
high, rapidly slanting, idated, and dhrided into four dis- 
tinct rows of ten canopied single-light windows in each. 

But in point of historical recollection and as an object 
of interest^ the building known under the name of the 
Tower d Jansenius, is much more likely to attract 
the attentidiri of strangers. in this building that the 
Bishop of Ypr^j while principal of the College of St. 
Pulcheria, and connected with the university of Louvain, 
is supposed to have composed the celebrated work which 
became the foundation of a notel doctrine respecting 
the nature and attributes of IMvine Grace and Free-will, 
afterwards called Jansenism. A doctrine asserted to have 
been derived from the deep meditation of the wri- 
tings of one of the most eloquent Fathers of the Church, 
St. Augustinci Perhaps itf the annals of religious dis- 
putatibns, so prevalent in the' sixteenth and seventeenth 
F 2 



68 THE TOWER OF JANSENIUS AT LOUVAIN. 

centuries, few examples are to he met with, in which the 
publication of learned commentaries on the opinion of 
a holy writer of acknowledged authority, excited more 
animosities and disgraceful altercations, between the See 
of Rome and the Sorbonne of Paris on the one hand, 
and Jansenius, his followers and supporters on the other. 



Tower of Jansenius. 


Of all that strife the Tower alone remains : us 

of the absurdity of all individnal speciilat^ins ^ubj^t 

of religious mysteries. . . , v » 

The climate of this town is freer from, humidity tnan 
that of Brussels, although from their vicinity to e^h other, 



POSTING IN THE NETHERLANDS. 


69 


such a difference between the two cities could hardly have 
been anticipated. On an average there jire from two 
hundred to two hundred and ten dry days in the year at 
Louvain. To judge also by the mortality of the town, 
when compared to the number of births, which is as six to 
eight, Louvain must be healthier than the capital. The 
population of Louvain is alxnit 22,000 inhabitants, one in 
every thirty-nine of whom clies annually. 

Proceeding on our way to Liege, we stopped to dine at 
Tirlemont, a small l)orough, and like all Flemish boroughs 
and towns, having its Hotel de Ville, and a town-clock 
with a musical carillon. We were glad to escape, for a 
couple of hours, the intense heat to whi^ we were exposed 
in an open carriage. The thermometer marked 7^® in- 
side and 90*^ in the sun. This for the 27th of September 
was rather too comfortable. 

The road from Tirlemont to St. Tron offers again a 
succession of the same highly cultivated fields which we 
had occasion to notice in the morning. Nothing can be in 
a greater state of prosperity. Next to England and Lom- 
bardy, no country, affords, better than this, such striking 
illust^ona of what may be done by agricultural skill and 
industtjpvi;^;-. . 

We*^ha^ hith^to been served but indifferently with 
}x>sUhdrin«^ aM our progress had been slow, although the 
roads are excellent; but we i^d not expect to fate worse 
as we proceeded. At St Tron, however, a miserable- 
looking; {dace, the post-master, (who was also master of the 
only toleralde inn in the town,) pretended that he had not 
a suflident number of horses for our ii&rvice, (ten;) and 
obliged us to spend a long afterUqon and the night at his 
house. I had good ground for believing, from former 
experience, that the reason for delaying us was a mere 
subterfuge, against which it is necessary that the traveller 
should guard himself. Posting in the Netherlands is 
on a very bad footing, and is one of the branches of the 



LIEOB. 


70 

administration of tlie country the least attended to, and 
requiring most improvement. The traveller is subjected 
to much imposition without any chance of redress. He 
has no means of informing himself properly of all the re- 
gulations concerning the rate of payment and distances ; 
although there arc printed lists, and marche-foutes^ and 
post-maps, tdl of which however are so far from being 
correct, that I have almost always found them to differ 
from eacli other. In the construction of maps, indeed, the 
Flemish are far behind all other nations. I procured a 
new map, published within the last year, and entitled 
“ Carte Generalc Administrative des Pays Bas,” which is 
said to have been sanctioned by the Government ; and I 
can freely say tha^ not only it is not correct as to distances, 
and tile relative positions of places ; but it is also a very 
poor specimen of skill in geographical map-making. Not 
to specify all the defects of the map in question, 1 shall 
merely state that the distances are not marked on the roads 
—that the distances on the scale, when applied to the 
roads between certain towns, do not correspond with those 
laid down in the post-book, but differ considerably from 
them — and, lastly, that it has not even the usual' sign for 
the north point marked upon it. We are, therefenre, left 
to orienter ourself in the best manner we can. ■ 

After travelling a few hours, the valley in which Liege 
is placed burst upon us at once. The country; in the 
neighbourhood is rich, variegated, and picturesque in the 
extreme. From its situation, Liege is an imporiant place, 
and the existence of coal-mines in its vicinity is an en- 
couragement to the establishing of manufactories near it; 
while the advantage of water-communication with Holland 
and Germany cannot but be favourable to its commerce^ 
We entered Liege early in the morning of the 26th; and 
made a short stay in that town^ which I had already visited 
on a former occasion. It will amply repay any traveller 
U) remain a couple of days at Liege. To a medical man' 



LISGB. 


71 

there is another attraction, namely, the Universi ty . Several 
objects, however, deserve attention in this place from every 
class of travellers. First of all, the Old Citadel is worth 
seeing, were it only to enjoy, from the elevated site on 
which it stands, one of the finest prospects existing in this 
part of the country. This fort has been put in a complete 
state of defence since the year 1818. Next comes the fine 
new quay on the Meuse, with the stone bridge thrown 
across it. The new bridge on one of the branches of the 
Meuse is built out of the ruins of the old Church of the 
Dominican friars. Along the banks of the riverj the land 
is divided into inclosurcs of various extent by quickset 
liedges, interspersed with fruit and forest-trees, presenting 
the most picturesque alternations of hill ^nd dale, filled with 
orchards and gardens, exhibiting the appearance of a conti- 
nued pleasure-ground. , Lastly;, the Town-hall, with several 
other public buildings, including churches, are worthy of 
observation. As you drive through Liege, you can almost 
fancy yourself in an old English provincial town, fn»m the 
narrowness of the streets, the peculiar semi-gothic structure 
of the houses, and above all, from the smell of coal, which 
is here the common fuel. ^ 

The University of Liege is one of six that have been 
refornfed and re-installed by order of tlie present King 
of the Netherlands; In any other country, the existence 
of so many Universities, within a very short distance of 
each other, might be deemed disadvantageous to the stu- 
dents ; but in Flanders the effect is differait. Had there 
existed only one, or at most two Univoi'sities, it is not 
improbable that there Would not have been a larger number 
of students, attending them than attend each individual 
University at present. The class of persons who frequent 
a Flemish University, could not afford, with their limited 
means, to live at : hiy. considerable distuice from home ; nor 
^ to travel four or five times a^year; backwards and forwards, 

if .that distance- Were great. Thus, fbr example, if the 

C 



UNIVERSITIES OF THE NETHERLANDS. 

beautiful building at Ghent were the only one open for the 
admission of students from all parts of the kingdom, it may 
be (questioned, whether there would lie more students at- 
tending it than there are now. The Universities in Flan- 
ders, in facty are more what the natives themselves call 
them in their national language, the “ Hooge SchooF of 
the Province— than an Institution for the education of 
young people from different parts of the kingdom.. The 
advantage connected with this jurangeuient, also, is consi- 
derable; inasmuch as a smaller number of students arc 
less likely to convert the University into a theatre of dis- 
sension, ribaldry, and libertinism, as has been the case 
more than once, and in our own timciw, in some of the 
Continental establishments of that descripti(m» where the 
number of 'students attending was very considerable. The 
objections which would naturally pccur to such a system 
of small and multiplied Universities in a small kingdom of 
not more than 6,000,000 of inhabitants would be, the ex- 
pense attending them, and the difficulty of finding a suffi- 
cient iiupply of eminent men capable of filling the chairs of 
professors. Hut in tJie Netherlands, these objections are 
not felt. First, because tlicre are a great numberof men 
who have devoted themselves exclusively to the art of 
teaching science and literature from their youthy in esta- 
blishments instituted for that purpose, and where instruc- 
tion is given gratuitously; and, secondly, because 'the 
salaries are smaller in proportion to the more limited 
sphere of duties to be performed ; and yet sufficient, to 
satisfy the incumbent. ■ , . ^ 

The system of education pursued at Liege^^ie the sasne 
in every respect as that followed in the oth^; Flemish 
Universities. The Uniyersity is divided into four Facul- 
ties: that of -the mathematical’ and physical Scicflms; 
that of Jurispmdenee;' that of. Fhdosophy HaiidisBdles 
Lettres ; and the Faculty of i-MediciBn. There^appeairi to 
be no provision made for 


the elementary study .of ^Rdigiim^ 



THE UNIVERSITY OP LIEGE. 73 

or in other words, there is no Faculty of Theology ; and 
this is the case at the University of Ijouvain likewise. 
Such an omission is surprising, in spite of the fact, that 
those Universities are equally open to the Catholic, the 
Calvinist, and the Protestant : for although it would not 
be possible to instruct tliem all by one and the same pro- 
fessor, such a thing might easily be effected by means of 
distinct teachers, as is the case in Prussia. 

The University of Liege is under a College of Curators, 
a Rector Mugnijicus^ and sixteen Professors, four of whom 
belong to the Faculty of Medicine. lUit this branch of 
knowledge is not that which flourishes most at Liege. 
None of the teachers are men of celebrity, and the n umber 
of students consequently small. The branch of study 
for which Liege is most celebrated, is jurisprudence^— and 
next to it, mathematical and physical science. I'hc former 
includes many, highly interesting subjects of study, parti- 
cularly the Droit Fhilosophique in contriulistinction to the 
Droit Actuel of the country. Statistics, and Political 
Economy, djut' the last mentioned subject can scarcely 
be admitted within the circle of moral sciences; since it 
has neither a known basis yet, nor any generally acknow- 
ledged and fixed principles, without which science ^nnot 
be tai/ght, much less applied to useful purposes. Every 
prudent effort of the modem political economists, is praise- 
worthy and ingenious. If their efforts were productive of 
no other good result than the collecting of a vast number 
of important facts, and directing the public attention, more 
than has hitherto heen the case, to the .accurate observa- 
tions of physicormoral phenomena they would still be 
commendable, and deserving of every encouragement. But 
we ought to beware of hasty contusions in this branch of 
knowledge, for they may prove more ruinous to States,/ 
than white haKs^ purfde ribbons, and tri-coloured cockades. 

The exampleiof the establi^ment of mechanical insti- 
' tutes in England, has been foUowed'by the formation in the 



MECHANIC INSTITUTION. 


74 

Netherlands, of “ Ecoles gratuiies pour la classe 
under the special sanction of the King. At Liege, as well 
as at Louvain, some of the professors of the University are 
required to give separate courses of lectilrcs to the work- 
ing classes, at suitable hours in the evening, without any 
charge or fee payable by the student. The branches 
taught are, chemistry applied to the aril and manufactures, 
arithmetic, elementary algebra, practical geometry, archi- 
tecture, linear drawing, and mechanics. These gratuitous 
schools arc under the inspection of several members of tlie 
council of management, which is presided over by a field- 
olBcer of artillery. 

N umbers are at all times better than plirases. To j udge 
of the prosperity of a country with precision, we should 
look to those numerous sources of information which 
national statistical works* preset to our attentioi. 
Flanders is an improving country. Its population, its 
institutions, its iddanufactures mid commerce'^the internal 
navigation and the condition of the }ieople, are all progres- 
sively advancing. Nothing is at a stand-still. ^ 1 find good 
grounds for these assertions in two admirable publica- 
tions, with which 1 was favoured at Brussels ;«^the one 
entitled, Researches on the Population, number of 
Births, Deaths, Prisons, and Poor-houses in the Kingdom 
of the Netherlands,” written by Mons. Qucntelct4 the 
otheri “ National Statistics,” by Edward Smiti^,;;^ ^The 
latter embraces observations, including a period of ten 
years, drawn from thirty tables, published by the Royid 
Commi8li<3(n of Statistics of the kingclohi, created by an 
order of his present^ Majesty, dated July, 18S6.' Htcnoi 
both these works, it is easy to collect that’ the Nether, 
lands, whether coi»ide>hd physically or mwally, have never 
been in so flourishing a; conchtion as at present. 

On the subject of the mreaae of 'popul^ricm, the data 
obtained by the Commission ar^, beyond questionf too 
ofilcial, to doubt the accuracy of the^ resnlt ol tbrir^eol- 



STATISTICS OF THE NETHERLANDS. 


75 

culation. This result gives an excess of 531,215, or more 
than half a million of people, in the short space of ten 
years, above the population of 1814, tliroughout the king- 
dom ; in other words, the population of the Netherlands 
has increasech somewhat more than one-tenth in the space 
of ten years. Of the several means proposed for tlisposing 
of part of this excess of population, in a manner advan- 
tageous to the ^ State, that which the Government seems 
to liave adopted in preference is the formation of indige- 
nous colonies. Two of these are already established ; the 
one at Frederick's Oord, the other at Wortel ; but this 
resource tends to increase the population still farther, and 
it will soon be necessary to have recourse, to one of two 
otliers, namely, the cultiv'ution of waste lands, or emigra- 
tion, in order to preserve a due balance between sub- 
sistence and the population. It is curious to remark that 
in the above increase of population in the Netherlands, the 
same law obtains, wliich has been observed to prevail in 
every part of Europe, from St. Petersburgh to Naples, 
namely, an axcest .c^ male children over those of the fen^alc 
sex, in the proportion of one to 0.8427 4 so that in the 
course of the ten years there were 30,485 boys born 
above the number of girls. As a compensation, how- 
ever,. for this unfavourable balance to the female sex, a 
greater number of males die, in the same given period, 
than oLfemales, which, in the case of the Netherlands, 
has been as high as 25,400. At the end of the ten years, 
therefore, the male population of the kingdom had gained 
a superiority oyesr that of the females, amounting puly to 
5,085 individuals. The proportiojQ, of deaths, as well 
as that of the births, in the whole population, are terms 
which give, a correct notion of Jhe progressive increase 
or decrease of that population. . From the researches oi 
the statisties^oonnhission, it appears that for every 39 
f)ersons, onedies annually throughout the kingdom; and 
that, on the other hand, an individual is. born annually 



76 CURRENCY OP THE NETHERLANDS. 

for every 28 ~ persons. Here, therefore, is a corroborative 
evidence of the rapid increase which has taken place in thv. 
population of the Netherlands within the specified period. 
Another curious apprupmation^ of two- natural pheno- 
mena, connected with population, is to be found in Mr. 
Qucntelet\s Researches, to which he attributes much 
interest. It appears from a series of 'observations, made 
for the space of eighteen years, and which he adduces, 
that the number of deaths, as well as that of births, have 
been in an inverse ratio to the^thermometrical variations 
of the atmosphere. Thus the march of the tbenhortieter, 
ascending from January ta/July' at Brussels, and uni- 
formly descending fronr that month till December, is 
observed to be accompanied by a progres^vc dine, de- 
noting the intensity of births in an inverse order to the 
above; beginning from February^ which is the highest, 
and ending in July, when the number of births is the 
least. It then aifeends till Da^embcr, following an oppo- 
site course to the thermometi^'Al line. 

In a book of travels, which the author^intemls to render 
as useful os practical information can make it,"^ the .subjest 
of the curi^ency of tlie country idiould certainly find a place; 
particularly when the currency of a State described has 
lately undergone a considerable. change. I'his is precisely 
the case with that of the Neth^lands, which is even nojwr 
undergoing the gradual modifications of an official 
tion marie in it within the last few years. By the new 
regulation all the ohl coins, whether of gold, silver, or 
copper, are to be gradually withdrawn ; ftud most of those 
that remain are so depreciated by the loss of a per centage, 
deducted from them in the ordinary course of business, 
that it is prudent for strapgers to have nothing to do with 
any other but the new coins of the country, or those of 
France, Prussia, an4 the Empire, which aie suffered, to 
have currency in the Netherlands, by a decree of the 
Government, agreeably to a fixed relative value in Fleihiah 



CURRENCY OP THE NETHERLANDS. 77 

money. The present system is an application of the 
(Iccinial calculation. The unity of tlie national currency 
is the florin, which is estimated to be worth two francs 
eleven centimes, and tbs. , Thet multiples of this unity 
are called cents^ one hundred of which go to a florin. 
There are no inferior subdivisions of this coin, wliich 
contains 9.613 of pure silver, and 1.152 of alloy. The 
aliquot parts of this standard coin are the pieces of ten, 
and five florins in silver, and of ten florins in gold. With 
regard to the cents^ there* are in circulation of them, 
pit'ces of fifty, (or J florin,) of twenty-five, (or i florin,) 
ten, (or i) and of five,XDr^D of a florin. A cent is re- 
presented, as well as the half V^t, by a* small cop|)er 
coin. In irtAkihg payments, the laW allows only the 
value of one florin in capper to be included ; oChd one- 
fifth only of the whole «um in pieces of twenty-five, ten, 
and five cents. In order to facilitate the operations of 
(*oinmerOe, and the Common transactions of life, all the 
foreign coins which are alloivi^ ar free circulation in the 
NethwIandsJI ha^ had their value fixed to the standard 
of French mone^ ; in consequence of whiA, the reduction 
of all such coin is rendered ea.sy, by means of a set- of 
tables, which havC been published under the sanction of 
(Tovernirient, and wliich are in general use. In a small 
State, surrounded by three or four nations, with which 
a intercourse is both unavoidable and desirable, it 
is not possible, nor would it be prudent, to confine the 
currency of the country to the national coinage; and the 
inconvenience ar&ing to individuals brom the necessity of 
calculating' the relative value of permitted foreign coins, 
is but a; trifling consideration compared to the wealth, 
and' the grteater -means of tradipgi ' which the introduc- 
tion *of foreign money' brings along with it, where it is, 
as in the NrtheiteBkls, subjected’ to equitable and well- 
, defined laws; The pound sterling will fetch - generally 
IL flor. and 95 cents ; so that for 30/. sterling you may 



78 INNS AND RATE OF UVINO AT BRUSSELS. 

expect to get 85} guillaunies (a handsome gold coin), after 
deducting commission and brokerage. 

With regard to weights and measures, the same decimal 
system still exists in the Netherlands which the French 
first introduced, with this difierence, that, in order to faci- 
litate its adoption by the common classes of society, the 
divisions and their relative values, have been retained, but 
not the new names, with their learned beginnings and ter- 
minations. In lieu of these, the old ones have been adopt- 
ed, of /iwc, inch^ painty mtne^ or oil, perch, and mile, five of 
which make a common league. The same contrivance 
has been applied to the dmmal divisions of measures 
of weight, as well as of capacity, for both solids and 
liquids : thus getting the less informed classes of society 
reconciled to a change, which can only cause a correspond- 
ing change in tlic price of articles^ but is not beset wild) 
the difficulty of comparing the same things together, from 
their bearing difterent names— difficulties which have 
materially impeded the adoption of the decimal system in 
France. 

Connected with the state of the currency, I may men- 
tion, generally, the subject of the expenses of living in the 
capital and the provincVol towns of the Netherlands. My 
information is derived from the testoony of both native 
and foreign residents, as well as from my own limited ob- 
servation. At Brussels, as in all other capitals, Hvin^ is 
more expensive than in the country towns : it bears, com- 
pared to Ostend, Bruges, Ghent, Antwerp, and Liege, a 
proportion of five to four ; that is, catem 'paribus, a family 
may live for 400/. pounds sterling in any of these towns, as 
well as for 500/. in Brussels. The hotels, which abound 
in all of them, are of course the dearest establishments ; 
but amongst these, some are much less extravagant than 
others. At Brussels, for instance, the H6td de Flandres and 
the new Hotel de TEurope, both on the Place Royale, enjoy 
the same advantage of situation as that of Bellevue, and are 



COACH-MAKING AT BRUSSKLS. 79 

not SO expensive, though not inferior in point of acconmio- 
dation. The Hotel d'Angletorre) and that of La Cou- 
ronne, are both very res[)ectable, and, again, more reasona- 
ble than any of the preceding. The safest way, on arriving 
at any of these establishments, is to select an apartment at 
a given price, and to fix, beforehand, the sum you intend 
giving for your dinner. liodgings ore easily procured in 
Brussels. For a single person the charge is moderate ; but 
a whole suit of apartments for a family, (in the good part 
of the town,) exclusive of attendance or fuel, is not to be 
obtained for Jess than from 100 to 150 francs a week ; and 
in the more fashionable distHcta of the town, much more 
will be asked. . 

The necessaries of life are not only plentiful, but cheap. 
Fruit and vegetables are very abundant. A small basket 
of the finest peaches in Ahe world has been bought for ten 
cetUs in the summer. 1 have seen some magnificent pears 
sold in the market for three eenU the pound. Bread is of 
an excellent quality throughout Flanders, perfectly white, 
light, and highly’^flavoured. Its price is not more than 
half of what it bears in England. In^ the provincial towns 
j)oultry is very plentiful, and to be had at a very low price. 
The French and Rhenish wines are those mostly drunk ; 
very little Spanish or Portuguese wine is to be found. 
Even at the table of the superior classes, good sherry is 
very rare. Wages to servants, and the keep of a carriage 
and horses, are nearly the sairie as in Paris. There 
are at Brussels a great number of very handsome equi- 
pages, many of which maybe seen daily in the Alice Verte. 
The Brussels coachmakers have considerable reputation 
in the north-west of Europe ; and their caleches are in 
great request. A handsomely-built and strong carriage of 
this description, built by Mosca, has been purchased for 
<3000 francs, or lil7i florins, which would have cost in Lon- 
don double that money. To sum up all this miscellaneous 
information, it may be advanced, as a fact^ that the great- 



80 


FRUSiaiAN DOUAN1ER8. 


est number of the English residents in Brussels, or in any 
of the principal provincial towns described in this volume, 
live in comparative affluence with an annual income, which 
would scarcely enable them, with the strictest economy, to 
struggle through life at home. 

From Liege to Aix-lar>Ohapelle, a visible improvement 
took plaice in our rate of travelling. The road as far as 
Battice is in tolerable order; but the moment you have 
passed the Belgian frontier, and entered the IVussian 
States, there is a change for the worse; for that part 
which is paved is out of repair, and the chemin de lerre is 
so deep, that there is no travelling over it. The whtde 
country round 1ms a rich and striking appearance. It is 
moderately hilly, and here and tlicre chequered by large 
masses of forest trees. One of these, in particular, 1 noticed, 
within jin hour and halfs drive frani Aix, on the right, in 
the direction of Limburg. If the traveller goes through 
Battice, as our party did on the present occasion, the 
Prussian frontiers and Prussian Douane iTlmpeclion will 
be found on the other side of La Maimi Blanche, half 
way between Batticy and Aix. The examination of the 
luggage and passports is an operation of little consequence, 
there being very little trouble or delay attending it. Tra- 
vellers, even those who are most inttocent of smuggling, 
are themselves, frecpicntly, the cause of greater stri6tndss 
and severity than usual Iming exercised by the officers at 
the douanes in Prussia, m consequence of betraying a de- 
gree of impatience to be set free, and offering for that pur- 
|K)se a sum of money as a bribe. 1 should recommend, as 
a general rule with respet to- getting through Prussian 
douanes, a sufheirat de^ee of self-possession and indiffer- 
ence, promptness in exhibiting the passport, and above all, 
no attempt to get off by the offer of kush^mney. 

Unless pressed for time, the traveller who intends going 
from Brussels to Aix-la-Chaplle, would find the road 
through the forest of Soigne,- and the field of Waterloo as 



PRUSSIAN DOUANIERS. 


81 


far as Nivelle, and from thence by SombrefF to Namur, 
much more interesting ; whence following the picturesque 
banks of the Meuse, he might visit Huy, Liege, and Maes- 
tricht on his way to Aix. The distance is greater of coursti ; 
but the variety and beauty of the objects that present 
themselves at every step, in the latter case, more than 
repay for the time and money expended in the excursion. 


VOL. 1. 


G 



CHAPTER III. 


01£URHBN3lKfi PRUSSIA. 

A||^i.a>Chap£LLe, (Aachen).— ? Recent improvements in the Toym.— 
Inns. — The Munster. — Coronation Chair. — > Remains of Cluirlemagne. 

— Holy Relics.— New Theatre — Redoute; and licensed gambling. 
—New Pamp>room and Fountain. — Season for bathing, aiid drinking 
the mineral waters.— Nature of the Springs.— Direction to invalids 
who intend to visit them.— Mode of living during the bathing season. 

— Expenses. Other objects worthy the attention of strangers at Aix. 

—The Salle du Congres The i^lied Sovereigns and Sir Thomas J^iw- 

rence. — Environs. — Le Louisberg. — Salvatorberg. — Borcelle. — 
Money-chaiigers. — IWid to Cologne. — First view of the Rhine. — The 
Town of CoLOON£.— Cathedral.— The Catholic Bishops and' their 
government.— The Lion and the Canonsi'^.The mtwpid 'Bourgue- 
mestre. — Church of St. Peter, .r- Rubens’il^bTated painting of the 
Crucifixion of that Saint— Monument.tQ Rubws. •*-The .toe 
—Receipt for making Eau de Colbgue.— Navigation of the. ^hine. -• 
Steam-boat— Timber Ri^. 

W B entered Adchm^ dd its {>reskt masters ' i^all Aix-lsr 
Chapene^ at noort oh the 28th of BeptobeT^ TB6 rdcol^- 
lections df Charlemagne and the last Cori^Ss' held thhfe 
are so strongly identidetf with the hare mi^tioh ' Of' 'the' 
cityi that it is iinpbsidble td'th^k the one trithoht' alih) 
thinking of the other.' As we made oiifeSWay thSroujgh’ the 
crooked, riairoar, and by fir the ‘filthiest 
always ill^ose of Ckilbghey'of'ahy-Uh^'W pW'Of the, 
world, I dould hot 'teit thiftii bf th^ wl^hf ASii-te- 



AIX-LA-CHAPBLLE. 


Chapelle was the head-quarters of mighty and chivalrous 
spirits, assembled to witness the pageantries attending the 
coronation of the Roman and German Emperors. As 
many as thirty-six have been crowned at Aix ; and the 
present Emperor of Austria will probably prove to be the 
last. The city is still surrounded by ramparts ; but these 
have no longer the frowning aspect which mark the forti- 
fied towns. In the course of the last few years, the ditches 
have been filled up, and converted into walks and subur^ 
ban shrubberies, with pretty orduurds and gardens, joined 
to them, thus forming an agreeable contrast with the bold 
hills by which Aix is surrounded. There are six gates, and 
a seventh has been projected, behind the new theatre, of 
a splendid stimeture, having in front a wide mall plairfid 
with triple rows of trees on each ^dc, and a very handsome 
road beyond it, leading to an intended public building, and 
an extenmejardin Anglais^ on the plan of the plantations 
of our Regent's Park, though on a much smaller scale. The 
principal inns are nearly ail in one- 'street, called the Com- 
phaus Bad ; to reabh which, it is necessary to traverse the 
whole length 6f the town, beginning at Jacob's Thur, 
through which we entered. The house we stopped at, 
was the Golden Dmchcn, near to which are no fewer than 
four other hotds. Of theses the Hdtel des Etrangmrs aiid 
the Gifand Hotd fire Ihe best. All th^ estar 

hlishm^ts are on a very good footing, cmd re^imble : as 
is the case throughout Germany, and more especially in 
Prussia. ^ The cb^ge^ for mi wdl as for 

every ardde you can call found in e printed taiif, 
whi(^ the landlord is compelled to ke^ .suspeioded in every 
room accessible to tray^ers.; - 'llup system; is admirably 
calculated to save Ixollblej 4Np^te;f,imd.im^ The 

effort of : JcnpfM, wbep we afe in g. strange wunUy, 
unacquaiuted pe^mpa th^i «e cannpt 

very well be cbeatod by . gr^y.sinid^^ is only to; be 
feltby tbpse^wim^yjmg troye9^in;Pther where 



84 


MUNSTM At ATX-LAi.(JHAPRLLE. 


no siich tarif cTCists, find thdr pTOgress aiiMed at every 
step^ and thdr temper ruffled by aetf-evident attempts at 
imposition on the part of those whoae tempor^ services 
are indispensable. It is but justice to say, thait at all the 
b^fore^mehtioned inns, cleanliness, handsome and commo. 
dious furniture, with excellent beds, and good attendance, 
arealways to be met vith. As for the c«»ine, that is another 
thing. No English — ^no, not even a French stomach, Could 
^^y be reconciled to a coarse-j^ained mahogany houill^ 
buried in a litter of sauerkraut ; or could readily ' digest a 
piece of roast meat decorated with hundreds of stewed 
prunes. Nothing m better calculated to give that delight- 
ful sensation called the heartburn, than such a dinner, the 
flfect of which will be vidbly depicted on our grinning 
countenance, at the play in the evening, as we sit very com- 
fortably listening to the warblings of some German song- 
stress, fully expecting to make a much more agreeable use 
ofour fheial muscles. ^ ; j 

As soon as we had taken breath, that useful appendage 
to large inns, a valet de place came to propose, as a matter 
of course, a visit tQ the Miinster. Thither, th»efore, we 
proceeded through some very narrow and crooked streets^ 
ill pavedy having no accommodation fbr pedestrians^, and 
with large gutters in the middle^ tlp^ugh some of which 
runs a stredinlet Of smoking ihhddy muMml water; The 
Miinfijter, or Cathcdtai, stmids aa nearly As possible in . the 
centre of the town. ^ ' ■ i . » v j 

' This celebrated temple, dedicated to the Virgin* Mary^ 
aiid whidl has no^ existed upwatds of a^^thouted year^ 
is of an oet^nal form, forty^ight feetUn diameter^ widi 
a double gallery running round it^ « attached' to wMdr is 
an oblong choir of more inodenl^ftructusei tiinied^txi*«the 
feast, ' and contaimng the pnnctpal a^;. i 
which sii^ported die archcs>of the gaU^^knadeid^^ heaiv 
tiful gr^te and >porpli^i aOd of weikmai^^ 
were ukht of>tbem>^rembVed 



TOMB. OF. GJEIABLBMAONB. 


85 


being substituted in ^tbeiF pUees^ some of which arc yet 
remoiuing* Many of the original pillars, however, were 
sent back^ but have not; yet been replaced, and arc lying in 
the adjoining cloister. For what purpose these divers 
granite columns had been sent to Paris, it is not easy to 
comprehend, as they have nothing in them eiUier in regard 
to wiatmei or proportions, to render them objects of pecu- 
liar interest. But thus it was with the commissioners 
who invariably accompanied the conquering revolutionary 
French armies in foreign countries, with power to examine^ 
select, and send home every precious or other object which 
was deemed worthy of a {dace in a public museum. Many 
of those commissioners being possessed of very little intelli- 
gence and less* taste, it often happened that they sent^ 
Paris whole cargoes of things which were not worth, the 
expense of Garriage— andof that number were the columns 
ill questioiiv ‘ 

The object which immediately attracts the attention of 
the visitor, os he is? ushered into this octagonal ^Jiotunda, is 
the simple, briefs yet eloquent inscription, in unusually 
large letters^ ^^OaBolo MAO^Oi'*' trac^ on a flag^stooe oS 
great diuMiisionsy which. occu|nes the very centre of the Jopr 
of the cburchi B^d is placed immediately under the cupola^ 
by which light is adipittedi Uito the body of .th& churchy 
through. eight^seiQ9^*ireular ;wmd ^Beneath this.stone, 
is the which was first opened, by 
order of Otto III., when the mighty and gigantic Emperor 
wasi found lh 81 sitting a marble, chair, of 

the -simjdfist fonn^ dothedijnr.his imperial robes, and 
with the; < splendid V rcigal^^^^^ ^the ^empire^ .Qa. his knee 
rested « gbldcd MiiKdniiie (of;rtiie .^spd. 
were^reiimcd byTOttQ^Ii.v.vmid servrij ever at the 
«iereidony:dfi\hewal^ A^b9Ut.l6Q 

years afteriindii^^ih^^ ^ 

magne^tolw^tahemjl^ the tomb^; 8114 ^placed^hit a 
nifieent>shrcophegiMji$ <Wliidi4d Stiil^in existence ; while 



TOMB Dip OMARLBMAGNB. 


86 

diair was ciui'ried to oiia of the coxopartih^ts of the upper 
gall^ facing the choir, where it is kept td this dayv on a 
cubical block of stone, with a few steps in front. The 
cheir has, since, repeatedly served at the coronatioii of 
Oharlema^e's successors to the imperial throne. Sua* 
pended over the tomb is an enormous circular chandelier, 
of bronze gilt, with sixteen small towen round the drde 
and sconces; in shape like a crown, being the symbol 
of the imperial power of Charles. From the inscrip, 
tion engraved round the ring, it appears that this chan- 
delier was presented by Frederick I., and that, conse. 
queiitly, it is upwards of six hundred add yean dd. 
Around the octagon are ranged in the lower, asweU as 
dm upper gallery, twenty-four chapels; many of them 
ornamented with richly painted windows. Some excdlent 
pictures too, are shown, which have been restored by the 
French Government to the church, since 1815; some of 
them are by Vandyke, Rubens, Schonfeldt, Mettenlieiter, 
and amongst these, the celebrated raising of the siege of 
Vienna by Breda. 

’ Thus ht the historical interest oonnefeted with this 
curious building is sufficient to satisfy the inquiries of 
the traveller. There is, howcfrer, something more to be 
seen to which the canons of the church attach muioh'more 
importance, and that is^ a number of holy ^ rdios col- 
lected, and here deposited by Charlemagne^ with the 
subsequent addition of some of the mortal ' r^nains’ c^-the 
Emperor himsdf. One of these canons, > a 
latne pCnMinage, having been summoned for the ^f>urp^ 
by our valet, preceded us into the Sacriitia^ put Otti A|e 
and took his sto’ on a chidr^f nealp^a’liu'grt&le, 
invitihg- the party* (of' travellers ’to ■ ifoSbnr hie. * mnaiiijle. 
He then ordelred- a IkigS oblmig'^iarB^^ <oakj«o (8e 
thriiwti^ d|i^‘ ^aSid '^hibitad to biu vieibm'ee^^ 
cases, vnri^, =>)bkts thbkiiidf^ 

and ght^ihasAve^tikrn^^ 



HOLY B;K^1C8. 


fi7 

shuung witb^ djamonds and other precious stones. These 
are arr^g!^ .on^ four shelvesi on the second of which, 
^ fcosn the.top, is a-^hust of Chulema^e, and a part of one 
of hisyfum, i P^ous as the whole of this collection may 
bn deenjyed »hy‘ d)e, ;deyoul--*it yields in importance to 
four ) other artiolos . held in much higher veneration and 
p^served apart, with the greatest care, wrapt up in the 
rkhest sillts. Tie first of these is the white robe which 
the Yirgh^ Majy is said to have worn at the moment of 
thehirthsof iQhrist. This robe was unfolded by the canon, 
and shown in* all its details. The length of it, inpar- 
tieulari; waa mentioned at the same time, and a conclusion 
drawn from that oircumstance that the Virgin must have 
he^ of full stature, Next comes the baby linen used pn 
that occasion The winding-sheet in which St John the 
Baptist was enveloped after his decapitation is, also, exhi- 
bitedy and Ae marks of his blood still shown : and lastly, 
the linen which girt the loins of the Saviour on the Cross. 
The authenticity of these relics rests upon written records, 
stating that Charlemagne had obtained them at difPerent 
times^ifroin the , Emperors of ConstantinopleH-and the 
Patrioi^ha of Jerusalem. ; 

• These holy remains arepublicly exp(^, ever^ 
seyeriilsdif^Sf at the prind]^ altar in the churchy on wbidi 
OGcasioU jthet GOnipourae of'p^ ftom every pact of the 
ndghtHmrio^i^vceMiitiy is v Ver^ is this 

WPisdeifnly 'wheu :,iti jsv 0^ mere act of 

()eyOUd)^ yittting 4hem idiei ia made, by a BuU of Leo 
JJLs>?|o.iYipw i^ iuvivNue an indulgentia 

Mjjjj; Mi > =-r^} ■■ 

o«ca^ v]H«h 

slifaMjiSraidittiiid .at ihfw •w- 



an NEW THBATHE At AIX-LA-OHAPRLLE. 

from the ^p))08ed value bf tkse objects; 1 may, yet be 
permittkl tb state, 'that 1 feittruich mo^ interest in hold« 
ihg in my hand thb real skull the gigantic Emperor, 
forming pari of a bust, made of silver-gilt, representing 
Gharleinagne, hiid in looking at and measuriii^ the bone of 
one of the arms of that great man. What are caMed the 
organs of self-will and veneration by phrenologists^ 1 found 
strongly marked, and ample in ^e uppor region of the 
skull; bnd 1 doubt not but that the friends of phrenology 
will soon adduce the courage, ]ove of power, and sii|wr- 
siition of Charlenmgnc, in support of their system. 

i have already mentioned the New Theatre at Aixi 
Few modem buildings of this class ore handsomer than 
this theatre in all its parts. The exterior is grand, but 
Sj^iled by being painted over with yellow. The obto^ 
style portico, forming the centre; of a fagade eighty-five 
feet \nde, is of the Ionic order, designed with^nsklerable 
taste, and of large proportions. Unfortunately, msteild 
of a bold flight of steps placed in front of them^Hhe 
architect ha^r contented himself with only foil? of* flve 
such steps, arranged so near to a perpendicular, and so 
narrow, that the whole has an air of mesquinene, and seems 
to be crushed under the weight of the colossal columns. 
The pediment also is too acute; and thiS' dribuiftstSnce 
takes away from the breadth of the building. ' The interior 
is peifectJy novel of its kind. It corresponds mole wftti 
that of the Olympic Theatre Of Palladio, at Vioensi^^tifiih 
to any btbet modem theatre 1 have seen in Etirbpe. ^In its 
detafl^^ Grecian severity prevails ! the ’architeiEiire of 'ttb 
prosceCiUm atid stage-texes, and the wide bakony^ wiijldi^ 
instead of what is elsewhere called dia'drem^divdweiFibdm 
runs alt along the giimehil» curve of 
re^ly b^tiful. ptbjilct^ 
serv^, except a bij^%Sil Ariled by>^p^^ 
iiest a ridi' W ritgist 

that lAhge With' the^Wi#.'- ’ 


NEW THEATftE AT AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. i)9 

notin8pi7e>the BpeGtator.with iJiose notions of luxury and 
magnificenoe wldch decoration, the silk 

curtains tod^gikliiig, the brilliant odours, and the profusion 
of ehandeliersj in the London national theatres are col- 
eulated to exeite. The impression is that of stem and 
ohaste beauty : it is rather like that which one experiences 
on viewipg: the Temple of Theseus, compared to the feel- 
ings that' are awakened at the sight of the Interior of St. 
PetoTk' The stage is on a large scalp, and the house is csl- 
culi^ to: hold about 1500 spectators. Although the sea- 
son in which Aix is most frequented was over at the time 
of ourjarriyal,‘die audience was both numerous and highly 
reqjeotableJ Amongst the select circle^ I recognised the 
presulQied'authOT of “ Almack’s Revisited,” with whom I 
had an i opportunity exchanging a few words on the 
mode of living during the bathing season at Aix, where he 
had been residing^ with his amiable and fair lady, during 
the summer 

' The pierfornuuice was a new Opera, intitled die Schwei- 
set Faiiulie,”v to which, though in German, > I listened 
without Jnipatienoe. I The instrumental part is good, and 
was^exceileiitly performed ; and the Vocal music tolerably 
prettyw, , The, subject of the^ piece is somewhat like that of 
‘‘.Nina Piuusa.”: Unfortunately, for die interest of die play, 
the i)Qnnn was both plam and an indifferent singer. 
The story concludes with a Ram des Yaches, sung behind 
tbeiscenesLy the lover, at tbe.sound of whosewell remem- 
bered vniee thOffakv in^^ suddenly recovery her senses. 
The Theatre, ,f(y^ the season, reduces the 

admission places to about one franc, 

^ The^^atp and large stage^box 
adiieliri^irajoeisupiedi, thw,-iq,.dutoher,^^^^^ us. about six 

colipii- 



90 


L1GBN8BJ) aAMBIilNG. 


nade^ supporting a very handsoBio . buildings . t^ interior 
of whkdi seemed to be in. «> blaze .• of ligbt^^ In my p^ 
gress ' 1 noticed.' that the ground^story was opened tO: the 
street^and- teaS; fitted up with large shops fm jeude ^of 
prints^!. trinkets, jewellery, and refresbmentt. (.Having 
tvachedithe landing of the .first storyi. I was . directed to 
the inner apartments by a miUtarydooking -person, -w 
accompanied his gesture^ pointing to my way, with Drpesrr 
v4ir0 chapeau et la eamm^ Profoimd silmce seemed to 
reign in tha interior, and an air of mystery bung over jthe 
establishment, calculated to exdte suspicion* i The prin- 
cipal door , being thrown open, I saw myself, -ati once, 
ushered into a yaa{ and splendid room, in which,<under a 
richly carved and gilt ceiling, and reflected by the polished 
sm^ace of the hundred mirrors which lined the walls, 
X' nbticed various groups of well-dressed and fashionable 
people of both sexes. Their occupation *iSQon became 
manifest to me, as I glanced at the Rouge et Naif, the 
Roulette, the Biribis, and the Treute-et-un tables, placed 
In ^different porta of the room, around which the motl^ 
group were assembled, some sitting, some , standing, . Imt 
all equally and intebsely engaged in that one «deuburi> 
ness of (ho evening, ---gainbliDg. What an imps-essive 
spectacle for > a. stranger 2 . First, the fair oountenanoe-vof 
a pretty, woman, half .conc^ealed by the 'falling. pilum% 
wluah,i^ off an riegant Spanish, hat^ were seen^to iund^l^ 
a tlmusand ohsn as thecaidasuccessividy exldl^t^ 

their nwli^ .rides, presentsdr features, 
accordance with the lineaments of feminina.heattjty. , ^Tho 
prettiest hand, in ^the wM nws busy pricking 
on a.; Slip ofi ruled paper the 'rnidlmaivarie^MsIj chMMas 
of the gamsHTHts tape^^ fegera soil^viwiihiithe^^«ilU^^ 
takingiMiii giving^) iff :ai number lofivnom^^ 
ever changing 
of . the ;mefi,^ririuhiad^< n^ 

invectives against their ill-luck, i^^tiMsa isiiliigjjailfijMhifr ' 



L1CBN6BD GAMBLING; 


91 

gdcoesSy which they seemed anxious to point out to an 
unlucky nughbour, who griimed a smile of assent^ just 
pblished«en0ugh not to have the ^ipearance of cursing the 
mimoni of fortune. There a tall officer of Hussars, with 
his richly braided jacket of silvor, rose above the rest: 
he has watching his stake of piled gold, curling with 
his finger and pulling die bushy mustachio with a violence 
that would inflict pain, were he not absorbed in grief at the 
loss of his money. Here a fashionably dressed young man, 
a banker^s son^ aa I was told, became an object of atten- 
tion lie has just thrown down his last^ for a ** tiretouty^- 
^^0 hope beyond it— his ^es are fixed and glistening^ 
his respkadOn suspended; idone and silent, in the midst of 
a buaring crowd, he holds a papery bearing the records 
of his repeated losses, to his bps, as if to chedc the pix>- 
gress of his very breathy I watched him with melancholy 
interest ; 1 felt, as a fiither, for the ^gamester's father. In 
a few seconds I heard him yrii out a curse— the paper 
was torn 'to tatters by the teeth, and cast afhr— -and the 
youth hiirri^ out the room. This scene [did not 
appear b attract the least notice from the restj whose 
attentions were all engrossed by theif own fortunes,— who 
were ail varioudy t^'tated— and presented manfy sights of 
Agony.*' Umnov^, untouched^ the prie-visaged dealer pro^ 
ceededicalmly with his ofSce, pronouncing from time to 
time (be two magic words Jb^egagne," or Quatante 
gagrieitimhur^ml^ therda- 

tive jbsirion of scattered'as thick over the 

table, ^ as nfidnight sky • '■■■-v. 

' jT^ qrs|;em licensed by p And the 

Ucettb pi^cea airaim revenue tp flie police: and the 
handstkie'^Buiii&ng )m been carried on 

Whidil Itadbm iCd byciiii. 
Asiiy^ jgiUihe .rendezvous ever ^ of all 

afenbgeml' 



...m. establishnient haS| besides^ a .sui^ of. other 
ropus, in one of which l^s are given;, a sp^ioug g^en 
behiiid which ^rves as a promenade^ and. is .much vfre- 
quent^ ; with some springs of mineral wat^ for, use 
pfthopubUc. ■ 

Another eleg^t structure has been added to. the^ town 
within the last two years. This is the new pump-^m, 
or fountain, consisting of a centre in the form of a circular 
temple, of large dimensions, the coved roof of , which is 


supported by fluted columns, of fine proportions, of ythe 
Oieek boric order, with a covered piazza, and colonnjade 
of the same order, one hundred and twenty feet in. extent 
on each side. At the extremities of this, a wng projects 
forward about twenty feet, quite in keeping with the.test, 
and, like it, decorated with pillars in front. . These wipgs 
serve for reading-rooms and coffee-houses : while the piazzas 
aifford a pleasing . shelter, and an agreeable walk to thote 
who resort to drink the water. The hot stream has'^bepn 
conducted by subterraneous aqueducts, through the. ruins 
of old Roman baths, from the spring called the Smfce Jle 
tEmpereurf aiid is made to run into an. ample 
placed at the bottok of some steps in the centre, pf tj^e 
Rotunda. The water, smelling very comfortably of ^ten 
eggs, and at a temperature of 1^^** of Farephialj, 
issues from^ a spout,^ and is drunk out of haU'-pi.nt 
on the / spot. This very , handsome bujlding^ fprm^j 
ornament of the ^Vilhelms Pla^, lmy.ing.in 
row, of trees,, and the Hpuse in wl^ch the King c^ Priti^ 
resi^ dupng the flon^^ mi : 

Aix-larpihape^e^h^^ from i 

spicuous ranjlf;. ^mqng, reput^ bnt^g-p|^^^ 

K^rope. 


,*U ^ • •• •’ 



HOT-SPttINGiS AT AIX-LA-OHAPELLK. 03 


Government, witli the bathing establishments and their 
rev^ties, the town would materially suffer, and decline 
prha^s al toother, the present King of Prussia not only 
replaml ih ty hands of the city authorities the property 
and management of that branch of industry, which had 
been taken away froih diem by Napoleon, but contributed, 
otit of Ms bwh treasury, towards those improvements and 
embeUishiUents which promise, Already, to restore to Aix 
pari; bf its original splendour and importance. 

The le^n which was just over, when we visited^Aix, 
had been unusually brilliant, and had eclipsed, in respect 
to niimbef s as well as rank, the company assemblixi at Spa 
during the saihe period. 

Thb beri season for drinking the waters, and for bath- 
ing, is frbih June to October ; while the most unfavourable 
time for taking sulphurous water is betxveen winter and 
sjuriiig, as well as the latter end of the autumn ; for during 
both^ those seasons, owing to the perpetual changes in the 
weather, it is difficult to preserve an even temperature in 
the bath-rodfns, sb indispensable after the suriace of the 
system hu^bben excited by the water!., The* Very hot sum- 
mer months likewf^ u^^^ 


The hdt ' Springs At Aix afe dght in number, aiid they 
ai^ divided into upper and lower springs. The IForiner 
are situated bn' the riant of the hill, (bn which riahds the 
Hbtel'db Villbj'fttid in the streets adjoining. ' They are 
thi^\itt hhMyri pf whicb^t^^^^^ Source de FEmpereur^^" 
sM it SF, ^&ikrii kek the hibst reptited.' The Water from 
these springs is distribhte&l^ pij^' to different establish- 
nibiitk M and'^^^d^ Of thb town, among 

AbW jb with a'preeiribn ap4! c&r^ which 


etti^u]^^^heir''giihm!heh iuid, Unadulterated, Uaturei' The 
^jM^^ubiis Water th^ (donated" together iiito a 
d&p ’ t^he tem- 

ii M^er tliat of 

Aild 'a gi^t^ df sulphbt^t^ by. 



9>i OrPFERBNT SeUTS OF BATHS. 

drogeit gSfik ^:l ;have’alrcady slated; that the heat the 
Sourte de it^J^pereiir is as high as forty-six d^jre^ of 
Reaumur. The lower ^ngs are five in numbeiv of which 
that of the Bain des RoseS)'^ the Trmkqudle^ and the 
€ofwWe, iHfe the principal. * 

'Besides these sources or spriii^ of hot minai^vwa^^^ 
there exists at Aix one eoU ferruginous: watery called 
Le Drieschf of which report speaks favouraHyv ' » 

These waters serve for the purpose of ' bathing as irril 
as fdA* drinking. The baths are divided intp puUie and 
private. Most of the principal hotels^ particularly Bibse 
in the Comphaus Bad, have private baths, t^ which the 
sulphurous water of the principal spring is conveyed^' * In 
all these baths, contrivances exist for mixing plain or odier 
mineral cold water at pleasure; so as to regulate die 
temperature to the requisite degree. In general, tfa^ are 
neMly conatructed, and the attendance and degree of dean- 
liness of them very praiseworthy. ^ 

Besides the common sort of baths, the town of 
Ghapelle afiemdS opportunities for taking, hot only the 
shower-^bath of mineral water, which is so construct^, Jb 
every instance, that its effect' may be directed to any pert 
of 'the body (doucAe); but also sulphurous vapouhbathfr 
In addition to these, it is expected that in ayear ^tw<^ 
sulphhrous gasdmths And mud-baths will be got ready fer 
use. - sulphurous vapour4mAa in eaii9teiii»< are aa 
constructed^ that the water,^ aS'it’nierges from the |^pea^ is . 
made to fdl on a flight Of etep^ and to edket hi allai^ 
trough^ ovex which is placed dib^ 
and a chur mi wMcli the patient rito enclorediha sreid 
hox^ the head excepted; Thus the ap^pajtbnfdTrtem^ 
phurous parrideS is render at^onee, 

The Imthinj^oiim irt are very numerow 
visited a few of ^ ^dpal 

the AU tiie«s are sii|^3^ 



DIRECTIONS PO» DIUNKIN0 THE WATERS. 95 


ths Upper . Springs ^ The CoTttdftU^ the G«r^ 

hotb'of vhidi^are k the ComphauB JStrasse, form^ 
when united) ftt one end ci the same jtreet^ ^Le bain des 
Se^pt^eurs, /The ^ poor, whether khabitantsOfthetown or 
strangers, have not been forgotten in . these distiibutioiis of 
the mineraiwaters, and the Amenrbadi which contains all 
theheeessaty oonveniencea for both the vapour and shower- 
baths, is entird;^ appropriated to their use; 

Of all these iklAs, that of the Emperor only is, pro- 
perly speaking, an hotel; but the rest are so near to some 
establishm^ of that description, that they may be resorted 
to withevery facility; . - 

The chemical nature of all these waters is thal of bdng 
eminently sulphuretted, and of containing carbonate, sul- 
phate, mid« muriate of soda, with carbonate of lime and 
magnesia; The quahtity» of the gaseous oontenta in.every 
hundred cubic inches of the water is rtwenty-three -cuImc 
incheii^ ; v ; 

Thia is /not, proper]^ speaking, the place Ibr enteraig * 
into a medical disquisitionon thei^properties of these springs. 
In general^teEms, it may be, averred; that th^imre well 
calculated to combat old and invetorate obstructions of the 
liver, diseases of the niesentericf glands, chronic .cases; of 
indigestion, and affections of the skin which will' not ^yield 
to pthei ;cemedies.(> ln>;peei(xhcal: rheumatism^ lumh^, 
and sciatica, stiffr artiedations, and enwtia or anottialous 
pains, I 4aivA) known them to be of iafinite •service.. . > 
lavaM^ idmrinliendrto fr^eat thisrplaoe^ iidioiild'.go 
fumkhediiikh preporinstnielbns. (hank 

the»lmter^/itt tt inipartant to .ascwilamrfthedeigpoe^^a^^^ 
pehitiiimi^tiuile.fo tlkiii|tervaliof'tima^^^ 

ought :to^elaipBe>]Mt!w^ .dnulght;4he^pIq»riety ;o 

3|Mhkii]^ aB^/tdhcwf water,' or taking any.medjdne hefoe, 
after, oe;l»ilwe«dithe:^nNi^ w(der»;. theqiim* 

tityioilkdki^ Tiia8e4eiKpomtswMc^ 

W'ddeidMifbpfraiiy othds bat av^plKifeiMdoo^ person ajtr 



96 IVSTRUCVIONS FOR BATHING AND DIET; 


quainted with the case^ and also with the nature and pro- 
perties of the water* . ; < * . : , 

The water is in general druidc onan empty stomach. A 
moderate walk is taken between thedraughtsy And care must 
be had to avmd cold. An interval of a quarter of an Imur, 
which b generally suffered -to elapse between eadi draught, 
dlows time for a promenade in the neighbourhood/ or 
in the nearest garden. Strong exercise and long walks 
are not consistent with the use of these waters. When an 
invalid is obliged to have recourse to either of those two 
measures, it will be more prudent to drink the water in 
bed, and remain in it until the excitement produced on the 
surface of the skin has subsided. ^ 

If, on the other hand, the patients are derirous/or have 
been ordered to bathe ; the following short cautions will 
be of use to. them.’ Do not go»into the bath either im- 
ntodiately after eating) or after having drunk several tum- 
blers of tlie water. Avoid bathing while constipated.'" The 
bath is also improper, if any excitement or febrile symptom 
be . presenti Endeavour to maintain an imperturbable 
equanimity of temper while going through a course of the 
bath { and Ibr some time previously to entering the bath, 
keep yourself in a quiescent state. 

There are also instructions requisite for die oo^i^t of 
the patient while actually in the ^th, and after getting out 
of 1 % as well as for using the diower and vapour baths ; 
but these are.not of a character to find admissioii ^re. 

With respect to the dkt to;be observed vwhilR^h^ 
it may be stated that a lighl^breakfiwt mi how aiunf vthA 
momingbatb) of miUc, choeobte, or oofiee, u mogl4w^ 
resorted ta Tea b said to be injuiiousi and 
large quantities of butter^ and meat fcnr>biwl^V 
bidden* . All acids^ i vegetables of every descriptien/^iri^ 
naceous substonoes^ friHtsr aodidieeaej^ebo 
The quantity eaten at a time shoiiklbe very Rmrii^ 
the dinner houfj here, b very earfy^ it b lhe^lMte 



MODE OP LlViNC.' AT AIX-LA-OHAPELLB. 97 

oat sappers^ in which, case gruel^ bijoth, or a potage^ with 
a small quantity of meat, are the articles best suited for 
tiiat purpose. With regard to drinking ; wine, though not 
interdict^, should.be used sparingly. The light wines arc 
the best, together with a species of light beer of the country, 
for which Seltzer or Toenenstein water may be substituted. 

The most usual mode of living at Aix, for those who 
drink the waters, and the company in general, is this. 
Batliing or drinking the water Ix^ore breakfast; after 
break|ast rest ; then gentle exercise, or riding on horse- 
back, or. shopping, and visiting. From twelve till two, the 
Kedoute^inner at three. At five, excursions to the en- 
virons, particularly to the Louisberg and the Salvatorberg. 
At six the theatre, which is generally over by nine ; then 
supper; and the Redoute, or conversazioni, of which there 
are several, terminate the» day's occupation. Early hours 
are kept both at night and in the morning. This regular, 
nay, monotonous tenor of living is highly calculated to 
promote the beneficial effect of the waters. 

The expenses of living at Aix4arChapelle during the 
season; are much more moderate than ept^ be imagined^ 
Nothing is left to the caprice or the greediness of an inn 
or bath-keeper. 1 have already observed that the charges 
at the hotels are fixed by a Government tarif ; and equally 
so are the. dbarges for drinking the water or bathings The 
immediate superintendence of the baths is given to an in- 
spector, is a physician. Apartments for a single per- 
son may* had near oneof the baths, in excellent condition, 
for a sum not exceeding nx brines; but niore commonlyfor 
four francs (thi-ee^ diilJings and sixpence) per dim :, for 
every single private hath,, two frauds; are paid, {one shilling 
andeight-penee;) and* a ihower-bath is charged a franc and 
a half, or fifteempenee; An exdeBmit dinner at one of the 
namerous widdh are frequented by the very 

first famihei^'aiid are pfoltis^y aarved withal the hixpiies 
oV the soasonv^ut Alk^ to be had 

VOI,. I. H 

t 



98 h6tBL DB VILLB AT AIX-LA-CHAPBLLB. 


for three or four francs, includii^ a bottle of Rhenish ; 
and, with the addition of another franc, a light bredifast 
may be procured at the house where the bath is laken. A 
servant's wages ore two francs and a half arday, including 
his board. The daily expense therefore for a single 
person, sojourning during the fashionable season, at Aix, 
will amount to little more than twelve shillings a day. If 
to these it be desired to add the luxury of a carriage or 
caliche, with an abomnement to the Theatre, . the total 
amount of daily expenses for a single person will b^about 
a guinea. The expenditure of a family will bediigher in 
proportion to the number of individuals; but a great 
saving will then be made by dining at home, and ordering 
dinner at four francs a head, and for a smaller number of 
persons than the family consists of, as the quantity and 
number of dishes served will be found greatly to exceed 
the wants of the whole party. Thus it appears that an 
invalid, whose case is likely to be benefited by the mineral 
waters of Aix, may allow himself the indulgence of that 
blenefit; or, in other words, may get well in the oousse of 
three months, and^ amuse himself into the bargain, for the 
moderate sum of one hundred pounds. 

There are other objects, besides those 1 have already 
mentioned, which deserve the attention of the traveller at 
Aix ; but amongst them, none call for a special, notice 
more than the Hotel de Yille, .standing cm an elevated spot, 
and flanked by two minarets. This building ^.remark- 
able, not only on account of its venerable anti^ty, but 
also on account of the Salle du Coiigr^s, which is on the 
principal story, and is called la SaUe (TOr, This room,, wi^h 
one adjoining, now separated by a modem portitiim^ fonned 
once a grand saloon, measuring 162 feet in length, and 
in breadth. The height and boldness of the roof are very 
striking. The Salle du Congr^ contains a large painriog 
representing the Congress of 1748, wliich u wholly devoid 
of merit The ministers assembled on that occasicin gre 



SALLB 0(J CONORBS AT AlX-LA-CriAPKLLE. 99 

seated at the council-table, attended by the secretaries ; the 
magistrates waiting at a short distance from the prin- 
cipal group. The figures are said to be portraits. Look- 
ing out of the windows of this room- on the Grande 
Plwe, in front of the Hotd de Ville, the great Foun- 
tain, standing in the middle of a bason of immense size, 
made of bronze, appears to great advantage in the 
centre of the square. The Fountain itself is surmounted 
by the statue, also in bronze and gilt, of Charlemagne, 
in full armour, holding the sceptre in the one, and the 
globe in the other hand. The reader recollects, no doubt, 
that the illustrious Emperor was bom on the very spot 
on which this palace is erected. In a smaller room ad- 
joining to this, there arc still preserved several whole- 
length portraits of the ambassadors who assisted at that 
Congress. The execution of these paintings does not be- 
speak great proficiency in the arts, on the part of those / 
who executed them, nor mudi judgment in those who 
selected the. artists. 

The sovereigns, as well as their ministers, who assem- 
bled in the month of September 1818,, to settle the poli- 
tical affairs of France, were far more fortunate in the artist 
who was to produce a lasting memorial of the different 
liiembers of that assembly. Sir Thomas Lawrence, who 
had been commissioned by his present Majesty to bring 
from Aix the portraits of the three Munarchs present at the 
Congress^for the purpose of decorating Carlton House with 
them, arrived in October at Aix-la-Chaplle, andhad a room 
assigned to him in the Hotel de Ville, where he began his 
operaliona a fortnight after his arrival.^ The first ; Sove*- 
reign who attended at the atelier of that eminent artist, was 
the Emperor of Austria. Profiting by the absence of his 
two brother Soverdgns, who were gone to assist at the 
grand reviews, given between Cambrai and Valenciennes, 
his Majesty honoured Sir . Thomas^ with several sittings, 
during whi^> the painter seized, in & most admirable man- 



100 


THB LOUISBBRG. 


iier, the peculiarities and character of his illustrious original. 
On the return <jf tlie Emperor of Russia and the King of 
Prussia, the saitie unreserved intercourse took place be- 
tween those Sovereigns and the artist, who has produced, 
as we have since had full means of judging, works highly 
creditable to his pencil Sir Thomas was also much en- 
gaged in family portraits of eminent men ; such as minis- 
ters, generals, &c. ;• and his atdkr may be said to have 
been, for a time, a perpetual rendezvous of what there was 
at Aix of most august, brave, eminent, and illustriotis. 

1 had occasion to remark in another place, that, of the en- 
virons of Aix, the Louisberg was the most frequented spot, 
being visited daily by throngs of the best people, display- 
ing their equipages, their horses, and their liveries. This 
name is given to a bold hill, rising at a short distance on 
the nortli of the town, outside of the Maestricht Thur. 
The formation of the hill is sandstone, with thin strata of 
clay, and a superior deposit of debris of marine coqiiilles, 
several specimens of which are found in a fossilized state, 
'rhere is a small and imperfect collection of these fossils in 
the Hotel de Ville., The plain on the summit of the hill 
is ornamented with trees, and a Chinese pavilion, to whicli 
lead two line walks, or roads, planted with trees, practica- 
ble both for carriages and for people on foot. The view 
from this height is beyond description enchanting. It 
combines a great extent and variety of ground,? and is tlie 
chief inducement to the people wlio visit the spo^ There 
are accommodations here for rest and refreshment ; but it 
is recommended that persons who are making use of . the 
baths shall not stay longer in this place than six o'clock, ^as 
the air has proved,' in many instances, highly pernicious 
to them. 

It was in a handsome house in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of this hill, that the late Emperor Alexander had his 
residence during the sitting of the Congress held in 1818. * 
On that occasion, the concourse of people who used to ascend 



SALVATORSflERG BORCBLLE. 


101 


the height by the handsome road leading to it, which the 
French made, was at all times immense. Tables, chairs, 
and benches, were spread before a large' coffee-house situ- 
atinl a little below the summit^ where the citizens assoin- 
hied to take refreshments, while a band of musicians per- 
formed tlie favourite aim of Mozart and Beethoven. 
From this height, too. Mademoiselle Gamerin, the cele- 
brated aeronaut, who had visited Aix-la-Ghapelle during 
the sittings of the Congress, attempted to take her depar- 
ture in a balloon, in the presence of the assembled sove-; 
reigns and ministers, and a concourse of upwards of 100,000 
spectators, who literally covered the entire surface of the 
hill. The attempt, however, was unsuccessful. The un- 
daunted lady had twic^ tried to keep her hold in the l)oat, 
as the agitated balloon showed symptoms of impatience at 
the delay, and both time’s fell out before it left the ground. 
Upon making a third attempt, the ropes which fastened 
the machine to the boat became loosened, and up sprung 
into the air the majestic globe, leaving the mortified de- 
moiselle to her native element^ the earth, to the great dis- 
appointment of the assembled multitude. 

As a walk, the Salmtorsberg, which is the hill next to 
the one just described, is deserving of notice. Its eleva- 
tion is not so great as that of Ijouisberg ; nor has it the 
same attractions as the former hill. But those who prefer 
quiet to the bustle of fashionable crowds, direct their steps 
to the Sal vatorsberg in preference. 

But of the environs of Aix, that which must be con- 
sidered as the most important place is the small borough 
of Bor ceffe, the sulphurous waters of which have b^n 
esteemed equals and a few, superior^ in medieal and 
sanative properties, to those of Aix. Borcette is situated 
to the south of the town in the bosom of a. valley, at the 
bottom of a steep descent Although low, the situation 
,of the borough is said to be by no means unhealthy. It 
is much exposed to the north and westerly winds, and the 



102 MONKYi-GHANGBAS AT AIX. 

air is actually impregnated with the vapours arising 
the numerous sulphurous springs. The advantages be- 
longing to this place are, first, a greater facility of being 
in the open air; and secondly, a saving of money, both as 
to living and bathing, compared to Aix : although even in 
that town, as I have shown elsewhere, the expenses of 
either are not by any means extravagant. 

As we were now fairly within the Prussian dominions, 
through the best part of which we were about to travel 
for several successive days, it was deemed expedient to 
get our Belgian and French money changed into Prussian 
coin. An operation of this description is not a matter 
of difficulty in such a place as Aix. Shops of money- 
changers, (as usual of the tribe of Israel,) are found near 
to the principal hotels ; and it is one of the expected duties 
of a valet de place, as it is also a ‘source of emolument to 
him, to recommend to his master a particular shop where 
the troo is soon accomplished. To one of these I pro- 
ceeded with what I had left of my gold Williams from 
Brussels, and was duly introduced to Mciuherr I. Gold- 
schmidt, gMweehsehr, who, after a great deal of protes- 
tation, that he gained mtin at aall (for he spoke English) 
in giving me at the rate of five thalers and twenty-one 
groschen of Prussian money, for each of my golden Wilhelms, 
proceeded to pay me the amount in gold coin, for which he 
vass obleeged in his conshence” to deduct a trifle for agio. 
So that the rogue got the value of five pounds for eveiy 
hundred from me, for the trouble of exchanging one coin 
for another; or, what amounts to the saine thing, 1 
standing on the one side of Mr. Isaac Goldschmidt's 
counter, handed over to him a certain number of coins, 
worth ten florins each ; 'while he, standing on the other 
side, after scraping and bbwirig, and clapping both his 
spread hands oh his heart, ih token of hik' honefilty, 
gave me immediately back as many ^ins' itrorth -nfee, 
florins and a half each. By my visit tb IsSiie Gold- 



GERMAN PORTING. 


103 


schmidt, geidwecheiery therefore, 1 found myself one- 
twentieth part poorer in cash than 1 was when 1 entered 
his shop. There is no way to avoid this — and I shall 
have to tell so many worse stories on this identical subject 
hereafter, that I i^all not dwell farther upon it in this 
place, excepting so far as to say to the traveller, Beware 
of gUdwedmlers in general.'' 

We left Aix at seven in the morning, by the Coin TItur, 
a very pretty modern structure, with plantations on both 
sides of it, taking the paved road, which with the excep- 
tion of about three miles, where there is nothing but 
deep sand, is the uniforni line of communication between 
Aix and the Rhine. The Prussian system of posting is 
said to be admirably calculated for the protection of tra^ 
vellers against imposition. It is much the fashion to rail 
against German postilions for their slow driving, and to 
assert that neither money nor curses con make tliem out- 
step the boundaries of their nature." For our jmrt, we 
submitted quietly to the simple effect which might be 
produced by a liberal drink-geld, and we saw no reason 
to complain of the rate at which we travelled. In the 
Prussian dominions the distances are reckoned in Afey/ea, 
each of which is to an English mile as and two 

such niiles are considered as a poste. The manner in which 
these distances arc marked on this road is two-fold. From 
the frontiers of Prussia, at the Maison blamhe, a little 
before Aix, until a short distance from J uliers, the miles 
axe marked on a lofty quadrilateral stone pyramid, bear- 
ing the number of miles froin Cologne, surmounted by the 
Prussian eagle. Between these milliary pyramids there 
are tliree large stones, having the shape of an inverted 
bell, dividing the space into four equal parts, marked 
i» h ir of a mile ; while each of the four intervals is 
again subdivided into fifty smaller spaces, distinguish, 
ed by small cubical stones, on the front side of which 
is inscribed the total numlier of such jailer intervals, 



m 


HATS OR TBAVJKLLING. 


equal .tu. th& two^ hwidredth/ part* of a 

< The second mode of marking the distances, is observed 
betweeo^i Juliers aud .Cologne. . It consists, of lofty mile- 
stoajQs, placed at the proper distance from each other, the 
, spaces between which are divided into four equal ports by 
differently shaped stones, and the latter intervids again 
subdivided into ten, by still smaller square stones^ A 
number, which decreases progressively in the direction 
towards the Rhine, is marked in black figures on the two 
opposite*8urfaces of these smaller stones at right angles lyith 
the road, so as to be easily noticed by the traveller posting 
to or from Cologne. Now by means of this arrangement, 
the unravelling of which proved to me an amusement, as 
I found no notice taken of it in the sundry guides 1 had 
with me ; 1 proceeded to ascertaia whether there be really 
good ground for the sad grumbling which is for ever set up 
against German postilions; at least on the present occar 
sion. I therefore made repeated trials on different portions 
of the road, with a stop watch, with the view to measure 
our velocity, and found that we uniformly reached one of 
the smaller divisions in somewhat less than a minute, 
except where a hiU intervened* W e were consequently tra- 
velling at tlie rate of five English miles and seven-tenths in 
forty minutes, or eight miles and a half an hour ! — II faui 
kre jmte, says the French adage. Why should we expect 
men I and animals to do more abroad than in England!^ 
The country from Juliers to Cologne is one continued 
succession of the most pleasing landscapes, rich and highly 
cultivated. But die appearances of the villages with their 
mud cottages, ill^paved • and filthy streets, and a wooden 
barn in Ueu of a church, form a sad contrast to the aspect 
of the country. . Nor is this contrast softened down by the 
squalid (ountcnances of theiCountiy people, and the raggeil 
condition of a large number of brats, or the ^ constant 
succession of beggars of all ages who assailed us with th^ 



ROAD TO COliOGMK. 


105 


lamentatkmi^'of fihiAKine at every petty village, or at the foot 
of the most trifling hill, where we were compelled toprocei'd 
at a dower rate. How comes it, that while Nature seems to 
have scattered - abroad on the surrounding country, the 
most undoubted marks of productive wealth, its inhabi- 
tants wear the garb of misery? I pretend not to explain 
this apparent paradox, but 1 state facts such as 1 observed 
them ; and I must add, that these facts are not of the 
present day , nor the result of the present Government ; for 
I understand that they existed in full force when this 
country formed part of Le Grand Empire. It will require 
some years to put the people of these provinces on a foot- 
ing pro])ortionate with the liberal produce of the land they 
cultivate. Something is evidently wrong in the present 
system. 

Arrived, at last, on the eminence of a steep hill, the 
second we had ascended since Bergheim, we saw stretched 
on the distant horizon, the valley of that far-famed river, 
the stream of which has so often been dyed with the blood 
of combatants, from the wars of Caesar, to the last strife 
between Napoleon the conqueror of {lurope, and the con- 
querors of Napoleon. There are associations with the name 
and aspect of this, the most romantic as well as the most 
historical river in Europe, which tend to inspire feelings of 
interest on approaching it for the first time, stronger even 
than either the grandeur or the beauty of the surrounding 
scenery are calculated to excite. From the height on 
which we stood, we could only catch a glimpse now and 
then at the noble stream, as the rays of the sun just emerg- 
ing from a dense cloud were reflected from its surface, 
whilst the whole range of Goldgne was seen overshadowed 
by the intercepted light. 

We soon descended the last hill, and having, once more, 
gained the level ground through a succession of the richest 
^aiid most extensive orchards, after three quarters of an 
hour, we readhed the gate of Cologne, where meeting with 



106 


COLOGNB. 


noneof thfi usual interruptions for passports andrmsigne. 

we directed the postilions to drive to the Cowr Impe* 
riale. This inn, to which we had been recommended as the 
best, was so full that we were obliged to try the Ht. Esprit, 
where we sought in vain for those excellent accommodations 
which are attributed to it by Fischer’s and other guides. 
The only redeeming quality is its situation on the Rhine 
opposite to Deutz, and close to the Pont i bateaux^ which 
leads to it. 

1’he tovm of Cologne occupies a very large space of 
ground, and extends for nearly three miles from north to 
south, along the left bank of the river. The streets are 
narrow and irreguliir, and owing to the very great elevation 
of the houses, they are also dark. The architecture of most 
of them resembles that of the houses at Bruges, having 
a great number of small square v/indows on each floor, of 
which latter there are as many as seven and eight ; but the 
brea^lth of the front of the house diminishes regularly as it 
ascends from above the third story, not by a slanting line, 
but en^eckelons, so that the last or upper story is just wide 
enough to siiit one window. There is no projecting roof ; 
but the rain is collected and made to fall from the roof 
into the middle of the street, by pipes highly ornamented, 
and fantastically shayied into flying dragons, angels, and 
eagles, projecting several feet from the edge of the roofs. 
There are several of these to each roof, so that the pedes- 
trian in rainy weather has no chance of escaping a drench- 
ing. Add to this, that except on a Saturday night, when 
a general cleaning takes place, the streets are exceedingly 
dirty, constantly muddy, and exhaling a very different odour 
fn)ni the delightful perfume which bears the name of the 
town. The pavement is really as bad as in the timfis of 
Agrippina, and for aught I know, has not been repaired 
since. There is no accommodation for foot passengers ; 
and in short, the whole and interior of tlus town ^ 

is calculated, at first sights to alienate the gobd-wSl of the 



CATHEDRAL OP COLOGNE. IO7 

best-natured cosmopolite in the world. Shall I say that it 
resembles, in a very great degree, particularly in the vici- 
nity of the Rhine, those delight^! quarters. Lower 
Thames-street, Tower-hill, Radclifie Highway, and the 
adjoining lanes, courts, and alleys ? No one who has seen 
both places would be inclined to doubt the accuracy of 
the simile. 

As the Count proposed staying at Cologne but a short 
time, we lost not a moment in sallying forth to see the two 
glories of the place, namely, the Cathedral, and the painting 
of the Crucifixion of St. Peter, by Rubens. 

To Judge from the original drawings of the architect, 
copies of which I had an opportunity ol seeing ; and also 
from those portions of the building which are now erecting, 
of what would have been the general effect and character of 
the Dome, at Cologne, Vhen completed ; it is impossible 
not to admit that few Gothic structures dedicated to the 
service of God, would have equalled it in purity of design, 
si/e, grandeur, and magnificence of execution. The Cathe- 
dral of Cologne would, in many respects, have tlien ranked 
next to the stupendous Duomo of Milan. Rut the choir 
and the side-aisles only are complete. The building was to 
have been divided by a quadruple range of massy clustered 
columns, into a nave and two aisles on each side. Three 
of these remain unfinished.' The intended pillars are raised 
scarcely one half of the designed height, and are covered 
over with a boarded ceiling. The whole of the space in the 
Centro is also surrounded by boards. The towers in front, 
detached, at present, from what exists of the principal body 
of the church, rise to different elevations, but are far short 
of their original dimensions. They were to have been live 
hundred feet in height ; whereas the one on the left is not 
more than twenty, while that on the right is perhaps as 
much as two hundred and fifty feet high. The latter is 
. terminated by a platfiirm, still exhibidng the large crane 
which served' for raising the stones. This very remark-' 



108 


CATHEDRAL OF COLOGNE. 


able feature may be distinguished at once in all the nunic- 
rous engravings that have been published of the building. 
In the construction of the towers, the architect lias 
united great strength with elegance of design. From one 
of them springs the portion of an arch, the direction of 
which, in reference to the neighbouring parts of the build- 
ing, is not very obvious. Neither is it easy to ascertain 
the intention of a Gothic gateway of great beauty, standing 
somewhat in front and at a distance from the towers, unless 
it were intended as a portico. We entered through this 
gateway into a small open space, or what may now be called 
an open court; and taking the left side of it, passed 
through one of thfr doors of the church, between the two 
towers just described, and slowly paced along the left side 
aisle to the threshold of the choir. The sun, which was 
far Mow its meridian, threw its' nearly horizontal rays 
through the fine, lofty, and beautifully-painted windows of 
the choir, as we were casting our eyes on the forest of 
clustered pillars standing before us. These are seen 
springing from the tessellated pavement, graceful yet mas- 
sive, elegant, and weU-proportioned, up to a gigantic height, 
there to receive on their highly-wrought capitals of flowers, 
varied on every pillar, the collected, ddicate, and beautiful 
tracery of the vaulted roof. 

The form of. the church is that of a cross, with the choir 
towards the east ; its extreme length measures 400 feet 
Rlune measure, and the breadth and height of the transept 
is 231 feet, while near the entrance it is only 161. An 
hundred pillars, four of which measure, each, thirty feet 
in circumference, were to have supported the vaulted roof 
of the centre and side-aisles ; but, as I before stated, most 
of them have never been raised higher than from seventy 
to eighty feet. 

We are informed by Alois S(^reiber th^ the altar-piece, 
the monuments, the statues, and above all a sculptured ta-, 
bernacle seventy feet bight, of good workmanship, which 



GATHBDRAL OF COLOGNK. lOQ 

ixistccl before 1769, wore in tlie strictest harmony with 
the rest of the building, and maintained tlie character 
belonging to chaste Gothic structures. These were re- 
moved at the suggestion of some ignorant canons, and the 
present decorations substituted, the composition and taste 
of which are ill suited to the severity of the prevailing 
character of the temple. After having admired two fine 
statues in the chancel, and examined the interior of the 
choir, we were conducted along the semicircular external 
aisles behind it, in which there are several chapels. A 
priest escorted us to an Ionic monument, near to the centre 
chapel, said to contain the remains of the three Magi who 
worshipped our Saviour at Bethlem. These were presented 
by Frederic the First, after the takiiig of Milan. The 
names CASPAR, MEliCHIOR, Balthasar, are worked in 
rubies on those [larts o{ the tomb which contain the heads 
of the Kings. Revolutionary France has many sins to 
answer for. In this instance, she has to account for the 
massive crowns of gold studded with diamonds and pre- 
cious stones, which, it is stated, rested on the three heads 
in (juestion ; though some pretend, that long before the 
French had entered Cologne, this predious monument, with 
its treasures, had been taken care of by the canons them- 
selves,* who transported it into Germany, and returned it 
some years afterwards to its original situation, in the pre- 
sent mutilated condition. The library of the Cathedral 
suflered also from the same mischance. It was removed 
from Cologne, and has never been seen since. A particular 
s[)ot was pointed out to us. in this chapel, where rest the 
enlrailles of Marie de Medicis, who ended her days in the 
Convent of our Lady of the Capitol, another and certainly 
the most ancient church of Cologne. This unfortunate 
princess, the widow of Henri IV. and the mother of Louis 
XII I. had been driven thither from France by the intrigues 
of a profligate Cardinal. ^ 

* It is impossible to survey the interior of a building like 



110 ATROCITY OR THE EPISCOPAL GOVERNMENT. 

the Cathedral of Cologne, tinged by the heightening and 
magic effect of reflected light, while the whole mass lies 
buried in solitude, and silence prevails, save where the 
almost invisible vaults a])ove repeat, in successive echoes, 
our footsteps and our whispers — without expeiiencing a 
certain inexpressible feeling of reverence, which quickens 
every sentiment of religion, and lifts the soul towards 
Heaven. The Countess, whose mind is exquisitely framed 
to experience religious emotions, seemed affected at the 
scene around her. She observed to me, that we never 
visit a Gothic pile, sacred to God, but we come out better 
Christians. Certainly no style of architecture is l)etter 
calculated to inspire veneration and humility. And when 
the splendid ceremonies of the Catholic or the Greek 
rites, with their processions and scenic effect — when the 
heart-thrilling “ voice of melody, with trumpets also, and 
shawms singing unto God, and praises unto his name,'”— 
when the intoxicating perfume of the incense ascending to 
the lofty vault, and lending its transitory veil to the mys- 
terious consecration of those rites— when all these circum- 
stances conjointly contribute to heighten the impressions 
of the moment ; we reflect on |he thousands of our fellow 
creatures, who on witnessing them, gather themselves 
nearer unto the Deity, “ inwardly praising the Lord which 
dwelleth in Sion.*” 

It were to be desired that no association should be 
awakened in our minds at the sight of this sacred pile, cab 
culated to lower in our estimation those servants of the 
Church, who by their high station inflict more injury on 
the religion they adminster, when guilty of unchristian 
conduct, than they can benefit it by a whole life of sanctity. 
Such, however, is not the case with regard to the Cathe^ 
dral of Cologne. The Episcopal Government of this town, 
which is brought to our recollection by the prospect of the 
church before u8-**has left behind it annals of such con* 
tinned turpitude, that it k impossible tiot to grieve at * 



ATROCITY OP THE EPISCOPAL GOVERNMENT. Ill 

those legends of Catholicism. Who can forget' Sigefrey of 
Westerburgh, Archbishop and Elector of Cologne, under 
whose cruel and treacherous treatment, Adolphus Due de 
Berg expired after several years’ imprisonment, exposed to 
the greatest torments ? Or his predecessor Engelbert, an- 
other mitred sovereign, who to wreak his vengeance upon 
Cologne, for having temporally refused to recognize his 
authority, instigated a monk to set fire to the principal 
part of the city.*^ And Conrade of Hochstoether, the 
haughtiest, as well as the most relentless priest that ever 
governed that unfortunate town, did he not precede botli 
those bishops in the career of violence and cruelty ? Such 
was in fact the secular administration of the Catholic bishops, 
that the inhabitants had to sustain a struggle against their 
tyranny for the space of two centuries. Their chief magis- 
trates, faithful to their trust, stood firm, and resisted 
the episcopal excesses with aU their might. But by their 
conduct they drew upon their own heads the vengeance 
of the mitred princes. Amongst those of the Bourgue- 
inestres who most signalised themselves in upholding the 
rights of the people, was Hermann Grein. Engelbert the 
archbishop, irritated at the oppositio'h of that magistrate 
to his despotic will, determined upon getting rid of him. 
For this purpose, the prelate engaged in a plot against his 
life two of the canons of the Cathedral, and having sent 
to them a domesticated lion which belonged to him, and 
which had been purposely left without food for some days, 
desired them to invite Grein to an entertainment, and in 
the middle of it to retire and let loose the ferociou.s animal 
upon their guest. This the canons punctually executed, 
but the intrepid Bourguemestre quickly wrapping his left 
arm in his cloak, forced it down the lion’s throat, while 
with his right hand he plunged a poignard into its side, 
and thus escaped. Not so the guilty priests — for they 
were soon after arrested by order of the same chief magis- 
* trate, and hung before one of the doors of the Cathedral, 



112 CHEP-D'(EITVRR OF RUBENS. 

which for several centuries has been known by the nainu 
of the Priests* door. 

Our next visit before dark was paid to the churdi of St. 
Peter, in which Rubens was baptized, and for which he 
paints one of his chef-d^auvres^ as an altar-piece* This 
celebrated picture represents the Crucifixion of St Peter, 
and for strength, truth, and colouring, may be considered as 
far superior to most of the prbducdons of tlv^it artist Yet 
there are some connoisseurs who aflect to believe that this 
painting is not the work of that master, but of one of his 
pupils. This arises probably from the absence of those 
huge, fleshy, exaggerated figures which are generally olv 
served in most of^lubens’ pictures. This painting is of 
considerable size, and most sumptuously framed, forming 
the principal altar-piece. It is made to turn on a ])ivot, so 
as to withdraw it from the publicr ga/c for a time, occa- 
sionally, substituting a very jfair copy of it which is on the 
other side of the picture, and which was executed to supply 
the absence of the original, when it graced the Louvre from 
the year 1794 to the year 1815, in which year the Prus- 
sians claimed it from France and restored it to Cologne. 

The people of Cofogne have not been backward , in tes- 
tifying their veneration for their fellow citizen, whose pen- 
cil has acquired him an immortal name. Independently of 
having given his name to one of the squares, {Rubens PlatZi) 
they erected in 1822, in the house in which he was boin; 
a monument to his memory. 

What idle traveller goes to Cologne, and does - hot pre^ 
vide himself with a gppd stock of the d^ghttuhpeifumed 
water, so well known,:as the supppsed inimi^ble prpdueM^’^ 
of that place ? But it^ is essential to know, that thi^areiMr 
fewer than three Farinas, one only of whom is the gehiiine 
descendant of the inventor and proprietor of thjd fiecret 4 
first to whom we addressed our^lves, un^r guidflhns 
of the vaiet de placet is a fegukr impoahn*, 
of our party swneveryhed Cologne water- 



EAlt DB COLOeNB. 


113 


ceived ; and having eomplahied to the servant of the fact, the 
rogue, who was evidently in league with the other, thought 
of quieting us by conducting the party to a second Farim, 
where a large supply of e^dellent Eau de Cologne was pro- 
cured. This second Farina informed us that only 8000 
bottles of the water were sold by him. He is a Johann- 
Maria, “ m der Stadi Turiif,” like the other two, and lives 
in the Ooberstrasse. But we might have fared still better, 
had we been informed in time, that there exists still a third 
Farina, whose magasin is opposite to the Poste aux lettres, 
and whose Eau de Cologne is of the most superior descrip- 
tion. 

From a person connected with the manufacturing of 
this spirituous water, 1 learned that the principal Farina 
sells about three times as many bottles as the second ; 
and supposing the spurious Farina to sell 6000 l)ottles, 
the whole quantity of Cologne water, actually sold 
in that town for exportation, would amount to 38,000 
bottles. It is manifest, therefore, that a large quan- 
tity of Eau de Cologne must be spurious ; for a much 
larger quantity than the one last-menijoned is' consumed 
in Europe. The facility with which this perfume may be 
imitated, has probably led to the manufacturing of it in 
most of {he large towns and capitals. My fair readers will 
find the following an excellent receipt fear making Eau de 
Cologne equal to that of Farina, and at one-fourth of the 
price. 

Take of the essence of bergamot, lemon-peel, lavender, 
and orange-dower, of each one ounce ; essence of cinnamon, 
half an ounce ; spirit of rosemary, and of the spirituous 
water of^melisse, of each fifteen ounces; strong alcohol, 
seven pints and a half. Mix the whole together, and let 
the mixture stand for the space of a fortnight; after whidi, 
introduce it into a glass i^ort, the 'body of which is im-. 
inersed into boiling watOr (K)ntain^ in a veswl jfiaced Over 
a lamp, while the beak is introdub^ into' a large glass 

VOL. I 



114 • BAU DK COLOONK. 

reservoir well luted. By keeping the wnter to the boiling 
point, the mixture in the retort will distil over into the 
receiver, which should' be oovci?ed over with wet cloths. 
In this maimer will be obtain^ pure Eau de Cologne. 

Thenavigation of the Rhine at Colc^e is very important. 
For the exportation of the produce of all the States, situated 
on either bank from its v^ source, Cologne is the prin- 
cipal entrepot . The river in this place is 1300 feet wide, 
and from twenty-five to fifty feet deep. Vessels going hence 
to Holland have fr^uently double the cargo which has 
been brought down the river to this place, and the final 
shipments for the sea take place in this port. From hence 
the navigation id uniform, uninterrupted, and free from 
danger. The entire course of the Rhine, from its source 
to the sea, is calculated at 303 J leagues. One-fifteenth 
part of this, near the source, is not navigable, and for 
the next thirty leagues it can only be navigated by 
small boats. From Bale to Strasburg, boats of thirty 
and forty tons descend the river; arid from the last-men- 
tioned {dace to Holland the navigation is general, and of 
more importance, although not altogether free from diffi- 
culties and risks in some few parts above Cologne. Ves- 
sels carrying from one to four hundred tons, frequently 
descend this principal extent of the Rhine. 

The conveyance of travellers, Imth up and down the 
river in boats, marktschifles mr diligencesj and private 
boats or galiotes, has been much improved of late years, 
and placed under proper relations. The marktichiffes 
are very large and oommodious vessels, with a stAtet^room 
and other convemences* From Mayence tOMCnlognie,;S 
distance of twenty-one and a half German. xnile64)yfi^al^] 
or forty-one hours and three-quarters reckoned is 

performed during the fine season^ in one.of those 
in two days ; and in three days from Cologpie to Ma;^ence. 
The passengers B^ust d^p on shore, ^ as the nayigiiit® J* 
suspended during, the night. 



navigation and STBAMERS on the RHINIi. 115 

The establishment of steam-boats, Aowever, has done 
away, in a great measure, with this tedioi^s and more 
expensive mode of travelling. Oite of thfse vessels starts 
twice a^wedc from Golog^for Mayencc, and back again. 
Two whole days are emidoyed* in the former (stopping 
the night), and* ten hours in the latter voyage. Similar 
conveyances exist from Cologne to Rotterdam and back 
again, the distances being performed in twelve hours de- 
scending, and twenty-four ascending. The passage from 
London to Rotterdani, in the steam-boat, occupies twenty- 
four hours : so that a traveller, embarking at the Tower 
stairs for Mayenoe at nine oVlock on Sunday morning, in 
July, we will ^ay, is sure of getting to Rotterdam on Sun- 
day ; whence, after taking a view of the place, he starts in 
another steani-vessel for Cologne, where he arrives on 
Tuesday afternoon.' Having rested the night, he again 
embarks. at five in the morning of Wednesday in a third 
steamer, reaches Coblentz the same day, and is landed at 
Mayence on Thursday afternoon. If his business takes 
him to Frankfort, a fourth steam-vessel is ready to convey 
him to that place on the same day, ^ two such vessels 
perform that distance twice daily. Or if Switzerland be the 
point of direction, the Frederic William steamer will con- 
vey hiiri to Strashurgh in forty-four hours :* from whence, 
plunging into the Black forest, a short journey by land 
takes him into the very heart of Switzerland. Such are 
the wonderful performances of steam in navigation ! A man 
may hreakiost in Jxindon Saturday, take his supper 
at the Romisch Kaiser on the Thursday evening following 
at Frankfort, and dine in. some Swiss Canton on the suc- 
ceeding Sunday ! and all this at the moderate expense of 
from forty to fifty rix-dollars, or at the very utmost, ten 
guineas. Who will not travel ? : 

* I have since lei^ed that this accoinmodation has ceased to exist;, it 
having been found that the navigadoii from higher up the Rhiue ihan 
Mayence, is full of diffithilties to steam nSVigatidn. * 

■ • ■ ■ . ; I 2 



nS' * TIMBBR-RAFTS ON THE RHINR. 

V'.fc; .A ^ I'V 

most curi<i|fl;t4ij^t8 of humiin are to 

E :in the coul^^ navigaition the Rhine, are 

s^ted timi^^raits, of one of Which I have given a 
intation in tBoa, place. These singular floating ma- 
ace oomposed ^ of many thousand tr^s, disposed in 
Itod properly hushed j^g^er. They are frequently 
l^ J^ to lOOQ feel; in lepg^, and from 60 to 80fe(>t 
and draw perhaps as much as six or eight feet 
SI wateiP They are rowed by 800 men, who are disposed 
the en^ cf the float, as seen in the plate. This crew is 
:)b|^|g;ed inf' a. small village of wooden huts, neatly erected 
W^the floati-preseifling a very curious appearance. Every 
i^rangement, as to discipline, provisions, and such other 
isolations, as are generally prevalent on board of large 
Vessels at sea, obtains in this case, and they arc always 
j^reoeded, at the distance of a mil& or more, by a small boat 
• ^ ^ gi'v® notice of their approach. To 

niachines may with propriety be applied the motto 
€Kquirii eundo. For at first starting, they consist 
ifew .tr6es fastened loosely together, and their more 
by gradual additions, takes place at 
eeriain fixed stations, in proportion as the navigation 
becumes less enttmgled, until, at last, the whole assumes 
the appearance 1 have described. 






CHAPTER IV. 


C18-RHBNANB PRUSSIA. 

BoNN.^Medical School. — Collections Roman Relics.— View from 

the Terrace of the Royal Chateau. — Hie Seven Mountains and the 
Dri^oii Rock. — Godesbeiig. — Rolandseck.~i?>j>t/er Ley Basalffeisen. 
Vine trees in the Rock.— R em auen. — M ineral water at Tdnenstein. 
Anoebnacu. — I nferior Rhenish wines. — Heavy duties. — C oblentz. 
— The Moselle, and Mosdle wines. — HStel de Trfeves,— Grande 
Place.— Russian Commentary on a Frendi Monument. — The 
Theatre. — Schiller's iKoifters,— General aspect of the Town.— 
Modern Fortificatioiis.— Bridge of boats. — Fort of Ehrenbreitstein.— 
Mineril waters of Tlialborn.— B oppart.— S t. Goar. — T he Virgin of 
Liirley. — Castle of Schonbeig. — B aciiarach. — H eimbui^h and 
Soneck.—Rheinstein,— B ingen.— R oman Bridge over the Nahe.— 
Hie Kiopp. —The Bingenloch and Mausethnnn.— Tomb of theprefet 
I loltzausen.— Crossing the Rhine to Rudesheim.— Hie Rubingad. 
—Steinberg. — Johannisbei^. — Castle and cellars of Prince Metternich. 
— Markobrunner. — B iebebicu Schloss. — W ealth of the Duke of 
Nassau. — Seltzer and Ems mineral waters. — W isbaden.— F avour- 
able aspect of the town.— Time for drinking the waters.— Mode of 
living, and amusements at Wisbaden.— Road to Frankfort. 

A JOURNEY performed at the close of the summer, along 
the banks of the Rhine, is, beyond question, a source of 
the greatest enjoyment — one which, as a physician, I 
would not hesitate to plte among the most powerful 
auxiliaries for the cure of bad stomachs and the blue 
devils. I have now had two opportunities of witnessing 
its beneficial effects on the constitution of invalids whom 
accompanied during sudb mi excursion, and I speak, 



118 


BONN. 


, therefore from experience. There ia something so soothing, 
and at the same time inspiring, in the contemplation of the 
successive and magnificent panoramas which present them- 
selves to our admiration at every step as we proceed — that 
few nervous disorders can withstand its sanative power. 
I would say to the dyspeptic and the bilious — to those who 
labour under hypochondriac diseases, and a sorry state of 
the digestive organs: go not, in the summer, to Brighton 
or Eastbourne — neither cockney fy yourselves in the Isle 
of Thanet with aldermen’s wives and their rubicund chil- 
dren; hut embark for Rotterdam in a steam-packet ; pray 
Heaiven that you may be duly sea-sick ; run away from 
Holland as soon as you get into it, taking the direction to 
Cologne, by ascending, in a pyroscaphe, the noble stream, 
in front of which I am am writing the present observations; 
and once safely landed at that place, and having seen as 
much of it as is worth seeing, follow us on land or by wiater 
to the city of Bonn. 

Bonn is the first post station from Cologne on the left 
bank, proceeding towards Mayence. The road leading 
to it is of the very best description, and macadamized sehn 
ks r^.gles^ with basalt rock broken into cubical bits of two 
inches square, heaps of which are very neatly piled up, at 
short distances, along the road. The surface of the road is 
hard and smooth, and the rain which liad fallen in abun- 
dance on the morning of our departure seemed not to have 
made the least impression on any part of it. For nearly 
the first half of the road you quit the river, owing to a 
considerable bend in the stream towards the east, and cross 
richly cultivated plains forming the Valley of the Rhine. 
From Nieder Wessling to Bonn, the road gradilally ap- 
proaches nearer to the river, until, on entering the town, 
which is sufficiently ancient to have been the reridenee of 
Drusus, it nearly touches its very margin. 

It was reserved for the present King of iBruseia tq^ give to 
Bonn the importance whidi had passed away with its feu- 



foundation op the university op BONN. 119 

dal days, by establishing in it an University, which has in a 
very few years acquired considerable celebrity. This Uni- 
versity was founded in 1819. His Majesty being then at 
the Congress of Aix-larChapeUe, thought that he could 
not better commemorate the anniversary of the great 
triumph obtained by the Coalition at Leipsig, than by 
issuing a decree for founding that establishment, accom- 
panied by a \ettex addressed to Prince Hardenberg expla- 
natory of his motives. The King gave the Castles of Bonn 
and Poppelsdorf, with their appurtenances, to the Uni- 
versity, which, as at present organised, consists of five 
faculties; two of which are theological, one being for the 
Protestant, the other for the Catholic students. The 
other three faculties are those of jurisprudence, medicine, 
and pliilosophy, or general science, whicli includes all the 
brandies of literature. «The two theological faculties are 
c>qual in rank ; and in the faculty of philosophy there are, 
also, two professors, one of the Protestant and the cither of 
the Catholic confession. In the other faculties no regard 
is had to difference of religion. The University has the 
power of cemferring degrees and honours. Doctor Harless, 
who is advantageously known to the medical world, is one 
of the professors of the faculty of medicine ; and the cele- 
brated* Wilhelm Schlegel occupies one of the chairs of 
philosophy, and lectures on Egyptian and Oriental lite- 
rature. 

A singular circumstance, unparalleled, 1 believe, in the 
annals of modem literature, has recently directed the 
attention of the learned of Europe towards another of the 
professors of this University. The learned gentleman to 
whom I allude is Niebuhr^ who, in the year 1811, gave to 
the world an interesting history of Rome, which excited an 
extraordinary' sensation in Orermany, and revived the study 
of Roman histoiy. throughout that country. Principles 
pecufiaf .tothatvkaTOed professo^^ promulgated in 
’ that work, wludi were supposed, I know nbt how justly, 



PROFESSOR NIBBUHR. 


120 

to bayo ittflRenced -some of thos scenes of timhtQence that 
mark' part of the recent history of. the Germani Univer* 
Be thatras it may, that work is, as it werci no 
longer to be looked upon as. the oftspring of Niebuhr* He 
has'cast it from his paternal roof, and substituted: another, 
(a second edition, so totally different from the 

former, so completely changed in structure and character, 
that , the author himself has denounced to the worH ^his 
first production as dead, and the present one as merely an 
indistinct image of it. Niebuhr held the oiiioe'Qf = Prussian 
Minister at Rome, during the. greater part of the, interval 
that elapsed between the ; first and second edition of his 
Roman history. Doubtless this circumstance enabled him 
to see, that his previous historical account of the Peninsula 
he was then inhabiting, was not borne out by the docu- 
ments and monuments he then had an opportunity of con- 
sulting and that, therefore, a necessity existed for chang- 
ing a work of imagination into one of reality. This work 
of reality has been lately translated into English by 
Messra^: Hare and Thirlwall, and publislied at Cambridge. 

Tk«:iiarae< Professor is at present engaged in a new 
edition of the Byzantine Historians, and has taken part* in 
a scheme; for publishing a new journal in Bonn, to: enti- 
tled the; ^^'Rheinisdies Musoeum,'' and to be devoted to 
jurisprudence', philology,: and the history and philoiof^y 
of ancumt 'Greece. j; 

One cannot fail to remark in the decree of hia Piusiian 
Majeatyi respecting the XJniversity of: Bpnn^ a liberality of 
sentiment on, questions of religion, which-callsTfor a tribute 
of adminattoii i > and which teaches other Binder^ fiyimders 
of public: sdiools,^ that theyeaton alibied l^,:iamedor> en- 
duing religious iostructionfhnn such achoolsi^n nofm- 
son at>all--rw.rotfcer:;a:^^i^^ reascmfor.mitltifdyiitgviii- 
stead of suppnMnff '^ ' in the ease^ of f?the Priissian 

Universityiawhcto. both. ProJ^a^nt; and Gtthohci students 
attend in. great anmberar instead of such a mixture of atu- 



UNIVERSITY OF BONN. 


121 


dents suggesting the preposterous idea of suppressing, al- 
togethery^the chair of Theology; it has, on the contrary, 
led to the establishment of a provision for the separate in. 
struction^ of both in their respective religious faith, by the 
creation of two chairs instead of one in Theology as well as 
Philosophy.- ^ I f ■ 

Nor is the mterestmg manner in which the King declares 
his anxiety to provide his subjects with means of acquiring 
a)]id useful knowledge, less entitled to public approbation. 

1 confidently hope,‘’':observes his Majesty, alluding to 
this University, that it will act in the spirit which dic- 
tated its foundation, in promoting true piety, sound sense, 
and good morfds. By this, my faithful subjects may 
knowj and learn with what patriotic aifection 1 view the 
equal, impartial, and solid instruction of them ail : and 
how much I consider education os the means of preventing 
those- turbulent and fhiitless efibrts so injurious to the 
welfare of nations^'* 

Thd present building of the University stands with its 
front turned towards the river, between the Poppelsdorf 
All^, and another large building, in which is thei^iiblic 
library, Befbre it, is an extensive garden, separated 
iVoni the river by the Coblentz road. The Electors for- 
merly resided in this chriteau^ which, for situation and 
mmantici^eeiiery,- yields to none in beauty. It is suffi- 
ciently large to admit of every part of the Medical School 
hdonging^i td the- University l^ng contained under one 
roof^^ 811= advantage of some consequence both to professors 
and stndedtsi MBesid^^^^ different theatres for the lec- 
tutcEh^ho'i^gical,' a^^ medical, and dimeal hospitals, the 
lyingdn <estabSBlmftent, and'- the various collections neces- 
sary to iliUMt^ Itffcttiiws, arb to be found , in this 
building.^ f of Pnp^lsdn^^ to 

the University by 'W beauniM^ijiralk’ of ohes^ treds nearly 
a nffie hi imd finnadng aJ most agreeable vista, are 

placed the cabinets of hatiirai^historyj and the botanic gar- 



123 


ANTIQUITIES OP BONN. 


den; IFhe Boologkal coHection alone contains juore than 
sixteen thousand specimens, besides a very rich .oolleetion 
of p^iifaptions, of which there are nine thousand already, 
albmost methodically and neatly arranged under the diTec- 
tion of Professor Goldfus. The mineralogical history of 
the Rhine is beautifully illustrated by an immense eollec* 
tion of specimens, due to the indefatigable and active re. 
searches of Professor Noe^erath, who employed in its 
foinnatkiin upwards of twenty years. This collection oocu. 
pies'the largest portion of one of the galleries belonging to 
the cabinet of mineralogy ; the collective specimens of which 
amount to twenty thousand in number. The botanic gar- 
den, extending to twenty acres, is under the direction of 
Professor Von Essenbach, who affords to the students fre^ 
quent opportunities of herborizing in the beautiful country 
surrounding the town. « 

The University is not so frequented as that of Berlin, 
for obvious reasons ; but it can lx)ast of a very respectable 
number of students, many of whom attend it in preference 
to any other in the Prussian dominions, in consequence 
of the^Buperior celebnty of some of its professors. There 
are, at this time, about one thousand and twenty students 
who, for twenty pounds, in University and pn&ssors’ fees, 
and forty more for living, get a first-rate education. 

Antiquaries pretend that one of the most ancient edifices 
in Bonn, the euins of which are yet pointed out near the 
Munster, and which had been convert^ into a church, was 
the work of the Romans; Its architecture^ and ffimensions, 
the tnaterids of its construction^ and the indicatioii of tiie 
form of Er magnificent Rotunda which it ia said to have 
hod, are the ginunds cm which the antiqumte rest their 
assertion. With' better appearances of {nobalfility, have 
those learned admirers of antiqility conajdercd the femams 
of an andent mont^eot inscrihed wkh the words, Su 
VicTORiBC Baobum^ oad harii^someinterestii^ basidUefs 
on three of its sides, as nRoman altar. . This imiiuihent, 



THH DRACHBNFBLS. 


123 


noMT in the Mniieiim of AntiquHieB bektti|^ to the Uni- 
vefflitjj stood in the centre of an open space, supported on 
boisaltic columns,' until within the last few years ; and it is 
presumed that the name of Rdmerplab, whidi that space 
still beai^ had been originally given to it owing to the 
piesence of that monument. There is also, just before the 
Coblentz gate, a house, the doorway of which is in the 
best Roman styles The superstructure^ the entablature, 
the caryatids, all equally bespeak the origin of the build, 
ing. Our stay, was too short to admit of making the ne- 
cessary inquiries on this point. On a former occaision, I 
had visited the cataomnbs of Kreuzberg, an old mcmastic 
structure formerly belonging to an order of monks called 
the Servites. Their bodies are seen arranged in those sub- 
terranean chambers, in a state of the highest preservation. 

Few persons pass through Bonn without taking their 
station on the terrace of the Royal Chateau, mr on some 
elevated spot, either the Bastion or the Tower of the 
Munster, to view the distant duster of the SkbeH Getkrge^ 
or seven mountains, the most remarkable of which, the 
Drathenfeh^ Dragon-Rock, rises^upwards of 1^40(1 feet 
above the bed of the river, on the right bank^ crowned 
by the ruins of a castellated borough. This curious 
group of mountains, the highest of which has about one 
half of the elevation of Mont-Cenis,' forms the termination 
of the Thuringian chain. The Dragon-Rock frowiis al- 
most' perpendicularly over the stream. It was, in times 
of old^ the' abode of a serpent monster, to which human 
victims The beauteous Gertrude of 

Lilienatda was the ' last sacrifice selected. Already her 
fair and ddinatolfiMmi had been fastened to the fatal oak, 
and the fannidable inmate of the cavern’ of Dombrach was 
seen the ctknoious’ and #it 8 ntspectat 0 ]» to advance on 
his pr^ when /a r guddeB and appaUiiig diunder rent the 
g%antie^ rock rint twai% « colanui of fire varoee from the 
deflt^ the mphster was no more^ and the damsel miracu- 



124 


THfi BRA V£ ROLAND. 


Ipurty v'Whp is. Ihe^ that^ocs not^^ to in 
tbjs .^^tjpnaijy legend of the country;,: the confused re- 
cpU^tiop .of .somo volcanic eruption, which converited 
th^ nias^ into basaltic rocks, and by new arraiigeiaents 
ipiid the deposition of decompodng; and fertile Inyas, co9q>. 
ve]rted ,a dangerous inaccessible district into a^suding and 
verdant amphitheatre of cultivated hills ? - : < 5 ! 

( Opposed to these mountain^ on the left bank,, stands the 
ruijoed castle of Roland, as gloomy and sad as the story 
of its proud lord. Returning victorious from , therwars, 
thAf chieftain learned that his intended bride was knimiired 
in the cloister of Nonnenwerth, the walls of which none 
may violate. Stung with disappointment, and his best 
hppes thus tom from him, Roland built a sequestered her- 
mitoge op the rock of Rothen Landsberg, and there spent 
his days in watching, the hallowed spot. The cloister lay 
theroGk& Dne.moming^ as he lumed 
iU a new-made grave caught his eye, And 
pjT^sentlj.the flpw tplling^^a^^ andthe measured paces 

of (the ^ups, with lighted torches, toldr the sad end of some 
pt)pn;^terv Boland approaclied with sympathetic dread 
the solemn procession| and , whispered an inquiry^ into'the 
npme,qf,h^ ^?HJy we^B/caiTyi^^ .It #is 

fldd«^qde,r the^^fipri <ithe> too ;sensitiveHildegiude,«w!ho 
had Aunh nndn^. hpr rpoignant gri^ al (the toportad dMb 
in , bar bfaye.;knigbt. Roland vnited^^nth^he 

dear .r^naina^wqre lowered limto. the deep^ recO0Bcw<rf; the 
earthj.mid r^ith <a smprtal.leap^ threw his lasted into 

them, and exjnred. The rook hai imewhoriMs/tlurt'id^ 
tain’*!^ nampf I - i , Th^f^tiog ballad' whidii SobiUcr»«»mpdied 
from this |pgiGnsdfu:y>tfde^>h^ klil%hly pofmk^ 

throughciiit 0entiahyt 

The . road frpm' ^orm^qntts^^ part^)thd ^ tiwMde^ 
assuming A. istraigM diieotloii^ passes ab tl»dbondf 
b^g,.i another .of^Ytherfbudal 
hig|),iperohedvupoa a irock r/Fhero^as hM^ 



RBMAGRN :-^ANDBRNACH. 


m 


Auberge and other acedimmodation, much re^ed to in 
the summer; on aocdiint’ of its'pmrti alr^ ahd the magni- 
ficent views which the 8|)ot ailbrds. Beyond this place 
the road again inelines to the‘ water'redge,‘ under the Ro- 
landseckv at the foot of which it lies upon the -very rock 
that forms the bafts of the remaining line of communication 
as far as Remagen; However anxious we were to get on, 
we cmild not but, now mid then, regret the rapidity with 
which we Were driven along this beautiful road. From 
Cologne 'to Coblents, we travelled at the rate of seven 
English' miles an hour ; and the last stage, which is more 
than eighteen English miles, was performed in two liours 
and ten minutes. Opposite Remagen is the picturesque 
and singular basaltic hill, called Fjvpeler Ley, wholly clad 
with vines ou its south and western sides. The mode 
adopted for jdanting the vine on this formerly barren rock, 
must: have been the suggestion of an ingenious mmd^ 
Each tree is set in a separate basket, with' sufficient 
mould and grass, and is afterwards buried #ithm the 
rents of the rock. In this manner a plantation of 200 
acres has been formed, which yields a produce of excellent > 
white wine. ' ■ ' 

Remagen 'is a Romans town, in the neighbourhood of 
which’ several^ nemaiffs of Roman Antiquities were found; 
wheaOhfurlefrTheodove, Elector Falatirie^ ordered the roAd ' 
from GoblentZito Bonh to be constructed.' Those reknaihs, 
among . which were siteralinscripiaons; prove that a Roman 
road existed 'ki^tlii A part of the ooiintry during the rei^s 
of Marousi AmliUaiaiidLuirin^^^^ i -u 
AhdenuuAfiliimeafc^iA'^vfiy^ ctmtiiidint distaiiCfe for a 
dinnev,,And4t|chi]y Auberge da^liys, withan Ait^ellent 
Tablcy and the most civil buxom landlady in tite'tthole 
country^ Afeidrthei best reasons for stopping to enjoy tlmt 
luxury ; rfor nlterfall^ even travellers 
dine, ; Sevcsid MnUdns.of partteuhufly 

* the CoUente gate^ ond thef ruins of a palace^ with t^^ 



12G 


MINERAL WATBR OF TiiNENSTElN. 


of anothec Still onore ancient edifice near it, in the form 
of a Round Towev^ are shown to every stranger passing 
through the town. 

When 1 passed through Siniig,. about bJfway between 
Oberwinter and Andemach, in 1819, 1 had the curiosity 
to visit the vault of a small church to >the east of the 
town, for the purpose of viewing a celebrated human 
mummy kept in it. 1 was disa^^inted b my expects, 
dons. It is a shrivelled body, which appears to have 
been tanned, but whether accidentally or purposdy, it 
is not sasy to determine. £vm this miserable object 
the French generals thought proper to forward to Paris; 
from whence it had returned but three years, when I 
was admitted to inspect so popular a relic. The torrent 
Aar, the wide and arid l)ed of which we crossed to reach 
Andernach, after running a course of twenty or thirty 
miles through a narrow, deep, and tortuous valley, bearing 
on its banks the vineyards which produce An excellent 
claret wine, enters the Rhine at a short distance from 
Sbzig. 

Just before reaching Andernach, we stopped at Brohl, 
a small hamlet close to the Rhine, the depot of the mineial 
water of Tdnenstein, several cruckons of which We pUr- 
chased. In flavour, and quantity of oarbomo 'acid, it is 
not unlike Sdtzer water ; but it has an aprds^ut which is 
peculiar to-ksetf. The jube is two gmehm ihi qmft 
bottle, (or 2|d.) The spring is in the immediate neigb 
bourhood. A very conrideraWei quantity of it » exported 
to forei^ countries, and a^great deal consumed b^Germany. 
It has aperient properties, and b summer^ am 
with advantage mixed with Rhenish wbeii* Thnm^ibdl 
the extent of ilie country to which 1 have juAt aiade^hfitb 
sions, no witie of superior quality is maik. ThiliqUAi^yi 
however, is gnwt, and could it be srid without any GoV^m- 
ment impost on it, the advantage to the pour bttbitWMi) 
of these dietrietft would be considerable. ‘^UnfriRUnateiy, ' 



COBLKMTZ. 


127 

such i& not the case. A heavy duty of one rix-thaler on 
every UK) bottles,, predudea the possibility of sale on the 
part of the grower, who has seldom sufficient funds to pay 
that duty before he can move his wine from his cellar, in 
order to sendit to market. The consequence is, that on 
the approach of .the vintage of 1827, the peasants had their 
cellars full of the wines of 1825 and 1826, and had scarcely 
the courage to gather the grapes of the present year. 

Coblenta, where we arrived at five o^cl(x;k on the first 
of October, suggests principally two things. First, the 
assembly of the preux chevaliers of France, who so lately, 
bearing on^ their pennons the spotless lily, strove to regain 
from the hands of the Terrorists the throne of their an- 
cestors; and, secondly, the delightful Moselle wine. The 
river Moselle crosses the road, and goes to join the Rhine 
immediately under the Northern walls of the town. A 
handsome stone bridge is erected over it. The Moselle 
wine is getting so cheap in London, that it may be un- 
fasliionable to praise it ; yet even amongst tlie more valued 
wines of the table, real Moselle will always hold a high 
rank. The bouquet of this wine is peculiar, and exquisite. 
In its properties it is less injurious ul the stomach than the 
Rhenish. In .faicility of keeping, it is superior to all of 
them. * : TheJBisporter, Zeltinger, Schwarzbeig and Braun^ 
berg Moselle, are equal to any Rhenish, wine, saving two or 
three, and have, I know, merited the eulogies of the classi- 
cal author of the History of Wines. But as in the case of 
some , other products and gifts of Nature, we pay for more 
MoseUe ,tha» is growo; and . Go^ must be drink- 

ingytrash u»d»>:thatrnai]ae< Ilinc iUa^, laerymm! This 
ligbty wholesome,! end ;plefiMutt >. beverage is. now rdegue to 
the.boisteroiisieross tables oLFceemaaems' Hall, and to the 
more i^fie boards the dining oltdia^ WillisV , 

:We drove :toiithe iH5telide Trdves on ihs . place ioS tkt 
saiqe:,name, nex^ di^r to Ihe Theatre, .not (u ifoom^ ithe 
Poste^ and i ml the viciiiity, in Ilctifof evevy^ thmg tthet ds 



128 


THEATRE AT CORLENTZ. 


good ahd ccmvenient in Coblentz. The hotel is of the 
best description. When Napoleon, in the yiaar 1812, in- 
vaded Russia, the PHftt of Coblentz, looking to the 
sibiliiy of getting into better quarters b^ Mattering the 
man to whose ears the flattery of even the meanest individual 
was sweet music, caused a stone monument to be erected 
on the Grande Place^ to commemorate the bold enterprise 
and its anticipated success. At the close of that campaign, 
which brought the assailed into the country of the assailants, 
the Russian General who took possession of Coblentz, was 
soon informed of the existence of the presumptuous in- 
scription on the monument, and was recommended to level 
it to the ground. But Josephowitch, who had more esprit 
than the Frenchman by whom the memorial had been 
erected, ordered, on the contrary, that it should remain 
with the following laconic commenUhy, written in the very 
language of the French bureaucratie. Vu €t approm^ 
par le Geniral Commandakt Kusse Coblentz, Joi» 
SBPHOWITCH.’’ This monument, with its bitter appendht, 
is still in existence, and visited by every stranger^ 

As we had only the evening to spend at Coblentz, 'the 
gentlemen proceeded to the Theatre, where we remaani^ but 
a short time. The house is without a single jnrivate-box, 
except those on the stage. The centre of the first and 
second balcony, or gallery, is also occupied by a large and- 
handsome Loge, generally filled by the £tat Major of 
the garrison. The pit, as In ail Continental- theatres, is 
dark, and eflords no regular aecommodalum for sitting, ex« 
cepting a few moveable forms without backs; Thepriaei^ 
part of the audience were on foot, mast of i^em ykth 
hats on, and by no means consistk^ of the best orderofipeoi^ 
pie. The gallery was thronged with rim bwest lybUsV 
but exceedingly well-behaved The stagey the siSiiie^' 
and all the .accessories, were bebw ipediocrity^’ '9%e^^eee 
performed^ was one of SdriUCT-s^moit tuM^ 
productions, The Robbers.^ The two^ bioihel^'^ 



THEATRE AT COBLENTZ. • 129 

principal characterB of the piece, were represented by two 
excellent actors, particularly the one who performed the 
part of the treacherous brother. Uis powers are great, 
hisA;onception of the character correct, and his . manner of 
depicting it forcible; but his imitation of Kean was so 
striking in every respect, even to the voice, that I concluded 
he must have frequently seen that actor perform in London, 
(f this was not the case, the coincidence is most remarkable. . 
It is said that public opinion may be elicited from the 
stage by means of a few passages — technically called clajp- 
traps, X Supposing this to be true, what conclusions ought 
we to draw from the boisterous and repeated expressions of 
approbation on the part of the generality of the audience, 
at the recital of the chief robber’s reasons for following his 
trade, and above all, at his enumeration of the many rings 
he had taken from PHests and Princes, the former of 
whom, he asserted, had procured those jewels by super- 
stition, the> latter through despotism? I regretted to 
remark also that even on the German stage, a ranter, one 
of those who “ tear nature to very tatters,” Is by no 
means an uncommon phenomenon. Another observation 
which 1 could not foil making, where a large tremp of 
i)anditti were constantly coming before us, was that they 
were v^ry difterently costumed from the German robbers 
of the English stage ; and the effect was considerably more 
impressive. When we pretend to give the character of a 
foreign nation on the stage, why begin by violating the 
first law of imitation, that which everywhere regulates 
national costume ? ' 

The general appearance of Goblentz is highly favour- 
able, and^ far. superior to that of any other town on this 
road. The spacious squares and streets, the handsome 
and large modern' buildings which adorn them, the nume- 
rous churches, the shops, and quays on the two rivers, 
'make a ideasing impression on the traveller^ I should 
iook upon Cfoblentz as a very agreeable residence both in 

. vo^. I. K 



130 


SHRBNBRRITSTEINi 


summer and winter. It has much of the character of a 
second-rate provincial town in France; and^ perhaps, the 
^neral use oi the French language may tend to suggest 
Sttdi an idea. Of course 1 am speaking of the new padl of 
the town. 

The modern fortifications of Coblentz, which were in 
progress so far back ns 1H19, when I visited those on the 
height of La Chartreuse, on which stands the Fort Alex- 
ander, are said, hy competent judges in such matters, to 
be perfect chef-trafuvres. They stretch over a considerable 
extent of ground : permission to visit their interior is ob- 
tained with difficulty. • 

Ever since the same year, a permanent bridge of boats 
has been established to keep up an uninterrupted commu- 
nication witli the opposite bank of the river. This bridge, 
which rests on thirty-seven pontbns, measures 485 feet 
in length. The only means of communication with Ehren- 
breitstein, which existed Ijefore, was by means of what is 
called a flying bridge, such as is still used at Bonn, Neu- 
wied, and on other points of the Rhine. 

The system of fortifications adopted with regard to Cob- 
lentz, has been extencletl to the old and often battered Fort 
of Ehrenbreitstein, but permission is not granted to any 
stranger to visit that place. Its present name is Fort 
Frederick William. 1 tasted, at a spring situated at one 
end of the small town of Ehrenbreitstein, an exceedingly 
pleasant mineral water called Thalborn, of which a (quan- 
tity, beyond conception large, is sold to the inhabitants of 
Coblentz and the environs. It does not keep Irnig,. and 
cannot therefore be exported. I tasted some which had 
been kept in stone bc^ttles a few days. It had a very darit 
colour, and smelt like bilge- water. When fresh> it ds 

slightly acidulous^ effervescent and aperient.- Mixed .pith 
Moselle wine, it imparts to it the i^Servescence iind 
character of Champagne, so as aknost ; to. deceive^ the • 
taste. : 



SINUOSITIES OF THE RHINE. 

We now proceeded on our way to Bingen, following the 
circuitous course of the river, every succeeding part of 
which presents new and impressive beautierf. I’he road 
runs, all the way, close to the river, passing through Bop- 
part and St. Goar, at both which pbices fresh horses are 
procured without much difficulty, and refreshments may 
be had at very respectable inns. Between St. Goar and 
the ruins of Schbnberg, at a s{x>t where the Rhine, from the 
direction of its deep sinuosities, assumes the appearance 
of a succession of island lakes, boiiniled by upright 
gigantic rocks, or sloping hills, clad with vines to their 
very summits; the postilions suddenly checked their 
career, and turning the wide end of their bugles to the 
reach of the river we had just passed, blew loud and 
strong their postlmy tune, and then held their breath. 
(,)uickly the musical sounds were, heard repeated once in a 
clear and distinct manner, not far from us ; and again a 
second and a third, and even a fourth tiiiK;, but as if from 
a progressively increasing distance, until they died away. 
The experiment, more'than once repeated, proved equally 
successful. We were assured that the repetitions of the 
sound are more numerous when the experiment is mode in 
a boat placed midway between the two banks. 

It was not to be expected that so remarkable and strik- 
ing a plienomenon should go without being converted into 
uii allegorical tale during the ages of ignorance and super- 
stition. How, in fact, was this never failing repetition of 
the fisherman’s choired morning prayer and evening song, 
which some invisible voice responded in the distant space, 
as he glided over the bosom of the water to or from his daily 
toil, to be accounted for.? Imagination, ever ready to plunge 
into the supernatural, created a lovely nymph and placed her 
abode on the rock of Lurley, from the sides of which the 
sounds are prineipaUy reverberated. A dangerous eddy 
•lies in the> broad shadow of this rock, mid many a time, 
when tile amazed boatman tracked its way through the 



THE NYMPH OP LURLEY. 


stream, listening to the mysterious voice from the height 
of Luirley, his frail bark drawn within the vortex, would 
miserably perish under the rocky dwelling of the syren. 
Attracted by the reports of her beauty, and spurred on 
by the proclaimed cruelty of her disposition, the youthful 
son of the Count Palatine of a neighbouring country 
determined on seeing tlve virgin of Lurley, and carrying 
her a captive to his father’s court. His fate was sad, for 
on arriving, escorted by a few followers, in the agitated 
waters of Lurley, his boat whirled round and disap- 
peared. Grieved at the loss of his child, the Palatine 
Count dispatched a trusty band to seize the relentless 
nymph ; but just as their rude leader, unmoved by her 
heavenly charms and dishevelled tresses, was in the act of 
summoning her to surrender, a sudden hurricane swelled 
the stream, the waves, crested with foam, rose to the top 
of the rock, and encircling the lovely Undine, saved her 
from the rude grasp of man, and carried her to the realn> 
of her fathers. Her voice is still heard returning the song 
of merriment or sorrow, but her beauteous form appears 
not on the heights <{f Lurley. 

In this short legend, we can trace the working of the 
mind, under the influence of the heart. 'J’hose were not 
times for the march of intellect, but for that of tlie pas- 
sions. Hence the Age of Romance. But now that the 
heart has lost its influence on the actions of men, under 
the management of Societies for diffusing useful knowledge, 
and of mechanical Institutes — ^now that the sixpenny trea- 
tises on natural philosophy, on hydraulics, and acoustics, 
all perspicacious and free from errors, enable the common- 
est understanding to explain on the simplest principles, 
what was before a complicated phenomenon — the echo 
of Lurley would be accounted for by the singular dispo- 
sition of the two elevated banks of the river, following 
parallel lines in a serpentine direction— thus prereriting to 
the rays of sound, more thwi one reflecting surface. This 



THE ECHO OF LURLEY. 


133 


disposition of the two banks, which are here in some parts 
scarcely more than 1000 feet asunder, while it. accounts 
likewise for the formidable eddies which are observed in 
, this place, explains how intricate and dangerous the navi- 
gation must necessarily be; nay, fatal too, if the careless 
boatman, less watchful of his course, passes his time in 
calling on Lurley to repeat his ‘‘ halloos.” 

I have attempted to show the manner of the echo just 
described, in a diagram of the relative position of tlie two 
banks beyond St. Goar, where our postilions stopped of 
their own accord, to indulge us with the pleasing effect 
of reverberated sound. A mention is made of this echo by 
Barthius, in his notes on the Thebaid of Statius. 



The Echo of Lurley on the Rhine. 


I may add to this, that the eddy of Lurley is, in re- 
^ality, considered as the most dangerous spot in the whole 



BACllARACn. 

- ^ SO that in 

_ f fon^in this dark 
bg’yiU of iiMe-roek :tod basalt, h 
afot by. th^ boatmen. The 
' liot nt^e than one hundred and 
l^re a faltbf than five feet. 

a very prominent 

^ lahi^ Wore bs, in which tlie 

vlj^ ol Obeir^^l^^^^^ feature. Through this 

small town we passed on oiir way to change horses at Ba- 
charachi an old and dii^ tewn^ but yet deserving to be 
visited for the picturesque heights which surround it, the 


extensive remains of baronial grandeur, and the ecclesias. 
, deal wealth which it contains. The intrepid Frederick 
of Schoenberg, whose achievements^ and fall at the battle of 
the Boyne, the late amiable and celebrated president of 
the Royal Academy has recorded with his masterly pencil, 
d^ended from the feudal lords of that castle. On the 
light bank is seen the perpendicular rock called Rostein, 

, the surface of wliich presents a succession of broad steps 
, . to' its very summit, bearing a \ine whose produce is much 
esteemed among the best Rhenish wines. 

iBefore approaching the town of Bingen, we cast our 
eyes on the ruins of Soncch, once the resort of banditti 
who infested the neighbouring country; and below it, 
those of Heimburg. We had here an opportunity of see- 
ing one of those immense floating villages on the river, 
which I described on a former occasion. We were now 
fast approaching the last reach of this enchanting river, 
on this side of Mayence. The village of Rheinsteih forms 
the centre bf this reach, and, seen from the spot on which 
we were travellihg, presented so striking a feature in con- 
sequence, ^ the sudderi . aitd beautiful turn of the road, 
that 1 it for the s^^^ of a' graphic iUuBtratibn, 

as conveying a very correct idea of the country and thci 







GEOLOGY PP THE RHINE. 


135 


character of the chamsji^, which) (luring the occupation of 
these provinces by the French, was brought into its present 
most excellent condition. 

Tliis admirable road, as the work of man, is equal to 
some of the best in Europe, and, with the exception of where 
it passes through the villages and towns, is a continued 
line of hard and smooth ma(tadainixed surfaces. 7'he objects 
which are for ever presenting themselves to our attention 
.■in travelling over it, connected with historical records 
of ancient and modern times, or with the state of the pecu- 
liar agricultural cultivation of the country, a.s well .‘is with 
the iitriking as|)ect of its geological features, tend to make 
it a most desirable excursion. The most prominent cha- 
racters of the geology of this road are the basalt, the com- 
|)act red sandstone and the .slate-rock. To the first we are 
indebted for the dry and hard state of the roail itself, that 
rock being principally employed for that pur)K>se. Entire 
hills on l)oth banks, wholly formed of this volcanic rock, 
afford op))ortuuities to the inhabitants to use it unsparingly 
as ready-shaped pillars, dwarf columns, posts, d(x)rways, 
steps, &c. The second rock is freely employed in the con- 
struefion of houses, churches, and mother buildings, for 
which purpose it is cut into cul)es and parallelograms, three 
feet long, two feet wide, and half a foot thick, resembling 
the great Babylonian bricks of old. Bridges, monuments, 
and millstones, are likewise formed out of this rock. The 
slate-rock is admirably adapted for the purpose of roofing. 

I'lie basalt prevails too generally in the country to 
need being transported from place to place; but the 
red compact sanclstone and the slate-rock are carried 
from the different quarries to the most distant towns 
up and down the river, where the banks arid the country 
near them are flat, and no iwks exist for building ma- 
terials. Frankfort and Mayence, for instance, are wholly 
,built with them. To these maybe ad|^ the tufa, of a 
, sallow, dingy, and yellow colour, which is met' with in 



136 


BINGEN. • 


abundance in the district between Qcma^en and Coblentz, 
and which, when cut into small square blocks, is exported 
to Holland, where it is employed to make a sort of cement 
much used in that country. The hardest sort of this rock 
is cut into millstones, and sent to every part of Germany. 

We entered the town of Bingen at one o'clock, passing 
over the beautiful bridge of Drusus, which has often been 
repaired since, but which rests still *on the arches and piles 
which bes])eak a Roman origin. This bridge is thrown 
over the iVa^e, whose rugged banks bear plentiful crops 
of the potent Scharlachwein, At the Auberge de la Poste^ 
the traveller will be well accommodated; bmt he must 
not look for the luxuries of the hotels he has left behind 
at Coblentz or Aix-la-Chapelle. Plenty, and moderate 
charges — cleanliness without neatness — are the charao 
teristics of most of the inns on -the left bank of the Rhine. 

In my former visit to Bingen, a longer stay had allowed 
me an opportunity of ascending tlie tower of the ancient 
Klopp— one of the Castra Romanu so profusely scattered 
over this country. To those who delight in panoramic 
and periscopic views, the ascent to the top of this tower, 
standing on a hill, a.id rising to the height of 150 feet 
above the bed of the river, will afford the enjoyment of 
one of the most magnificent s})cctacles, as well as* of. the 
richest and most impressive scenery. -The ruins of this 
castle, once reputed impregnable, but taken and destri^yed 
by the French in the Thirty Years’ War which desolated 
Germany, belong now (curious cbincidence) to a gentleman 
of the neighbourhopd, a namesake and relative of the (German 
officer. Colonel Faber, who defended during the revolU'^ 
tionary war the equally inexpugnable fort of Khrenbreistein; 

The two remaining objects to which the traveller at 
Bingen is expected to direct his attention, m the Bingen 
Lock, a sort of vortex or eddy in the river a little below 
the town, which is said to render the navigation of this^ 
part of the Rhine rather dangerous ; and the Mausethunn, „ 



THE PROPHET HOLZH/IUSKN. 


L37 

a toW£r, in which, traditm says, tiiat'Hatto, Arch- 
bishop of Mayence, was devoured by mice ; and the name 
of which, it is pretended, must have been derived from 
that circumstance. This unique example of so singular 
a death, has induced Mr. Southey to tell the story in an 
interesting ballad. The German critics have not made up 
their minds as to the real derivation of the name of Mause- 
thurm. It is evident that the more popular explanation 
is absurd, inasmuch as Hatto died in the tenth, and the 
tower was built in the thirteenth century. But we have 
still the choice of two .ways of accounting for the name : 
either that it had its origin in the word mousserie^ which 
means arsenal, from the circumstance of artillery being 
placed on the tower to defend the place; and hence 
Moussenthurm, and afterwards Mausethurm: or that it 
arose from the monosyllable Maus, which signifies toll ; as 
a duty was levied on all boats and mercliandize passing 
before Bingen. 

In the old Collegiate Church of Bingen is shown the 
spot where are deposited the mortal remains of the Pro- 
phet Holzhausen, whose memory is still held in veneu 
ration by the people of the town and the surrounding 
country. The reader may probably recollect that this ex- 
travagant interpreter of the Sacred Writings had predicted, ' 
in some of those mystic revelations with which he inun- 
dated Germany, the fall of the House of Stuart. He 
was, in fact, a religious astrologer. In lieu of tracing tfce 
conjunction of the planets, he combined, in cabalistical 
figures and diagrams, certain mysterious passages of the 
Holy Records, and pretended to trace from them the na- 
ture of future events, fixing the time for their occurrence. 
When Charles the Second passed, in his flight from Eng- 
land, near Bingen, he desired to see the reputed pro- 
phet, whom he interrogated as to his future prospects. 

. dlolzhausen predicted that the exiled sovereign would 
/me day be recalled to the throne of his ancestors; but, 



138 


KUDESttElMi 


added he, Cave ne Catholieam Romanani religionem 
restaures." 

The most usual route frcmi Bingen to Mayence is to keep 
on the left bank of the river, and pass through Gaulsbeim, 
and Nieder Ingelheim, crossing the Selzbach. This is 
the road I took in 1819. At Nieder Ingelheim, which 
. stands on elevated ground, it is usual tp stop a short time, 
for the pur[)osc of enjoying one of the grandest sights that 
even this picturestjue river, Si) rich in natural beauties, can 
present. But (k)unt Woronzow preferred taking the oppo.. 
site side of tlie Rhine for the puq)ose of going tli rough that 
magniheent country called the Rheingau, — the head-(] uarters 
of the best Rhenish wines. We therefore embarked, shortly 
after dinner, in a small boat, and crossed the river imme- 
diately in front of Bingen, the carriages and servants follow- 
ing in the ferry. As the current i» not very strong in this 
part, tiu* breadth of the river not considerable, and the 
depth only eighteen feet in the middle, while the sides 
are shallow enough to admit of the Imat being pushed with 
a pole, we were able to make way against the stream 
without difficulty, so as to land a short distance from 
Rudesiieini, at the very foot of some of those celebrated 
vineyards, which produce the wine so well known under 
that name. The postmaster of Bingen engages to have 
po8t*horse8 ready on the o})posite shore, provided sufficient 
npticc be given to him ; and as the large boats with the 
carriages are nut long in crossing the river, the delay caused 
in the whole of)eration is very inconsiderable. Tlie Irajet 
is easy and sliort. The chargt^ for each carriage is a rix- 
thaler, and for each fierson half a florin. The horses from 
Bingen go no farther than Rudesheim, from which; place 
others are engaged to reach Wisbaden. This stage, up- 
words of nineteen English miles, is much too long for the 
same horses; the consequence of which is, that the journey 
is slow and tedioqs, although the rood is in excellent ordei^ 
being macadamized with a compact red sandstoneMo 



INHABITANTS OH THB KIGHT BANK. KH) 

great extent, and in other parts pavcnl. I observed that 
very little fruit appeared in the vineyards, a scarcity occor 
siemed, we were told, by the trees having bc*en fnjzen the 
winter before; I’he vintage was to begin in three or four 
days throughout the district ; but the prospect appeared 
by no means enctniraging. * We tasted some of the grapes 
of tw'o or three of the most celebrated vineyards; and 
found them insipid. This is by no means singular, the 
(lascony. Burgundy, and Cham])agne grapes are in no 
great degrei* gifted with such a flavour as would lead us to 
exjx'ct the invigorating wine which they prcxlucc. 

The striking difference between the aspect, size, and ar- 
rangement.of the towns on this side of the Rhine, conti*asted 
with those wo had just left ; the appearance of the greater 
case of the inhabitants, who are better dressed, and better 
looking than those on the other side ; the neatness and even 
elegance of the houses in both towns and villages ; the nimj- 
h(T of villas and chateaux which we observed on' our road 
to Wisliaden, could not fail to strike our attention. 
Speaking, generally, of the population of the left bank of • 
tiu* river, and summing up, by the way, my observations on 
that tract of the country, 1 must say that the inhabitants 
of both towns and villages, but |)articularly uf the smaller 
villages and hamlets, are poor, liadly fed, and worse lodged. 
Their complexion is sallow, they are thin, clothed in rags, 
and their dwellings scarcely capable of keeping off* wind 
and rain. The manifest reason of which state of things 
seems to be, that the only produce of the land within their 
ivach, is wine, an article of a precarious nature; one of 
luxury, and not of necessity— one which, unless very ex- 
cellent in quality, wdll scarcely obtain a sufficient price to 
pay the landlord and keep the labourer. On the right 
bank, on the contrary, (1 mean that part of the right bank 
on which we are now travelling,) the best wines are made, 

. for which Very high prices are willingly given by those who 
^can afford them, ^me of these wines seD, even on the spot, 



140 


THE FEDERATED PRINCES. 


at from three to six florins the Imttle. This singular differ- 
tece may also, in some degree, and without invidiousness, 
be ascribed to the different circumstances of the Govern- 
ment of the respective districts. The country, on the right 
bank, about Riidesheini, and as far as Cassel, opposite to 
Mayence, is occupied by sovereign princes, having very 
limited territories, wholly intent on the best manner of 
promoting the industry and wealth of tlieir subjects, as 
the only means of increasing their own power and finan- 
ces. Political events have shown to those princes that 
none but the most extraordinary revolution in the princi- 
ples which guide European Courts, can dispossess them 
of their territories. They therefore work in good earnest 
at the improvement of their inlieritance, just as the tenant 
who holds a long lease of an improving farm, will do, to 
obtain the very best results from it. The country on the 
left side, on the contrary, is placed under the rule of a 
Government, which, however anxious to promote the 
welfare of the numerous inhabitants of its newly-acquired 
provinces, and to assist them in struggling through many 
natural difHculties, cannot be expected to make any very 
extensive sacrifices \fhich may turn to the detriment of 
the rest of its people ; this latter portion being, by far, 
the most important, as well as, by long habits and allian- 
ces, the most united in the kingdom. The chance of a war 
with France may at any period snatch these ultra-Rhenanc 
possessions from Prussia; and the obvious possibility of 
such an occurrence must inevitably influence the Govern- 
ment in the administration of its provinces. It is, how- 
ever, but justice to the present sovereign of Prussia, (an 
anxious and upright prince,) to say that the above con- 
sideration seems to have influenced in the least possible 
degree his conduct towards them, and' that hif efforts to 
forward their interesta have been unremitting- Among, 
thesb I may reckon the encouragement gireiiy .by him fdv^.^ 
th^ gemerid consumption of the lighter Rhenish 



THE RHE1N6AU. 


141 


throughout Prussia, inasmuch os a bottle of such wine is 
to be found, at all times, even in the smallest villages of 
Prussia farthest from the Rhine : and this with the view 
principally of assisting the growers of wine on the poorer 
sorts of land. The duty, however, imposed upon these 
wines, is said to be heavy. 

Following now the line of tliat fruitful district, which 
is known under the name of the RiifiiNUAU, we passed 
through its most celebrated vineyards, ami the many neat 
villages that cluster on the right bank of the river. The 
Rhine, as it descends from Mayence to Riidesheim, takes 
a south-westerly direction, and on its northern bank opens 
to the genial aspect of a southern sun a succession of 
undulating and gently sloping hills, now clothed in a 
mantle of deep verdure, forming one of the richest and 
most luxuriant amphitheatres that imagination can fancy. 
This district extends for about three German miles in 
length, from Lorch to Schlangenbad, and from Riide- 
sheim to Nied ; and one mile in depth from the Rhine 
to the .small .stream Wesperbach, which bounds it on the 
northern side. The whole district is cultivated for the 
growth of the vine, and is divided into a great number 
of vineyards, which enjoy different degrees of celebrity, 
according to their relative topographical situation and 
exposure to certain piints of the compass, • 

One of these, the Steinberger, a vineyard belonging to the 
Duke of Nassau, was pointed out to u.s, the produce of 
which is sold by that Prince under the name of Stcinberger 
Cabinet, and is now more esteemed than even the wine of 
Johannisberg. The hill bearing the latter name, on which 
stands a chateau, belonging to Prince Mctternich, contains 
about fifty-five acres of land, throughout which grows that 
much celebrated wine. The produce of this estate amounts 
to from twenty to twenty-fi^ve butts of wine, each of 1300 
l)oitles, which are sold on an; average for .the sum of 28,000 
florins before the vintage, or nearly a liottle. The 



» .142 


TH£ SUMMER aESIDEtiCE 


which vwas planted on this estate and most 
the Oanona to whom it was 

iaiMel^ k what ih Ri<t~ 

*1^/ f ']^e^fkB£ qn grows close to ife^aside. The wine 

parish of JiihfniDis^i^y is of 
atihni^or 'Ascription. The yint^ on the hilQi phu:c 
than in other'jfkrte of tbe Rh^ 
:;grapes which fall of- their ' bwn accord fboiR over 
IHpbamg, in consequence of this delay, are prcked up with 
$he gr^est-dEt^ of wooden forks made for the 

rpAp^v the first quality of wine is finade. 

that Prince Metternicb received 
of Austria, who has reserved 
fnt'hia jmjili^ the tithe of the vintage produce. 

The chkteau, of which a skctch is annexed, is an indifier> 


ent^lkoking building without a single tree near it ; hut it 
■enjihy% a most magnificent prospect with a southern a.s|)ect. 
•The eyes of all politicians were directed to this spot in 
Sept^lier 1818, when the noble proprietor of the do- 
main; entertained the Prussian Minister, Prince Harden- 
berg, and others, previously to the opening of the Congress 
of j^^-la^Chapelle. *4'he cellars of Johannisberg an? said 
^ he an object of grei^ curiosity. We neither had, nor 
for an opportunity of seeing them. 

.f - ^ abme distance from Johannisberg, we stop]xHl to 
water of Markbriinn; a most delightful cold 
•sjgpag, which,. pasriug through a large vineyard, gives its 
well as to the wine produced on the K])ot. 

^ Wisbaden lay close to the margin of the 
on an excellcut road, as far as Hiebcrich, where the 
a sudden turn to the left, round the beautiful 
residence of tiie Duke of Nassau, quits abruptly 
;^^h0 Father of Wine,* as the Germans style the Rhine; 
iu{d:we took leave of him with the regret which one feels. 
M Airing an old .fri^nd^ Such partings had better 
abrupt than lingering/ . The Bieberich Scbloss, of which^ 




/-.•oc;?. 

r Ti ' s C ’’ 



BIBBKRIGH. 


143 


\ view is here introduced, k a large building, pleasantly 
situated, and in good taste. Before and on one side of it, 
thl^re is a terrace and a very handsome garden ; whilst be- 
hind it, a very extensive park, in the English style, stretches 
a considerable way along the principal road, from which it 
may be seen through the light railing around it. Le luxe 
des fleurs et arbustes exotiques," says a very recent visitor 
to tliis enchanting place, les basins d'eau ornes avec 41e- 
ganci?, les allees fraiches, les mines siniulees, les reduits 
artistement arranges, un calnnet d’antiquites et de tableaux, 
voila ce qui s'offriraau voyageur qiii visite ce palais de fees. 
Pour jouir du panorama de la cpntree, il faut monter au faite 
de la tour ; on y jouit surtout d'un l)eau coup-d’a'il sur la 
rive gauche du fleuve, sur Mayence qui semble sortir des 
dots, et sur le pays de Kiidesheim et Bingen. L'azur du 
ciel, Teclat argente depots, la verdure des prairies, et les 
teinte variees des montagnes, donnent un colons magni- 
fi(j!ie au tableau qui se d4roule alors sous les yeux du 
spectateur.” 



-JJucst Paince (U fiieberich. 


144 ! 


filEBBRICH. 


Warmed by this description, the imagination of the his.' ' 
torical traveller, reflecting on the illustrious race which 
reigns in such an abode of delight, conjures up the recol. 
lection of those who, better known under the name of 
Orange, freed a large part of the Belgian territory from 
the dominion of Spain ; and of one more illustrious than 
the rest of the race, who restored the constitutional arid 
religious liberties of England, and checked the ambition 
and success of Le Grand Monarque. 

At the time of our passing through Bicberich, the 
reigning Duke, William George Augustus of Nassau, 
was residing there with his children, all of them very 
young. He is a widower, having lost his Duchess, 
(Charlotte Louisa, daughter of the Duke of Saxe Altcn- 
bourg,) in 1825. The Duke is supposed to be one of the 
wealthiest piinces of the Confe/ierated States. He is 
a young, active, sensible, and [HJpular prince, governing 
his people, and mamiging his finances, . with great judg- 
ment and discrimination. His revenue is said to be very 
flourishing : the sale of wine, and the duty levied on the 
stone bottles used to export tltc Seltzer and Kins water, 
(jf which two iiiillioris, at least, are exported annually, form 
a good part of his income. The duty on «each bottle is 
one kreutzer, or the ^ of a florin, corresponding to four 
centimes of French money. On this article of industry 
alone, therefore, the Prince's income amounts to eighty 
thousand francs yearly. These two sourew of revenue, 
besides other sources accruing from the numerous bathing 
establishments in his Dutchy, the Duke reserved to him- 
self for the use of his privy purse, under the head of 
crown-lands, when he granted to his subjects a r^resei^ 
tative form of government, with the power of regulating 
the revenue of the State. He keeps a very splendid court, 
and is allowed to have a body of troops. He leads a very 
active life, is fond of hunting, and seldom troubles hims^lK. 
with visiting the capital of tbc Federated States. 



WI8RADBN. 


145 


were niueb struck with the remarkable cleaiilineMs 
of the small town of Bieberich : doubtless the presence 
of the Court has considerable influence on this point. 
The road between the summer residence of the Duke 
and Wisbaden, rises gently till within a short distance 
of tliat town» and looks not unlike a continued promenade, 
between two ranges of houses built in a modern style of 
elegance, and two rows of trees, with a footpath on each 
.side. On descending the hill, afterwards, the town is seen 
to advantage. Its appearance is both striking and pleasing. 
Niuneroiis elegant buildings, which have been erected 
^nthin the last few years, present themselves on ail sides 
as you proceed through the town. The streets an' wide 
and Avcll-paved, the people appeared belter dressed, and 
with more contented faces than we had lately seen. The 
Duke has frequently act^ with magnificent liberality to- 
wards his favourite capital by embellishing it in every di- 
rection, and encouraging the visits of strangers, whom he 
has taken care not to subject to unnecessary and harassing 
formalities of police. 

Wisbaden is one of the many fashionable bathing places 
which abound throughout Gennany. Its topographical si- 
tuation, placed in the bosom of a fertile valley, surrounded 
on every part by romantic hills, is -calculated to please the 
stranger who comes to this place during the hot months of 
the summer in search of a soothing and refreshing retreat. 
The principal attraction is the Kursaalf and the s(x:iety and 
amusement to be found in it. This building, which is at 
one of the extremities of the town, near one of the springs' 
called the Wiesenbrunn, is approached through a double 
avenue of trecs^ at the end of which the Grecian portico 
and front of the principal part of the edifice, or grand 
^oon, mid the wmgs, are perceived, like the terminating 
architecture of ff theatrical«'vista. The saloon has an elc^ 
f^ant' colonnade of Limboui^ marble around its interior, 
»vor which runs a handsome gallery. The whole building 

• ^L. f. . r 



146 


WATKRS.vOf? WISBADKN. 


\ i»,3g0,&et long» and I 70 feet deep., JSandsoine rooms 
, ■ .appropriated to play, vhidi, during the bathing, season, 

.( at Aix;, ,ia a never-failing ocqupation for the visitors of all 
i riasaes and of lx)th sexes. A, band of music. attends every 
day. during the season ; and an.^cxcellent^ /ai/f <l'h6te is 
kept, which is much and very respectably attended, tho 
price being one florin for each person withput wine. This 
eatablishment corresponds to the Pump-room at Bath ; the 
water of Wiesenbrunn is principally drunk here ; and the 
immediate vicinity of the public promenade affords the 
opportunity of walking— exercise being essential to those 
, who use the mineral springs. 

There are fifteen hot and two cold water , springs of mine- 
ral. water at Wisbaden. Among those ()f the flrst.plass, two 
are of the same nature as the springs of Aix*larCbapelle. 
The season for drinking the wat^T and bathing is from the 
middle of June to the end of August. The spring which 
supplies the water for drinking, called the ly^pcbbrunnen, 
has a temperature of 151 degrtvs of Farenbeit. The pa- 
tients apply early in the moniing at the spring, which is sur- 
rounded by a handsome building, when each receives his 
prescribed numlKii .of glasses of water direct from Ihe source. 
The taste of this water is not unlike that of chicken-broth 
slightly salted ; to a medical man, 1 would comp^e it to the 
taste of phosphate of soda. The water used for die baths, 
of which there are many in the town, is derived from two 
other, springs, besides that of Kochhrunn.. These fO^e the 
: ^agle, and/the Schutzenhof ; the jbrm^ of w;hich a tem- 
perature of, 140, the latter 117 degree of Far^rit. These 
several springs distribute their wiU;er jto$ye prijn^pal bathing 
establishments; the Four Seasons,, the J£agk^,the Schutzen- 
hof^ the Rose, and the Hotel d'AnglctiSife. Qf 1^0^. esta- 
blishments, four only combine the 

those of a .bathingThougc. A &iyje^S ag)Q,,,the,]^le 



MODE dfi' LIVING AT WISBAUKN. I47 

.Iwingin hiih^w street. TheFotir Seasons (die vier Jahrs- 
zeiten) ‘is th^ dhe in vo^^e, on acicoiint of its beautiful 

situation and projtimil^ to the new and magnificat saloon. 
The charges' arC^ rather high, but it is usual to make a 
regular agreement by the week, including the price of the 
baths. A bachelbr, or a single person, who wi.shes to live 
on itioderafe terms, will hnd one of the common bathing- 
houses, in virhich there are convenient lodgings, sufficiently 
good for his purposes. During the seaston, a bed-room 
and a sitting-room may be had in one of these houses for 
fifteen florins a week, including the baths. The bi*eakfast 
only is supplied in these houses, for the moderate .sum of 
eighteen kreiitzer, or sevcnpence English money. With 
double that money, a dinner, consisting of six dishes, may 
be obtained from some neighlmuring traiteur. The great 
drawbacks ill Wisballen are, in the first place, a deficiency 
of good spring-Mrater for common use-*all the springs, 
welll^, arid pumps of the town, being more or less impregna- 
ted with the saline ingredients of the mineral springs, and 
unpleasant* to the taste; and 'in the second place, the want 
of that most enviable luxury during the summer montlis, 
ice, ctlEmy other means of cooKng the liquids drunk in the 
COufS^ of the day. lam, however, informed, that very 
pure'nipritig-Water has Very lately been introduCtxi into the 
town, at a considerable expense, from some distant part 
of the surrounding country, and that the former great in- 
convenience iti that reject is happily so far removed. 

There are all sorts of amusements at Wisbaden during 
the bathing Reason, such^ a theatre, a very extensive and 
superior* CiitOlathig library, casinos, ballsj concerts, in fact, 
eVeTy gyety^ that -one can derire in^a place of this dc- 
sCribtioVi. THb ' situation, the presence of a sovereign 
COuft^'tte-ili&s of sfrahg^ who li'sort to the baths, the 
nnd im^bi^g n^anmee of the new part 
'of the 'tdwb; ^ Wisbaden a de- 



148 PRBCISBNtSS OF THK GBNBVB8K. 

dded superiority, as an agreeable residence, for combin- 
ing healdi with pleasure, over Aix-la-Ghapelle^ and many 
other bathing places in this part of Germany. 

The evening was far advanced when our party quitted 
Wisbaden. Two tedious stages, making in all a dis- 
tance of four German miles and a half, brought us 
to the gate of Frankfort in about as many hours. 
Here, at the threshold of the ‘‘ free city,” par exceUencey 
we were stopped and desired to give our nahmn and 
kardetery the whence and the whither, together with many 
other formalities which we were made to go through; 
and with which we had never been troubled, even at the 
gifte of fortified towns in the Prussian territory. But 
this is not unfrequently the case with what are styled In- 
dependent States, or Free Towns. They are, in general, 
more troublesome to the traveller and^stranger, more despo- 
tic and aristocratically inclined, more tenacious of their 
petty authority, than the great powers. The nonsense at 
the barrier at Frankfort, which unnecessarily detained a 
travelling party, the most inoffensive in the world, half- 
sleepy, and halfrfroaen, at twelve o'clock at night, forcibly 
reminded me of tho^ strict guardians of the liberties 
of Geneva, who, to prevent being rifled of their dear 
privilege of independence by some cmp’d^maitiy order the 
gates of the city to be closed, not only very early at night, 
but even during church service, so that every commu- 
nication from without is altogether interrupted. It hap- 
pened on one occasion, and shortly after the peace of 1814, 
that a gallant English general, conspicuous for his love of 
liberty, whom the Gehevois had deputed their mediator 
with the Austrian generals, in order to obtain the restorar 
tion of some popguns that had been carried away from the 
ramparts, and who had succeeded most completely in his 
endeavours to serve the republican Government, arrived, cm 
his return from his misnon, at the gates of the free town of 
Geneva, a few minutes after they had been closed. He ap- 



THB GATB UV PRANkIpoRT. 


plied for admission, but could not obtain it ; he named 
himself, but the warder was inexorable. At last ho desired 
that a message should be sent to the head of the Govern- 
ment, stating that Sir , who had successfully negoti- 

ated for the restoration of the great guns, had unfortunately 
arrived a few minutes after nine P.M., and would be glad to 
he admitted within the gates. The council assembled and 
deliberated, but it. was decided that the boon should not be 
granted, as it would open a door to the greatest abuses, by 
establishing a bad precedent. “ Dites au general,” said the 
Vir Maximus inter Magnates, “ Dites au general que le 
(louvernement doit un exemple de fermet6 k ses peuples. 
Nous venons k peine de recouvrer nbtre chiire indepen- 
dance ; et il ne sera jamais dit que nous Tavons perdue de 
nouveau par Timprudente ouverture des portes aprt^s neuf 
heures du soir !” and Ihe good-natured general was com- 
pelled to sleep al hel sereno. The Frankfort people, how- 
ever, were not so cruel towards us. Having obtained and 
written down on a piece of paper all the information tliey 
nniuired, one among them thrust into the carriage a tin 
dish, fastened to the top of a pole, with a farthing candle 
stuck outside of it, and demanded a heavy toll, which we 
cheerfully put into the dish. “Cela va sans dire,” one 
|)ay$ a toll at Knightsbridge, and why not at Frankfort P 



{leusiuce of Inme ^The Zeil; 

. Street’ in ihfi of Continental 

Bankers. l^e late r* irt'e Will. *-'The 

Hessian Monument asnih!^ wHote^ 

r<^The'Romer.^^e/ 0 <e|^{^^ rlib^. — OoUections oC 

Natu^ Histo|7.wHos|at^9r? SocietieSf-^/Xh^ Eoly- 
tec^nic j^ie^, , Cf institute. —The Casino. — Bmk and 

Printseliers, — lie The liea^. — StaedeVs histitute — iJTlje 
Fine Airts and Public Exhibition. — Palatie of fhe 
Kni^ts of the.^eittdnib Orders— Judjen Gfuise. ~ ftolihschildy^Senior. 
—The IlifiifiiAtf l^iister M Mettemidi and Pozio 

di Bofgo/jHfSbe Const pv^|nf».— Combination of nrU and delicate epi- 
curism.— Singulair Meeting. — Society, ^r* Promenades. —.Climate. — 
— Pnedee of Medioiiie. — Superior Inns. — Observations on, 
g^tfomal list of, Rhenish Wines, Wit}i their Prices. Cure de rai^iti^ 

Travellbrs may say what they please ^bofut FSWiik- 
fortr-that it is “ old and crazy^-^-that (pi^ds only^oae 
good street in it” — and that “ the best of ^the '|pod houses 
are inns.” For my part, I have no hesitation in ^tedaiing, 
that its very peculiarities aire amongst the many ^ reasons 
for liking the place, and/or prdfi^ to any other 
German town as a i^dence^ w«|e 1 iii a situallito to 
make a choice for Uting ahr^. ^There is bo: pkee in 
England to which F^kfort can compared, capable 







FRAKKPORT. 


151 


of conveying a just reader who 

has not seen it. But if ne can imagine a city, in which 
nre equally to be found, though on a limited scale, the 
unassuming and easy deportment of the well-bred classes 
of society of our great metrojwlis— the luxurious style of 
living of the London merchants— the hustle, ac^tivity, and 
extent of speculation, which mark the great commercial 
houses of Liverpool, or any other equally important sear 
|)ort— the moderate splendour of the aristocratic families, 
and those of foreign ministers, which settle, for a season, 
at a watering-place in England— and, finally, the pleasing 
and rational amusements, with a full share of good taste 
for the fine arts, literature, and science, which distinguish 
either of the two other British capitals— he will be able 
to form a correct notion of what Frankfort is in reality. 
In addition to which, it should Ik? stated, that the situation 
of the town, the salubrity of its climate, and beauty of the 
environs, its many modern buildings, its public walks and 
institutions, its prevailing cleanliness, and su}x?rior ac- 
commodations for travellers, with the moderate charge at 
which every luxury is to be purchasixl, assign to Frankfort 
the palm of decided pre-eminence among tlie Continental 
capitals of the second order. 

Where the river Mein forms a gentle curve from east to 
west, traversing an alluvial plain, of no considerable extent, 
but great fertility, and in a space equally distant from 
Ifoechst and Hanau, Frankfort rears its many Gothic and 
Byzantine buildings, and occupies a large portion of its right 
hank. On the land side, a promenade, through an agreeable 
shrubbery, unequalled in Europe for extent, following that 
species of zigzag course around the town, which is peculiar 
to a line of fortifications, marks the place, where, until 
within the last few years, rose ramparts and bastions, which 
had so often ))een battered by contending armies, and 
. as often proved unsuccessful barriers against invasion. 
On the river-side, A range of groves, enlivened hy nume- 



152 CONSTITUTION OF FRANKFORT. 

rous high and elegant dwclling-^uses, form a facade to tho 
city, which is at once gay, airy, and impoHing. 

One of the many remarkable political changes which the 
battle of the people'^ of 1813 produced, was the restorer 
tion to Frankfort of its long-lost independence. The “ fret* 
town” of Frankfort, with its circumscribed territory of a 
few acres, was admitted into the Federation of the Ger- 
manic States, and was made the seat of assembly of the 
Diet. On that occasion, a new constitution for the internal 
government of the city was granted; and three years 
^ter it was regularly sworn to and proclaimed. By this 
new act the sovereignty is declared to be vested in the 
citizens, who profess the Christian religion ; and the go- 
vernment to consist of a senate, a council of representa- 
tives of the people, and a legislative body. Two bourgiie- 
mestres, elected by ballot annually by the senate, are at 
the head of the government. Each of the three constitu- 
tional estates has its distinct attributes; and the whole 
machinery is as delightfully complicated, and as beauti- 
fully rich in contrivances, springs, and escapements, as 
that of a democratic government ruling a population of 
some millions in the New World. 

Connected with the city of Frankfort by an old stone 
bridge, 950 feet long, and 27i wide, and resting on 15 great 
arches, is the smaller town of Sachsenhausen, occupying 
a very limited space on the south bank of the river. The 
great road from Darmstadt traverses this suburb through 
its centre ; and a number of extensive orchards, nursery- 
gardens, and cultivated fields surround it oa every side. 
The territory belonging to the “ free city” ext^s to 
about half a German mile all round, the boundaries being 
marked by four old towers placed on four of the principal 
roads. No fewer than five Sovereign powers stretch ibeir 
limits to nearly within reach of the very gates of Fraiakfort; 
and an inliabitant, fond of exercise, cannot walk a compe- 
tent distance from the town, without getting into Bavaria, 



APPEARANGB OF FRANK FORT. 


153 


or penetrating into the Duchies of Darmstadt, Uessc, or 
Nassau. The population of the whole territory amounts 
to about 50,000 inhabitants, 42,800 of which belong to the 
city and Sachsenhausen : of the latter number, the Jews 
form about the ninth part, and 14,000 are strangers and 
denizens (beisass). 

Viewed from particular points, the town of Frankfort 
has a striking appearance. In crossing the bridge from 
Sachsenhausen, for instance, the iS"cAo7ieil;»tc/i^,or Bellevue, 
the Obermein gate, with the adjoining Grecian building, 
and the Untermein quay, with the verdant isle in front of 
it, form an extensive and handsome coup imi The 
more modem parts of the town are laid out in wide streets, 
and are rich in palaces and houses of large ilimensions. 
This is particularly the case at the eastern as well as the 
western extremity of Frankfort ; in the former of which the 
Neue Mainzerstrasse^ or Rue de Mayence, with the nume- 
rous streets joining it at right angles ; and in the latter, the 
Lange Strasse, near the Obermein gate, may, with justice, 
be said to equal the best and the most modern streets in 
London. 

Among the embellishments whichhave been lately ailded 
to this city, several stately and handsome public buildings 
attract attention for the purity of their design. Of this 
number is the very handsome edifice placed at tlie extre- 
mity of “ Bellevue,” erected in 1825 for the purpose of 
receiving the Stadt^ or Public Library. Next may be no- 
ticed the beautiful gate of the Obermein, for the remark- 
able elegance of its elevation. In order to give some idea 
of the effect produced by the ensemble of these interesting 
objects, I have introduc^ a view of two or three of them 
in a woocUcut, as conveying more immediately to the ob- 
server a description of their effect than mere words caii; 



164 . 


fR:kNlif?ORT. 



The Lilirary and Upper (rate on the Mein. 

The Alterheikgen^ the Bockcnheme>\ the Schaiman, aiid 
the AJfen Gates, are all recent additions, remarkable for the 
neatness, taste, and variety of their designs, and the airy 
lightness of the gilt railings running between two elegant 
lodges, which are in the best style of mmlem architecture. 
As a contrast to these, one of the old gates has been left 
standing, coll^l the Kschenheimthiir, the production of 
the femrteehth century. This lofty, massive, and sugar-loaf 
lower, haying ft)ur small turrets of the same form projg 
from its drciiniference immediately below the . 
of the terminating cone, forms a strikmiii Qj|]j|ict > 
quieter of the town in which it is sitiiej^* 

Anckher part of Frankfort which 
the long and wide street called the Zkil ; on each 
which nuflaeroua,imd. 

rupted line, exteikfihg to a cohSamme lengm/Thw^^ 
terminates at its western extiemity in a handsome square, 
called the Parade PlatZj which is itself prolonged 
other ojien space, named the Ross Markt; tO; th^j.noplh 




THB ROMBRBliRGER AT jpRANKFORT. 155 

of the latter is placed the quadruple alley of Trees in front 
of tlie Theatre. There is a much admired fountain in the 
Ross Platz. Of really narrow and crooked streets there are 
but few, and those are in the centre of the city, and are 
coeval with its foundation. But even those very narrow 
streets, with their lofty houses, gable fronts, :f^ numerous 
casements, arranged in a pyramidal form, seem to give to 
the city an antique and gothic appearance, quite consonant 
with those feelings and recollections of Oerman Imperialism 
and feodality, wliich Frankfort is apt to iinspire. 

Of sever^ dtber squares, 1 may mention two which are 
rematiudfev the Rdmerberg and the Liebfrauenberg. 
The W a very handsome fountain in the centre, sur« 
mount^ a rusticated obelisk, and is of regular dimen- 
sions, having friur handsome rows of Hmises, in the centre 
of one of which is the church of the Leihfrauy or Notre 
Dame. 



The ^lomerberger. 


• Numei^oUB hanidsome villas, many of them in the English 
style of architecture, ^re foiind on the Untermein Quay , and 
outside the gate bearing the same name ; likewise by the 


156 


COMMERCE OP PRANEFORT. 


side of the carriage-drive behind the Mayenoe Street, all of 
which are surrounded by, or have in front of them, very 
handsome gardens. These delightful retreats, some of which 
are more like rural palaces, are occupied by the affluent 
merchants, the wealthy bankers, or the representatives of 
foreign Courts at the Germanic Diet. 

In no other town on the Continent is there probably so 
much business transacted on paper-*-are so many hills 
negociated with every quarter of the globe— or so many 
singular speculations undertaken as in this place. Frankfort 
may, ind^, be styled the head-quarters of the Continental 
bankers. Among those of this class who had 
degree of celebrity, no one was more distinguish^ . than 
Mr. Bethmann. His connections in the mercantile world 
were so extensive, that in no comer of the earth in which 
that valuable contrivance of commerce, a bill of exchange, is 
resorted to, was his name unknown. His great attentkm to 
his clients and friends, the affability of Ms conversation, 
and above all, bis splendid hospitality, had made him very 
popular among travellers. I believe I do not exaggerate, 
when I assert that most of the respectable English travellers 
who passed through ' Frankfort have experienced, at some 
period or other, the gratifying effect of Mr. Bethmann’s 
amiable disposition. He was in the prime of life, and no 
man attend^ with more strictness to his duties. Adjoining 
to his house, in which he entertained his guests in I^Minp^ 
tubus manner, and which is situated near R part 'bf the 
public gardens and drive, is a summer pavilkin, emboMmed 
within ahandsome plantation. This pavilion he moted for 
the purpose of placing in it a ihastef-j^eceof Danneker, the 
Wurtemberg sculptor, representiog Ariadne recUning on a 
leopard, whieh Mr. B(^«iann,asR ]iberd 
arts, had requested that eminent artist to execute for him, 
and for which he paid a thousand pounds. Opinions ai^ 
much divided respecting the merits of this celebrated 
duction of Canova's rival: soUie have bestow^ upon it 



M. ttETHMANN :^DANNEKEK. 167 

the most unqualified applause, while others have found rea- 
son to admire it oidy in part. The group has some defects ; 
but its merits are of a superior description, and sufficient to 
atone for what is either feeble or faulty. The delicate 
conformation of the female structure in a state of partial 
repose, is admirably pourtrayed in the whole figure of 
Ariadne, whose soft and exquisite form rests on the back 
of a fiiU-sized leopard. The animal has been criticised by 
the naturalists. Undoubtedly, it has not aU the specific 
characters 7 of its tribe by which a minute zoologist might 
trace whether it be a apeoes, or only a variety of a sub- 
.but such niaiseries are not for the department of 
the fine^ afts, much less for sculptors to notice. The leo- 
pard of Danneker is a leopard of nature, to all intents and 
purposes ; and the air of softened ferocity and exulting 
triumph of the animal, proud of its lovely burden, is in 
perfect keeping with the story of this beautiful composition. 
Mr. Bethnumn bad also collected, in the adjoining rooms of 
his pavilion, the casts of all the finest objects of ancient 
sculpture which, during the reign of Napoleon, adorned 
the Gallery of the Louvre. These he had obtained through 
the friendly interference of Monsieur Denon, who had su-* 
perintended their execution. To this pavilion the wealthy 
banker used to adjouni with his guests from his house 
after dinner, in a summer afternoon, to take refreshments 
on the lining lawn before it, after having shown to them 
^'ith appropriate enthusiasm his ch^re Ariadne." I had 
the pleasure, in the sunqner of 1819, to form one of a party 
of this description, when 1 behrid, for the first time, the 
in questlbn. On the present occasion, I 
deprived the; greatest pleasure^ in. revisiting it^ from the 
original and t judirioiuB remarks mide on the group by the 
distinguished individuals whom I accompanied, and who 
are known to possessa classical taste for the fine arts. My 
second view, indi^irf this exquisite poetical composition 
of the best. ;living sculptor, took place under far different 



158 


DKATH dP ‘M. BUTHMANN. 


tSrcamitsiftctt fibt Ifl liieii'af the a^ent and 

idthirihg host bi^uties of ah object which 

he had S6' often and so long examined^ we were e^rted by 
one of tlid servants, whose interference extended only to 
the very innocent office of turning roond the group on its 
pedest«al, in order to present it to' us in every |knnt of view, 
and to the drawing of a pink curtain before the casement, 
through which the light was admitted into the rootn; a 
a coquetterie of the worthy master of the place, who wished 
to give to the cabinet of Ariadne the soft atmosphere of a 
boudoir. But the master is no more ! We learned with 
grief that he hfid died of a}X)plexy only a few month# before. 
Hc'had entertained a large company to dinner, dfrwhich, as 
usual, he had himself partaken liberally ; and proceeded to 
the theatre for the purpose of escorting Madame Catalani. 
Some altercation took place at the entranco-doOr,‘ during 
which he became violently agitated : on reaching his box he 
fell senseless on the fl(K)r. He was instantly removed to his 
house, where, after lingering for ten or twelve hhurs speech- 
less and motionless, he expired. The house was still occu- 
pied by his widow, who, in virtue of that title, can claim 
the right of continuing in it during her widowh()nd ; but 
the pointed manner in which she has been wholly overlooked 
in the testamentary dispositions of the deceased j dated some 
time before his illness, and the peculiar arrangement made 
by him in regard to his children, seem to indicat#4hat he 
had, or thought he had, i^ason to be dismnten&d with 
her. Of the immense wealth which he hftsdeftj Bhe isnot 
tb partake in the remotest degree ; and* the 
of his children is confided to his ^ partner,'' MbnM^ St. 
Oeorge. Against these measiite# the wiikiW ha#'1dnee ap- 
pealed ; ahd ah action^' disputing iheprovl^nS'bf the will, 
is how pending in a Court of Justice at is sup- 

posed, that at one time, during his short ithl^sl^’MliJ Beth- 
mann had probably the ititehtioh bf altering his^Iak;^ will, as, 
he made signs to have writing materiids broaghrtd 



THB PPAERTHURM ;^THK DuMK. 159 

After attempting to use the right hand |md failing, he 
traced* some characters with his left hand on the paper, but 
these were found afterwards to be i)erfectly illegible. Tlic 
frieiida of the lady rely much on this circumstance, as a 
presumptive evidence of the testator's relenting and kinder 
disposition towards his widow; and it will be curious to 
know how the learned in the law at Lubeck will settle 
the question. Mrs. Bethinann, who is a Dutch woman by 
birth, is a near relation of a higlily respectable merchant 
naturalised and residing in England, and is descended 
from a female creole of one of the Dutch West-lndia 
Islands, whither her grandfather hail gone as a private 
soldier, and where he had amassed a very large fortune. 

Wc-^uitted Mr. Bethmann's museum with mingled feel- 
ings of ^deasure and regret, and having stopped for a few 
minutes to contemplate the monument erected by Frederic 
William the Second, King of Prussia, to the memory of 
the brAve Hessian troops who were killed at the taking of 
Frankfort in 1792, we continued our excursion along the 
beautiful drive round the town. The locality pf the mo- 
numentj which consists simply in a group of trophies made 
of bronze, piled on a gigantic block of red granite placed 
on the summit of a basaltic rock, is very appropriate. It 
is in the centre of part of the great slirubhery, or public 
garden, formerly the site of the very bastions winch the 
br^ye Hessians stormed. 

From whichever part of the environs the traveller looks 
upon Frankfort, the lofty tower of the Dome, or ])rincipal 
Roman Oi^tMic Church, attracts attention. This last pro- 
duction of t)ie old German architects, called the Pfarr- 
ha«,1)een left in im unhiushed state, by Matcm 
Gartner,, itho raised it to the height of ^ feet. It has 
a square andfia divided into three stpries At each 
Qf4h0$e isan elegant Gothic turret, resting on rusti- 
‘ iiated ba^enm with;beautiful carvings and filagree work. 
The lowevjs terminate^ by' an . hexagon^ cupula, also un- 



160 


THE KOMKR. 


finiahed. This would have been, when completed, one of 
the best specimens of the amalgamation the pure Gothic 
with the German style of architecture, constituting a pleas- 
ing variety of the former, when employed. for Roman 
Catholic or Lutheran churches. 

The Dome itself has nothing remarkable in its structure. 
It is worthy of notice as having been the seat of election 
of the German Emperors, who were placed on the altar 
after the election. The carved stalls in the choir also merit 
attention ; they offer a fair specimen of the art in the four- 
teenth century. Some of the paintings of the old German 
masters, preserved in the sacristy, are valuable: but the 
two objects which strangers are more anxious to contem- 
plate in this church, are, first, the rtionument of Gunther 
of Schwarzburg, who having been elected, in 1349, with all 
due forms, Emperor of Germany, was poison^ a few 
months after, anti compelled to yield the empire to Charles 
of Luxemburgh, whose election had been marked by every 
sort of irregularity : and secondly, that of Le Chevalier 
de Sachsenhausep.” 

There are in Frankfort four chuipches of the Roman 
Catholic confession, including Notre Dame: and six for 
the Lutheran service. The number of those who profess 
the latter creed among the inhabitants, compared to diat of 
the former, is three to one; and both are eligible to all the 
offices of state. 

The Rom Bit is an assemblage of irregular buildings, of 
various dates, purchased by the Government at different^' 
periods, constituting what in other cities is styled the Hotd 
deViUe. The only remarkable parts of Ais grotescpie 
structure, are the great banqueting hall, in which 4he ^ 
coronation-dinner, given to the newly-elected 
used to take place; and the archives of the ctty,< where the 
celebrated charter, the Bulla Aurea^ or GoldeO; Bull, is 
preserved. Around the banqueting hall, the pnrtrldta pf ' 
the ^Emperors since Conrad 1. are still visible, painted 



THE PUBLIC LHJH AH Y. 

m fresco on the wall. I’lie Goldw Bull is. a vciuTablc 
document written oS parchment) measuring sev'eral feet iii 
length, and passed m the year 1356, during the reign of the 
lOmperor Charles I V. < It settles the manner of electing tlie 
|]in|)eror; fixes the number of electors ; declares tlie dignity 
of electors to beequal to thAt of kings ; and constitutes high 
treason every attempt or conspiracy against their persons' 
By one of its enactments, the place of election is fixed at 
I'rankfort, and^ that of the coronation at Aix-la^Chapelk*. 
This singular charter,,the only real good of which 1ms been 
to prove that an elective chief magistracy, whether under 
the dignified name of Etnperor, or King, or under the less 
sounding tides of President^ or Consuf^ carries within itself 
the seeds of destruction, begins with the curious a|:)oph- 
tliogm, Omfie regnum in se divisum desolabitur the 
im|)ort of which, however, seems uot to have made a.diu* 
impression on the successive electors. 

Waving been struck by the appearance of thc^ building 
whidi S^^hs the public or Stadt library, I took a conve- 
nient oj^tunity of visiting it. The distance at which 
this establishment has bifen placed from the more inhabited 
parts of the city,- and the little use which can be made of 
it, owing to the singukr regulation which limits the time 
of adntisSiem to one hour only on two days, and to two 
Imurs on two other Todays of the week, must be matter of 
• egret to those who are attached to literature. The library 
contains upwards of fifty thousand volumes, including sumo 
i^xceedingly raro^ ^itions, and a most complete collection 
works on the history of Germany. The books, neatly 
^)oun(t in wbite'^Vellum, with a fuller title than usual dis*- 
tinctly written do the bocks, are arranged in handsome 
'Hses amnnd^ a Very large Central room of fine proportions, 
‘d'ty, and lighted by side fanlights^ ro contrived- that they 
•lay be mai^ to change their relative position in regard to 
lie sun; pr^ent its immediate transmission into 

Ho direction df sny of the bookcases. . At each end of this 

; VOL. I. Af 



LUTHBR'S SLIPPERS. 


162 

principal room is a smaller one» containing, besides books, 
some glass-cases irith specimens of Grecian, Roman, and 
Egyptian antiquities, together with a few remains illustra. 
tive of the history of the country. In each of these rooms 
a mahogany spiral stairpase leads to the light gallery that 
runs round the three di^Mons of the library. The effect of 
the whole, viewed as you enter through the central door, is 
particularly striking ; and the uniform hue of soft colour- 
ing which pervades everywhere, owing to the similarity 
of the binding, gives to. the library a refreshing air of 
cleanliness, and the character of a place devoted to’ study. 
Among the objects connected with the history of Ger- 
many, the enlightened librarian, with whom 1 had the plea- 
sure of conversing, though but for a short time, pointed 
out to my attention a portrait of Luther, and two pair of 
his slippers. The German admirers of that sturdy Refor- 
mer are apt to push their veneration for his memory too far, 
mindless of the slight barrier between “le sublime etle 
ridicule.” What possible interest can, or, at least, ought to 
be attached by any man of sense to the chaussure of a fellow- 
creature, however illustrious ? The exterior of this edifice 
is majestic and imposing. The portico, supported by 
columns of large dimensions of the Composite order, leads 
to a handsome vestibule, in which is a double flight of steps 
ascending to the library. The design and plan of this 
building are by Mr. Hess, the city architect. It was com- 
pleted in 1825, and the books were transferred to it from 
the Rdmer. r 

It generally happens, that in a country having a popu- 
lar government, the most useful establishments for the 
promotion of science and natural knowledge are formed, 
solely, through the exertions of private individuals, and 
supported hy them without any assistance from the public 
authorities. If such establishments be not always as 
magnificent as those which owe their origin to the bbe-^ 
rality of an enlightened sovere^, they* are sufiidently 



MUSKUM OB NATURAL HISTORY. 16»3 

important to answer their intended purpose. I class 
anion^ these the beautiful collection of objects of natural 
history which has been formed and .supported by the in. 
dividual energies of the members of a society founded by 
Senkenberg, an enlightened and philanthropic physician, 
for the promotion of that science^ This museum, whicli 
owes much to the indefatigable industry of Mr. K. Ruppell, 
well known for his travels in Africa, and a native of 
Frankfort, bids fair to surpass every other collection in 
the minor states of Germany, particularly in the cabinet 
of birds. The beautiful order in which the specimens are 
kept, the neat manner in which they are classed, together 
with the whole arrangement of the galleries, are beyond 
all praise, and worthy of imitation. The collection rapidly 
increases every year. Such a rich display of the wonder, 
ful varieties of organized nature cannot fail to inspire a 
love of science. 

From science to hospitals the transition is not violent. 
Tliere are two principal establishments for the treatment 
of the sick and lame in Frankfort; the first is called 

L'Hopital du St. Esprit.” It is an old building, much 
in need in repair, kept in tolerable condition, and in which 
every class of disease, medical or surgical, is admitted. 
This hospital had, 1 believe, in its origin, a specific desti- 
nation; being exclusively intended for poor foreigners, 
particularly under-clerks, servants, couriers, artificers, 
&c. ; but great deviation has been made from the original 
intention ofSthe founder, in behalf of other suffering 
objects. The number of patients admitted is very limited. 
Professor Farrentrass is the senior physician, a gentleman 
much esteemed by the profession, and in considerable 
practice. The other Hospital bears the name of its 
founder^: Senkenberg, of whom I have already made 
honound>le mention. This is a most creditable institution, 
conducted withj-great care and attention to cleanliness and 
the edinfort of the patient^ and connected with the 
2 M 



164 


THB HOSPITALS OP FRANKFORT. 


Academy of Medicine ; to the professors of which it ^ves 
the means of iiffording practical clinical instruction to 
the students. Besides these two hospitals, there is an 
Hospice'' for the treatment of mental diseases, con- 
nected with which is another establishment for epile])tic 
patients. The study df medicine may^be prosecutecl at 
Frankfort, as far as opportunities of attending courses of 
lectures, of consulting valuable collections, and of wit- 
nessing the treatment of diseases, can enable students to 
do so; but the means of procuring a complete medical 
education are wanting, and those of the inhabitants of the 
** Free City” who are deriroiis of obtaining the highest 
honours of the profession, resort either to Heidelberg, or 
to Geissen ; two of the German universities most in 
repute for this study; particularly the former, one 
whose professors is the indefatigable and celebrated anato- 
mist Ticdcmann. The Academy of Medicine, at Frank- 
fort, is altogether aA institution of a private nature: 
courses of lectures are gratuitously given at particular 
seasons; and a botanic garden, a select medical library^ 
and a small anatomical museum, are open in a most liberal 
manner for the free use of all those who choose to apply 
themselves to medical science. 

The society, entitled “ Geneckenbergische Nafur for- 
schende Gesellschaft,” for the promotion of naturid and 
medical sciences, is the principal scientific body in tlic 
town. It has two directors, Dr. J. G. Neubiirg, ami 
Dr. Crctzschman. The former enjoys a verj^liigh reputa- 
tion as a savant^ and is considered an excellent practitioner. 
He is much employed. The other is, de facto, the most 
important member of the two, on account of his zeal for 
the success of the institution, his extensive erudition, and 
the indefatigable attcntidki he pays to the duties of hii^ 
station. 

There is also a society, which I must ndt'oniit to men- 



SOlfiNTIPIC SOGIBTIBS. 


165 

tioiij because it may be said to be the model of tlie Me- 
chanics’ Institutions, established in England and Scotland 
within the last few years. The society in question is 
^ called the Polytechnic Society, for the promotion of the 
useful artsj and the sciences connectetl with them. Its 
foundation is ant^or, by several years, to that of the 
first Mechanics’ Institution in Ijondon ; and it reflects groat 
credit on the character of the inhabitants of this small, 
hut interesting State, that they should have taken the 
loiul in the career of scientiflc and mechanical instruction 
for the humbler yet useful classes of the community. 
This curious fact seems to have been overlooked in the 
recommendatory addresses made to the English public 
at the first opening, of the Mechanics’ Institutions in this 
country. It was in 1816 that the Polytechnic Society was 
first formed at Frankfort. It is composed of members 
taken from every class of citizens, particularly amongst 
.'irtizans. Mutual instruction in mechanics, in the useAil 
arts, and in the sciences connoted with those arts, forms 
the ])rindpal object of the society. In order not to inter- 
rupt the weekly labours of the workmen, a Sunday class 
lias been established purposely for them since 1818, wliich 
lias flourished ever since the commencement, and is now in 
Hit* most prosperous condition. But the committee of 
management of this really important institution have 
added to their plan two striking features, which are totally 
wanting in those of the same nature, that have since 
sprung up in England, France, and the Netherlands. 
These are a savings bank for its members, and an annual 
exhibition of the produce of industry and the arts, from 
the hands of the members as well as from mechanics and 
manufacturers in general. The funds of the savings hank 
hi (]uestion amounted in the firit five years to nearly half 
Hiillion of florins, proceeding from 2,500 depots. The 
iinnual exhibitions of 1826, and of 1827, had also 



166 mechanics’ INSTITUTION.— THE CASINO. 

been successful. Here ore examples worthy of imitar 
tion.* 

I was introduced, on the morning after our arrival, to the 
Casino, or principal club, situated in the Ross Markt, occu> 
pying a large suite of rooms on the first floor ofia spacious 
and neat building. FeW' clubs have so Hrge a collection of 
newspapers as I found in this place, particularly those be* 
longing to the different towns of Germany. The arrange- 
ments of the house are liberal ; coffee and dining-rooms, 
billiard and card-rooms, reading and conyeitetion.rooins, 
constitute the establishment. The introdu^on of foreign- 
ers is on easy terms. A member may introduce at once a 
friend or visitor for a month, by ihserting his name in an 
appropriate book. Every person of distinction, all men of 
eminence, foreigners well recommended, diplomatists, peo- 
ple in dfiice, and the principal bankers, meet at this club in 
an unreserved and agreeable manner. But as every human 
institution has its faults, so has the Casino at Frankfort its 
peculiarities ; and these are the playing at whist throughout 
the day, the smoking in the dining-rooms, and 'drinking 
goblets of beer at the card-table in the evening. What 


* Mr. Drougfaam, in a speech delivered at a public dinneiy (June 5lh, 

1828,) repeats in the most open manner, the assertion that the worthy 
President of the London Mecluinics* Institution was ^ the first to 
accomplish the useful and benevolent designs” of such establishments, 
and that the London Mechanics’ Institution, which has existed four 
years, was the one which led the way ** to all other institutions having 
the education of the working classes for their object, by whatever name 
denominated.” On lefeiencc to my account of the Polytechnic Society 
of Frankfort, and the date of its foundation, the reader will see how 
mistaken the learned gentleman has been and continues to be on the 
subject. latter society, which in all the characteristic of pc^larity 
and facilities for the iustractioii ^of the working classes, is quite on a 
par with the London or any other Mechanics’ Institution in England, 
France, or the Netherlands ; is superior to them all, in respect to those 
imporbmt points which I have toudied upon in my account of the 
society, and which, as yet, form some of its exclusive features. 



THJ£ MODERN CLUBS. I67 

would the author of ** Sayings and Doings^' su^ of these 
doings? 

In the same building with the Casino, which bears the 
name of H6tel Rumpf^ is a literary cabinet, and, I believe, 
the principal lodge of freemasons ; at least, so 1 was in- 
formed. The ladies frequent the Casino every Friday 
evening. As the dub mania has been for some time raging 
in LondoDj.and threatens to spoil all domestic society, 
why not introduce the fashion of admitting ladies on par- 
ticular evenings at some of the crac^lubs: at the Travel- 
ler8\ for instance, if they had a better house, and something 
to entertain their fair guests withal ? Why should not the 
Travellers be at home"' occasionally to their ladies P Let 
but a few leaders of the ton begin, and the rest will follow. 
If some such improvement in the present constitution of 
clubs does not soon take place, they will run the risk either 
of being des^ted, converted into common chop-houses, or 
of sinking to the level of gambling establishments* It is 
absurd to talk of objections, and of the ladies in this coun- 
try being averse to such a practice. They are no such 
thing ; and they have always been glad to visit a club, 
when the club has been open to them. Who can forget the 
throng of carriages, conveying, by day and by night, thou- 
sand8>of the most elegant, lovely, and clever females in the 
metropolis, to the University and the Union Clubs, when 
those two handsome buildings were first open? And 
at Crockford's ?-— but we must be silent upon that. Surely 
what is good and modest at one tipie, must be so at all 
times. But the fact is, that the present appears to be a 
race of men neither remarkable for gallantry, nor conspi- 
cuous for that ease of manners wliich distinguished polite 
society in former times. We are indolent, and cannot bear 
to be constantly on the stretch »to invent dviliti^ compli- 
ments, and pretty nothings, to please our fair friends with. 
We are too much mixed up wi^ politics, speculations, and 
wild projects of all sorts, and incapable of enjoying an 



MATILDA. 


intellectual interchange of ideas with the better part of 
society. The clubs, therefore, form a good excuse for 
retreating from all chances of being teazed by the one, or 
annoyed by the other. 

Walking towards the Zeil, after leaving the Casino, 1 
Was tempted to enter the shop of Mr. Charles J iigel, one of 
the principal booksellers, by the appearance in the window 
of “ Matilda, by Lord Norraanby,” at one-fifth of the price 
she is sold for in London. Now, although a grave physi- 
cian in the metropolis can have no kind of affinity with novels, 
particularly if ho has plenty of other tilings to do, and his 
time be fully employed ; yet, when travelling, and making 
a holiday, he may be indulged in the enjoyment of such a 
literary treat ; especially when it costs only three shillings 
and sevenpence halfpenny. Such and no more is the prici^ 
at which 1 purchased the neatest and most elegant little 
volume imaginable, containing the lucubrations of his 
Lordship, (as Mr. Jiigel will have it,) beautifully printed, 
with the most lovely diamond types, on excellent paper, 
and with surprising accuracy. This delightful pocket tyjx)- 
graphical bijou served, a fortnight later, to beguile Inany 
tedious hours of ploughing through the sands of Prussia 
and Courland ; and I thank the noble author and his dis- 
interested foreign editor for the amusement I have denvd 
from its perusal. The whole story has, unfortunately, the 
appearance of an every-day occurrence, and seems to have 
been painted with colours found ready at hand, illustrative 
of the frivolity, follies, and vices of what are called the 
fashionable classes of society. This edition of “ Matilda,” 
of Mr. Jiigel, is not the only specimen he intends giving 
of his enterprising spirit in multiplying the editions of 
English works of imagination ; but the first of a series of 
“ Pocket Novelists” oL, the present day, which will be fol- 
lowed by Granby, Tremaine, and Vivian Grey, typrigra- 
phically compressed into one^l4 of their native- propor- 
tions and. price The booksellers at Frankfort arc^' next 



PRINTSBLLERS Of FRANKFORT. 169 

to those of Leipsig, the most polite and courteous race of 
trailesmen. Their shops are fitted up with much elegance, 
and rich in every description of literary novelty. As to 
^ Mr. Charles Jiigel, he will be found by the stranger in- 
comparably superior to most of the hard-bargain-driving 
inhabitants of the Row, thoroughly acquainted with the 
history of his country, and full of information on the sub- 
let of Frankfort and its different institutions, which he 
(Oinmunicates with the utmost readiness. 

Frankfort, too, has its Ackermanns and its Colnaghis. 
In few towns on the Continent will such extensive colK;- 
tions of prints, both ancient and modem, be found. Of the 
latter description there is an endless variety, particularly of 
mloured views, and designs illustrative of the enchanting 
scenery, and of the singular and picturesque costumes in 
the neighbourhood. Frederich Wilmans, in the'Zeil, will 
afford a high treat to travellers, who being no masters of 
the graphic art, may wish, nevertheless, .to take home pic- 
turesque mementoes of their travels in Germany. Drawing 
from nature is doubtless a most excellent qualification in a 
traveller— one which may be said to double the enjoyments 
of travelling ; but the loss of time it occasions renders it 
one of questionable utility. It may be l^oldly stated that 
finislibd draughtsmen have always been unproductive 
t ravellers. They have wasted their hours in seizing the 
<5xteraal features of objects, leaving little or no leisure for 
examining into their intrinsic worth, their nature, and des- 
tination. Theirs is a journal for the eye. That of a tra- 
veller who devotes his time to the consideration of the last- 
mentioned objects, is a record for the mind and the h^art. 
If there must be illustrations in our diary, what better can 
we have than those from the pencil of native Artists, who 
being on the spot, and vying with each other in producing 
the best representation of objects.of interest and curiosity 
in their country, are more likely to be accurate ? 

We- arrived at Frankfort “ a day after the fair." The 



FRANILPORT. FAIR. 


170 

celebrated fairvheld in the autumn in diis town wae just 
over : we were told that it was dull and unproductive. 
The whole commercial world is dislocated. There are just 
now as many grumblers at the fair of Frankfort as at Man- 
Chester, or in any other place of equal mercantile import- 
ance. One of the principal nations in Europe is playing 
alosing game. This keeps the rest on their guard ; they 
suspect it may be only a scheme, aliter all, to get the odd 
trick. Malice and envy, and all uncharitableness, (feelings 
of old towards that nation,) suggest the timeo Danm 
et dona^ Sfc'^ Still the losing game is going on; and 
at last, as in a party at billiards, she may win by losing. 
God grant she may ! The centre mart, during the £ur, is 
to be found at the Braunfeb, a sort of bazaar, mr Palais 
Royal, on the principal story of a large quadrangular 
building, with covered galleries, and shops innumerable. I 
happened to be at Frankfort during the fair of Septem- 
ber 1819 , and no sight amused or interested me more than 
that of the gay, busy, many-tongued, many-nuumered, 
and many^XKitumed crowds which were assembled on 
that occasion. 

There is no reason why a purely mercantile population 
should not have its hours of merriment and rational 
amusement.' The strainer who resides at Frankfort, 
will find that the inhabitants can relax from business as 
well as theirs neighbours; and that they, too, have their 
routs and their dinners, just as if they never touched 
ledgers, or calculated per ekents* To judge, also, of the 
crowd at the .theatre, it may be argued that they, are a 
play-going people. The house is heat, spacious, and 
fitted up with taste. The three ranges of galleries, or 
balconies, wUch^run round it, free from obstructing 
pillars and hig^ parapets, give an agreeable airiness 
the interior.' As usual, Jheie is a privileged portion d 
the pit, reserved for those who choose hot to be jostled in 
thdr amusements, and are willing to pay for that im- 



GERMAN AND ITALIAN MOZART. 1)1 

oiunity. 1 could not help being struck by the general 
appearance of extreme cleanliness in and about the house, 
contrasted with the filthy vestibules and staircases, and 
the offensive atmosphere of the corridors of some of the 
other theatres we had seen in our travels. The play 
performed was the Lottery Ticket one night, and tlie 
Figaro of Mozart the foUowing night The effect pro- 
duced on my ears, by the German Crudel perch^ finora’’ 
and Su Y aria,^ otherwise so familiar to me in the softer 
accents of the only musical language in the world, is not to 
be described. I learned on this* occasion, (the first I ever 
had of comparing the German with the Italian Mozart,) 
that it cannot be a matter of indifference, as some pre- 
tend, to what sort of words, accents, or pronundar 
tion, a particular music is set. Let the reader, if he 
has ever heard a word of Italian, fancy the amorous 
Count turning to his dear Susanna with these delightful 
words, expressive of languid tenderness, accompanied by 
the fuSl and melodious chords of the great composer ; 
“ So lang hab' ich geschmachtet ohn’’ Hoffiiung dich ge- 
liebt ! ” or let him listen to the lovely Countess, dictating 
to a sly soubrette the bilkt doux, “ CAc mave zefir^tto^ 
in the following harmonious accents: Wenn die sanften 
A-bW luf-te,’' with a succession of terminal words through- 
out the opera ending in ach — estein^g-^^4terg or afen, and 
he then will form an idea to himself of the importance of 
language in vocal music. 

If the traveller be an admirer of the Flemish and 
German schools of painting, he wiU not regret an hour 
spent in the cabinet of the late Mr. Sta^el; where, 
amongst many mediocre perfewmances of the earliest 
masters, some will be found which will amply repay the 
time devoted to their contemplation. This cabinet forms 
port ai an Institute for encouraging the fine arts at 
Frankfort, founded by that eminent and patriotic merchant 
in 1816; for the support of whkh he left the largest 



STAKDEl/S PICTURES. 


)72 

portion of hij: fortune, as well as his own collection of 
pictures, and other valuable objects. A school for draw, 
ing has since been established in the Institute, whicli is 
said to have had the happiest effect in improving the 
taste of ai'tisans in particular, who are admitted gratui- 
tously. It is open every day during tlie fair, and three 
days ill the week at other times, to the public generally, 
without any fee or ceremony. In one of the rooms tliere 
is a most magnificent collection of engravings, among 
whicli no fewer than llJOO are the production of Albert 
Durer. ^I'lie entire collection consists of 30,000 engra-, 
vings, a certain number of which are exhibited daily for 
a fortniglit, when they are replaced by others. By this 
simple arrangement, the amateur of this branch of art, 
who resides in the town, and has time to spare, may 
successively view and examine the whole collection. 
Among the cabinet pictures, there are some of the most 
lovely Ruysdaels in existence. 

Heirs at law arc not the warmest supporters or atlmirers 
of posthumous beneficence and liberality. In this respect, 
tilings go on much the same at Frankfort, as tiiey do in 
larger capitals: for this reason it is, that the Staedel In- 
stitute, which is formed out of the splendid testamentary 
gift of that! individual, has been considerably checkSl in 
its progress by the litigation of those who have thought it 
necessary to dispute the validity of the will. The cause 
was in t^ef^iirse of trial when we were at Frankfort; 

Encouragement such as this Institution is calculated* to 
give to the cultivation of painting, is much wanted here ; 
for at present it is imposrible to compliment the inhabitants 
of Frankfort upon their proficiency either in the fine arts, 
or in those objects of industry which require some know*; 
ledge of them. These observations are ^ suggested 'by the 
general character of the productions of native artists, and 
manufacturers^ which we faad^ an opportunity^ of esaunioing 
in the a})artmehts of the Polytechnic Soeietyi ^ Historical 



THR JKWS AT PRANKFOUT. 


173 

aiui portrait; painting seems to he at a very low ebb indcerl ; 
and much cannot Ixj said in favour of the ])resent state of 
the fine arts in general. But every thing must have a 
beginning; and this being only the second exhibithai of 
the kind ever attempted, may be succeeded by others of a 
siij)erior description. 

In our rambles over the town, the old palace of the 
Knights of the Teutonic Order was pointed out, with its 
singular chapel, standing near the bridge in Sachsenhuiisen. 
This extensive building has nothing remarkable in its ar- 
#;hitecture, and would not be noticed, but for the many 
hundred marks it bears of the attack sustained within its 
lofty walls by a small body of French soldiers retiring, be- 
fore the Hessian and Bavarian troops, after having bravely 
but inefFectuaJly defended the bridge. The impressions 
live yet visible on the red sand-stone walls left by thi* 
milrailk launched against them on that occasion. 

As a matter of curiosity, we were tempted to extend our 
airing to that part of the town where all the Jews reside, 
'rile ])rinci})al street of this insulated quarter, situated at the 
east end of the town, l^ars the name of Juden Gasse, is ex- 
tremely narrow, and very filthy. Floors piled ujxm floors, 
lo the number of nine or ten, are to be seen in each of the 
countless houses, made of wood, and black from age, Avhich 
form the street. It was actually swarming with the iinslia- 
ven, the circumcised, and their kindred, stationed before, 
and at the doors of their rag-shops, in a state ofifilth w hich 
beggars description. How epidemical disorders are not en- 
gendered in such a place, is a matter to me of some sur- 
prise. And in the precincts of this quarter the Jews were 
formerly shut up every night ! At present they arc at liberty 
to go any where, and at all hours, and settle wherever they 
think proper. One? of the Rothschilds, who is, 1 believe, 
the head of the well-known firm and family ' of that name, 
has availed himself fully of this emancipating regulation ; 
for, independently of a very good house which we saw in 



THB RUSSIAN MINISTER. 


174 

the ndghboiiH^bod of the Juden (ksae, in an open space not 
for from the Jews' hospital, and at the door of which some 
lackeys in sky-blue liveries loaded with lace made them- 
selves conspicuous ; he has a very pretty and showy villa 
on the outskirts of the town, immediately upon the grand 
promenade noticed in another place. The undeviating and 
uniform identity of the features and general character of 
the countenance, which accompany these singular people, 
wherever they settle, is certainly one of the most curious 
phenomena in nature : climate, and all those physical cir- 
cumstances belonging to localities, which work such won^ 
derful changes in the physical character of man, and are, as 
much as any other influential agent, the cause of those dif- 
ferenccs which constitute races, — appear to have no influence 
upon the tribe of Israel. The circumcised of Monmouth- 
street is as like that of Juden Gasse, as two individuals of 
the same nation can be ; let them be by birth and residence 
German, English, Russian, Portuguese, or Polish, still the 
one and only set of features belonging to the race will be 
seen equally in all. 

But it is time to turn from these dry matter-of-fact con- 
siderations to some more agreeable subject. Fortunately 
an opportunity is afforded me of so doing, by my introduc- 
tion to Baron d'A— the Russian Minister, accredited to 
the Diet ; a gentleman universally known to his countrymen, 
by whom he is much esteemed, and who. has held several 
conspiaiiGi|h public situations. He waa*attach6 to Kou- 
tiisoff, during the brilliant campaign of 1812, and formed 
part of the suite of the Minister for Foreign Affairs at the 
Congress of Vienna ; where his aeal, talents, aiid watchful 
anxiety for the interest of his Imperial mast^ attiRdedlhe 
favourable notice of moat of the foreigti diplomatists, with 
the single exception, according to common report^ of Prhxte 
Mettemich. That minkter waarsup]^^ t6' isateHahi tm 
cordial feeling towiarda riie Bahm. - Jt happiehedV 'thht riu^ 
ring a severe indisposition the Baron'to Ms 



AHEG DOTES OF THE BARON D'A< 


. 176 

bed, the Prince saw, one morning, General Pozzo di Borgo, 
and another Russian gentleman now high in office, coming 
out of the invalid's house. The Prince, assuming an air of 
grief and great seriousness, inquired of the General how 
the Baron was. “ Helas I” replied the General, “ il n’y a 
plus d’espoir.” « How so rejoined his Serene Highness 
eagerly, “ is he dying then P" “ Au contrai re, mon Prince,” 
answered Pozzo di Borgo, ^‘e'est qu'il va beaucoup 
inieux.” 

The Baron is, in every sense of the word, what the French 
call spiritueL He was walking one morning in the Prater at 
Vienna, with a distinguished countryman of his, when a 
number of merry, gambolling, pretty littledogsbounded in all 
their playfulness towards them. Baron d'A— - received 
and returned their caresses, sporting with them at his leisure, 
when a thundering voice, from a tall, narrow-shouldered, 
and richly-laced Imperial footman, who was following close 
ufKin the nimble-legged animals, bade him beware how he 
sjwrted with the Court puppies, and rebuked him for so 
doing. The Baron stood petrified at so singular a prohi- 
bition, assumed a significant look, made a low bow, took off 
his hat, and with due gravity said, “ J’ai eu Thonneur d’etre 
presente k la cour,” and continued his pastime undisturbed 
by any farther interference. His anecdotes are inexhaus- 
tible, neat, and appropriate; Ids remarks shrewd and al- 
ways original : he speaks with equal fluency the French, 
Russian, German, and Italian languages ; and ^ving tra- 
velled all his life, his knowledge of men . and manners is 
very extensive. To all these qualifications of the highest, 
order, he joins that of being a perfect Apicius redivivus, 
in point of gout^ but not in extravagance. Baron d’A— ^’s 
table is proverbially , known among the higher classes of 
society ^hereyer he Ima been* His catsme is of the most 
kind ; end. epicurism, of being of that 
de8cripUoii ,ijr)i|iffh.j looks upoR’ plenitude of stomach as 
the supreme conrists in devising new oombina- 



176 FAMILY OF. PRINCK MORUSI.' * 

tions, i$ini])|j^ng coiuplicatcd prcKesses, and suggesting 
improveinents in the culinary art, on wlucli lie couk) 
deliver at will a series />| grave lectures which would 
Imve thrown my late acquaintance, Dr. Kitchener, into 
the shade. Of all this we had convincing proofs, at 
dinner which he gave to the Count and Countess Wo. 
fonzow, and some other friends. It is difficult to say 
whether his easy, flowing wit, or lus delicate epicurism, 
enchanted us most. Considering that the Baron is a very 
weijghty authority in all that relates to the pleasures of 
the table, it was with some astonishment that 1 heard him 
pronounce a sweeping. sentence against Rhenish and Mo- 
selle wines. He called the Rhenish wine, “ deTapoplexie 
liquide,'' and pretended that Moselle was often apt to pro- 
duce the gravel. This opinion he proceeded to illustrate 
by exanijiles which were told too prettily to be convincing. 

It would seem as if the Frankfort people were of tiie same 
way of thinking on that subject, os they consume bttt little 
of those wines, and prefer, with the Baron, the Latour and 
Laflitte of 1811 ; doubtless because the former are of home 
gix)wth, arul the others have to travel some Jiundred of luilasj 
and are not ^ cheap. The opinion too, that old Rhenish 
wine is the best, has, it appears, been quite exploded. This 
wine, obsejvcd our culinary instructor, should be drunk 
young, in small quantities, and out of Bohemian glasses. 
It is also an absurd practice, added he, to icc the Rhenish, 
for by^^u(^li a process the peculiar io^uet of the wine h 
lost, lit should only be cooled in water. These several 
axioms he proved to our satisfaction, by circulating one of 
the most exquisite specimens of Johannisberg 1 have ever 
tasted. It was of two years' growth, cooled in spring** 
‘water, and in. glasses from the mountains of Bohemia. 

By one of those singular coincidences which happen only 
to travellers, 1 found myself placed near a lady whom ]i 
had well known as a child of seven or eight years old, at 
the house of her brother, the unfortunate Prince Morusi, 



SOCIKTY AT FRANKFORT, 

in Constantinople. Nearly a quarter of a'eentury luui 
elapsed between our last and present meeting ; yet so keen 
is female recollection, that after the first few wofds which 
we mutually addressed to each other as strangers, it struck 
her that we were old acquaintances ; and she reminded me 
of the circumstances of our last interview, as if it had 
occurred but the week liefore. That interview had taken 
place on the banks of the Bosphorus, in the mansion of her 
princely ancestors, and in the bosom of a family not more 
distinguished for their rank and honours, than esteemed 
for their superior worth by the whole Greek nation. The 
interval since we had met, had been to her full of afflicting 
events. All her relations had successively fallen by the 
scimitar or bftwstring of tlie Osmanlys. She herself, with 
some female relations, and many other families of dis- 
tinction, were fortunate enough to make good their escajK? 
from Constantinople during the massacre of the Greeks, 
which has stained the annals of the reigning Sultan ; and 
took refuge in Odessa, there to experience the bounty of 
the late Emperor of Russia, who received and provided, in 
a most liberal manner, from his private coBers, for all those 
distressed and widowed mothers, and sisters of princes. A 
ft!W years afterwards, my fair princess married Mons. Per- 
siani, the present Secretary of the Russian Embassy at 
Frankfort. 

After dinner, the party assembled in the principal suite of 
rooms, when some Kjompany arrived, and an agreelbk! cow- 
versazione began. The corps diplomatique forms a distinct 
branch of the society at Frankfort. It is of course the most 
recherchee* The citizens holding offices, particularly the 
upper branches of the legislature, and a select circle of 
friends, congregate together, to the total exclusion of the 
merchants and the hourgeome generally. But the two 
latter classes of inhabitants arc said to live more splendidly, 
and to receive more coridially the stranger, who is sure of 
finding a hearty welcome, if he but brings an earnest letter 

VOL.- 1. N 



CLIMATE OF FRANKFORT. 


178 

of introduction. The ion of society in ^neral may be con- 
sidered as nearly approaching to that of the minor capitals 
of Germany where Sovereign Princes reside ; but there is 
the je m sais quoi wanting in it, which dandies and ex(}ui^ 
sites have styled the suprtime bon ton^ and which may be 
seen, but is not to be described. 

Walking is a favourite amusement with the belles at 
Frankfort. The extensive shrubbery, the orangery, and 
the public flower-garden, with hundreds of exotic plants in 
full bloom, are the rendezvous of all the beauty and fashion 
from one till three in the afternoon. Some prefer driving 
out in their caleche, and a great number ride on horseback, 
d PAnglaise* The elegants are generally foreigners, and 
attaches to the foreign missions. These young gentlemen, 
being paid to be idle, become cavalien serventi to the 
ljulies ; while the husband, the son, or the brother, arc 
deeply engaged at their counting-houses, conning over the 
rate of exchange with Amsterdam, London, and Paris. The 
Zeil, too, the finest street in Frankfort, exhibits its pt'des- 
trians of Ixith sexes, at the same hour on a fine day. But 
here the scene is changed. The ladies who parade up and 
down the south side of the street, have no husbands and 
no shackles, and court admiration; while the gentlemen 
who follow are neither young counts, nor exquisite secre- 
taries, but the rich young banker, who has just run out for 
a breath of pure air, and the spruce, aping clerk, who is on 
his to cash a bill of exchange— all equally intent u]Km 
one object. 

The climate of Frankfort is favourable to pedestrian 
excursions. Dry weather predominates; the air is soft 
and elastic, and it seldom or ever freezes in the winter. 
The succession of seasons is marked by gradual transitions, 
which are the characteristics of temperate and healthy cli- 
mates. Thus far, therefore, Frankfort may be coiisid^^l 
as a desirable sejour with regard to health. . The: resi- 
dent foreigners seem to speak favourably of .the. place. 



PHYSICIANS AT FRANKPCKT. I79 

Judging from the conversations 1 had on the subject of 
medical practice, and from the state of the liospitals, I 
M disyjosed td class Frankfort with a few of the principal 
. towns of Germany, on the spore of public liealth and the 
means of taking care of it. There are three physicians in 
great vogue in this town. A fourth, Dr. Wenzel, whose 
work on Diseases of the Spine, illustrated with beautiful 
plates, has been well received by the profession, and whose 
y)racticc was both extensive and successful, died in Octolier 
18^7, to the great regret of the inhabitants. He was held 
in great estimation. The system of medical practice gene- 
rally adopted approaches nearer to the strictly German 
doctrine of the day, than to the French school. In the 
treatment of inflammatory complaints, however, the Frank- 
fort y)hysicians incline much to the latter, and are therefore 
inactive. The mode in which the medical profession is 
remunerated docs not tend to give it that character of re- 
spc'ctability and importance which is so essential, even for 
the interest of the yiatients. A physician is either engaged 
at an annual stipend, in which case he is obliged to visit 
the family as a matter of course almost every day ; or he 
is ex piloted to send in a bill for his attendance, charging 
froin three to five florins each visit. It wag under an ar- 
rangement of the former description that the late Dr. 
Wenzel, already mentioned, who occupied tlie Jfirst rank 
in y)ractice, visited his ysatients ; whereas, many others pre- 
fer following the latter method. In that case, the^bill is 
sent in twice juyear, at tlie time of the fairs ; a y)eriod in 
which all thrifty housekeepers settle their domestic and 
fjccuniary affairs. An accoucheur, among the superior 
classes of society, receives a remuneration, of from twenty 
to forty florins. The gentleman mostly employed in that 
cayiacity at this moment, is a Frenchman by birth, named 
be Jeun. 

Few towns in Europe, Paris perhaps excepted, can 
hoast of such magnificent hotels as are to be found at 



180 


THE RHENISH WINES. 


Frankfort. These are principally in the Zeil, or in tliL‘ 
vicinity of the Theatre. The Riiinish Kaiser, at which 
our party were staying ; and the Hotel d’Angleterre in 
the Ross Markt, where 1 lodged on a former occasion,^ 
are in every way worthy of the largest capital in Kuroyn;. 
Even some of the inns (as for example the Hotel de Jim- 
sic), as j)ul)lic buildings, are very remarkable. The charges 
are by no means extravagant, and the attendance is of the 
best description. But on these subjects I refer the reader 
to the Appendix at the entl of my Second Volume. 

Before I conclude my description and account of Frank- 
fort, I must say a few words on tlie extensive trade which 
it carries on in Rhenish wine. From the information 1 
collected on this subject, it appears that several thousand 
ohms, each ohm containing about fifteen dozen of bottles 
of Rhenish wine, are negotiated in this commercial place. 
It is generally from Frankfort that the variou.i sorts of 
wine, of the growth of the Rhine, are ordered. The liouse 
of Peter Arnold Mumm has a most extensive connexion in 
this respect, and supplies some of the choicest wines. There 
are red and white RlK!ni>sh wines. The former are gene- 
rally more powerful than the white. TJiey have totally a 
different flavour, and are apt to cause hciit and irritation. 
The white wines are divided into classes, either according 
to their properties, or their topographical growth. 

According to the former classification, those of Nierstein, 
Markobrunner, Streitberg, Rudesheim, Bingen, and Ba- 
chanich, are the strongest, and have more Imdy in them. 
I’hose of Schlossberg (Johannislierger), Steinberg,. Geissen- 
heim, Rothenberger, and Hochheim, are the most endowed 
with aroma and perfume, and of moderate strength. Lastly, 
those of Laubenheim, Asmonnshausen (red), Bischteim, 
Liebfraumilch, arc the most agrec^able, possess a most de- 
lightful bouquet, with a requisite degree of |X)rfume, and 
arc the most wholesome of all the Rhenish wines. 



THR RHENISH WINES. 


181 


In puint of topographical classification, those of the 
Rheingau come first ; of these there are ten distinct sorts : — 


1. Hellenberg, 


Asmannshausen 

2. Hinterhaeuser, 

>near 

and 

3. Rodlandberg, 

3 

Rlideshcim. 

4. Kapellgarten, 

5. Rothenberger, 

^near 

Geissenlicim. 

6*. Schlossberg 

. at 

.Tohannisberg. 

7- Markobrunner . 

. at 

Hattenheim. 

8. Steinberg . . 

. at 

Eberbach. 

9. Graefenberg 

. at 

Kiederich. 

10. Hauptberg 

. at 

Rauenthal. 


Next follow the wines which grow on the left bank, and 
of which the principal are. 

North of Mayence. 

1 . ScharlachbtTger (red) near Bingen. 

2. Rhein- Dicboch (red.) 


8. Miiscateller, 
4. Kuhlberger, 


} 


near Bacharai^h. 


Engeholle (red) near Oberweasel. 
South of Mayence. 


(). Dienheim. 

7- Niersteiner and Oppeuheim. 

8. Liebfrauinilch. 

9. Laubenheiin. 

And lastly come those on the right bank, exclusive of 
those already mentioned. 

West of the Rheingau. 

10. Guttenfels, near Caub. 

11. Rosteiner. 


East of the Rheingau. 

12. Hochheim. 

13. Wiekesh. 

■ 14. Costheim. 

It is to be remarked; that most of the vineyards produ- 



182 


PRICES OP THE RHENISH WINES. 


cing the above wines are of small extent, and yield but a 
very limited quantity of wine. This fact will show how 
great must be the adulteration of Rhenish wines in the 
trade, considering the extraordinary quantity which is soldi 
under some one or other of the principal names contained 
in the above list. The price, too, at which the pretended 
Rhenish wine is sold in London, when compared with 
' those obtained by ,the proprietor, even on the spot^ will 
assist in forming an idea of the imposition practised in this 
branch of the wine trade. It is, therefore, of the utmost 
consequence to deal with none but the most respectable 
houses, long established, and known to have direct in- 
tercourse with the Frankfort houses, or the proprietors of 
vineyards. 

The Bergwein — Rudesheim of 182.5, was sold at Frank- 
fort, in 18^, for 1100 rix-dollars the ohm, or fiftwn 
dozen bottles; being six rix-dollars, or about seventeen 
shillings a bottle. The Schlossenberger (Johannisberg) of 
the same year, fetched in 1827, ^00 rix ; while the Stein- 
berger Cabinet was bought for 900 rix. These same three 
sorts of wines, of the growth of 1822, fetched the following 
respective prices in 1827) 1,400 R., J50 R., and 980 B. ; 
while the same wines of the growth of 1811 stood in, the 
following ratio : — 

Johannisberg 3000 R. for 15 dozen ! ! 

Steinl)erger Cabinet 1,130 R. 

Rudesheim — Bergwein, 910 R. 

The house of Arnold Mumm boasts of having some 
Johannisberg of the year 1726, which it offers to the 
amateurs for the moderate sum of 4,500 R. 'or 16,605 
francs=664 pounds sterling 15 dozen, or 55 guineas a 
dozen ! ! And some Markobrunner of 1719, which may 
be had on equally moderate terms, or 4,000 rix-dollars, 
or 14,760 francs=590 pounds sterling, or 4B guineas .a 

dozen ! Truly may Baron A style these old wines 

(k Capoplerie Hquide. There is no recovering the shock. 



LA CUKE D£ RAISINS. 183 

The red wines are sold at very low prices, and arc not 
much exported. 

As a medical man, I may be expected to say a word 
•or two on the subject of the curious plan of treatment, 
called la cure de raisins, 1 made particular inquiries on 
this subject, and had some conversation with patients 
who had gone through the regular process with success. 
From both these sources of information, I collect, that 
peo])le labouring under inveterate affections of the sto- 
mach, frequent indigestion, nervous irritability of the 
digestive organs generally, bilious head-aches following 
ii][X)n an obstinate condition of the bowels, soreness or ten- 
(Ici ncss of the abdomen, and, in fact, suffering from that 
proteiform series of symptoms, which accompany diseases 
principally seated in the stomach or accessory organs, re- 
(j Hiring strict diet and pure country air, ctxffing meilicincs, 
and the total absence of animal food, have been recom- 
mended to pass from a fortnight to three weeks or a 
month at or in the neighbourhood of Riidesheim, at the 
beginning of the vintage season, and to eat nothing but 
grajjes during the whole of that time. Such patients take 
up their abode in one of tlie inns at Riidesheim, which are 
very^ tolerable, particularly tlie “ Engel,” (enjoying a mag- 
nificent prospect of the river,) and agree to pay afix^ 
sum for the lodging, and two or three }iounds of grapes 
dfiily. These should be eaten immediately from the tree, 
and the only thing allowed with them is a small (juantityof 
bread. Those who can walk, are recommended to pluck 
their morning portion of grapes from the trees ; a thing 
easily accomplished, as all the innkeepers have vineyards of 
their own. The second portion, about a pound, is eaten at 
dinner, or at almut one o'clock, and the remainder at sun- 
set. The hours for retiring to bed arc from eight till 
nipe, and the patient rises with the sun. This treatment 
sulmits of no medicine or other article of food with it. The 
effect of it is, to adopt the language of Dr. Puff, to bring 



184 


LA CURK DB RAISING. 


the action of the bowels to a proper standard — to quiet 
every symptom of irritability and nervous excitement— 
to remove headache — improve the digestion— procure 
sound and refreshing sleep — rest6re a proper degree ol^ 
coolness to tlie skin and mouth — and inspire the patient 
with cheerful ideas and bright prospects. These miraitu- 
lous effects of the cure, de raisim are in perfect accordance 
with the best notions respecting the modes of treating 
stomach complaints, connected with indigestion. What 
these complaints require, is a cessation on the part of the 
aifected organ from all ordinary operations; in other 
words, “ a few holidays from the fatigues of eating and 
drinking and the cure de ramns is, perha}>s, as good a 
way “ to keep holiday,'" as any that can be recommended. 



CHAPTER VI. 


CONFEDERATED STATES OF GERMANY. 

Environs of Frankfort. — The llidge of lleyrich — II anau. — Improv- 
ing appcaranco of the Country. — ('hauss6i. — Peculiar construction 
of tlio houses. — Paiiorjiiuic dt^scriptiou of the road tlm)iigli (.ii'leri- 
liausen, Sjialmiinster, Schluchtem, and Newhof to Fulda. — rinprove- 

inent of the latter town since its sccnlarwalion. — 1 'iskna(’ii. 

Luther’s concealment- — Industry of the I iilmbitants.— Eisenach 
pilXiS. — Gotha. — Tlie late Duke.— Tlic Duke of Sax©-Culx>urg 
iiilicrits the Principality, and ;\ssiiines tiic title of Gotha. — Public 
buildings. — Celebrated collections. — Baron Zach the astronomer. — 
Pai-on Grimm. — Eri uiit. — Fortifications. — 'Die Faniwror Alexander 
Jind Napoleon. — Description of die Road from F’ulda, throiigli 

F.rfurt to Weimar. — Aspect of this town.- Market Concert 'Die 

Ducal Palace. — The Grand-duke. — The Park. — Goethe’s Villa. — 
D’c Belvedere. — The Theatre. — The Sladtkirchc. — 'Die Alter 
Kircliof. — Nadeschdu Yaiiowsky — Schiller witliout a monument. — 
T.ihle d'Hble. — Digestion and Indigestion — Abernelhy and Dr. 
I *aris. — Industric-Comptoir. — Bcrtiich and Dr. Froriep. — hjigiish 
Academy and English Residents.^ 

Pew towns arc as favourably situated as Frankfort, in 
regard to a ])leasant, cheerful neighlwurhood, and the at- 
tendant enjoyments of a country life. Many agreeable 
villages in its immediate vicinity tempt the inhabitants, by 
their situation and rural beauties, to visit them. Those on 
the banks of the Mein and Nidda, at a short distance from 
the city, are frequented by |)cdestrians on Sundays and other 
iioliilays. Of this description are the villages of Hausen, 



186 


ENVIRONS OF FRANKFORT. 


Bockerheim, Grunebourg, Oberrad, Isenbourg, and the fa- 
vourite spot Forsthaus, embosomed in the depths of a thick 
forest. Beyond these, the country affords beau ties and pro. 
sjKJcts of a superior description. Nowhere are there so many • 
delightful rides, and excuses for wandering from home, ay 
are to be found within a circle of about fifteen miles around 
Frankfort. Mountainous districts, full of interest to the 
landscape-painter, the naturalist, and the geologist, present 
themselves on the great ridge of Mount Taiiuus, or at the 
beginning of tlie Thuringian chain of hills. Throughout 
those districts, many an elevated spot will afford to the . 
traveller an ample field for the contemplation of the rich 
gifts bestowed by N ature on these delicious countries. The 
view from the tower of Bergen, situated on an eminence to 
the north of Frankfort, about four milesdistant, is one of the 
finest in the world, and extends as far as Mont Tonnerre, 
beyond Mayeiice. To the north of the city of Frankfort, 
is ]iart of the ridge of Mount Taunus, which runs at the 
back of the Rheingau, as far as the river, protecting most 
effectually, by its sweeping amphitheatre of sloping hills, 
that rich and important district from the nipping north and 
easterly winds, so fatal to the grape. The gentle declivi- 
ties of all those hills are planted thick with vineyards, die 
uniformity of which is happily chequered by the introduc- 
tion of numerous fruit-trees, and the intervention of or- 
chards and gardens ; while thdr crests are crowned with 
woods, through the intervals of wliich, rugged rocks show 
their gigantic and frowning heads, and give a pleasing 
variety to the landscape. 

At seven o’clock on the fourth of October, we were on 
our way to Weimar. The road, beginning at the very 
liarricrs of Frankfort, is macadamized with small frag- 
ments of basaltic rock from the banks of the Rhine. It 
traverses a highly cultivated plain, and at about thre^ 
miles from the town, it approaches an elbow or reach of 
the Mein, the course of whidi it follows a good part of 



R0AD8 OF GERMANY. 


187 

tlie way, affording a view of some showy country resi- 
dences here and there, and of several neat villages on either 
side of the rivers The stream, clear and tranquil, mean- 
• dors throughout this district between highly cultivated 
^batiks. The distances, in German miles, are marked on the 
road by thirty-two numbered stones to each mile, beginning 
at ^00, and the numbers progressively decreasing as we go 
farther from Frankfort. Wliat is gained in having a gocnl 
road, is lost in the numerous delays to which the traveller 
must submit for the purpose of paying the frequent and 
. Iicavy charges of harrihes and chaussee-^geld. These delays, 
t(M), arc not a little increased by the difficulty of procuring, 
as well as comprehending, the endless variety of coin of 
each petty State through which the road passes. The 
system of turnpikes in England, of which many complain, 
makes every journey one of pleasure or of triumph, coni- 
])ared to the vexations of peages, and harrihes^ and road- 
money, in Germany. But it ill becomes a foreigner to 
complain of such an arrangement, when, thanks to it, he 
is placed in a condition to enjoy the luxury of travelling 
over a road equal to the best in England, where, only two 
years since, the difficulties on the way to Berlin were such, 
thaj: a traveller, setting out from Frankfort, became an 
object of pity to the friends he left behind him. We had 
t)nly to turn our eyes towards the cross-roads as wc passed 
them, and witness their Hretched and neglected state, to 
judge of what the main-roads must have been a few years 
back, before the system of harri^res enabled the different 
authorities to macadamize them. Innumerable finger-posts 
scattered in profusion at every comer, and painted in the 
gay colours of the State in which they are found, and the 
names of the villages and hamlets through which we pass, 
written in large characters on a board, afford great facility 
tp the pedestrian traveller, and some decree of interest, 
as well as information, to others. 

Hanau, our first halt after leaving Frankfort, is a neat 



HANAU. 


liiQ 

cheerful town, situated between the Mein and the Kinzig 
rivfer. The Ducal Palace, called the Wiliiamstadt, is seen 
to advantaf^e on -the banks of the Mein, and appears to lx> 
a large handsome square building. ‘This town is einhcl-^ 
lished by gardcn.s and public promenades in its immediate ' 
neighbourhood. The Chaussee^ after going round two- 
thirds of the town, takes a direct easterly direction, and 
crosses the Kinzig on a wooden bridge. The Frankfort 
postilions are the best-behaved as well as the best-dressed 
people of that class \ire have met ; and drive remarkably 
well. Immediately upon quitting Hanau we entered the 
magnificent wood of Kinzigheimerhof, in which we found 
vegetation still in great beauty. On emerging from this 
forest, an extensive and distant view of the hills, called 
The IMrd^ rnountainsy broke upon us ; Vogell)erge being on 
our left, and a little farther on the right the Rhon Hills. 
IMie country improved greatly as we advanced, not only in 
richness and fertility of soil, but also in picturesque beauty. 
The prospect in the direction of the Rhon Hills is mag- 
nificent. Every village we passed through, and the ex- 
tensive valleys that here and there open between the ridges 
of hills as we leave the latter behind and on each .side of 
us, bespeak the ease and comfort of the inhabitants. The 
houses and cottages are neat and well built. The latter 
are generally of boards and carefully thatched ; the former 
arc of a stronger construction, bfeing for the most part built 
of .strong timber, so arranged and disposed as to admit 
within the intervals square blocks of the compact red sand- 
stone, commonly met with in the neighbourhood. These in- 
tervals, or spaces, assume a variety of angular and geome- 
tric.']! figures, which add to the singularity of the external 
appearance of the building, where the wdls have not been 
stuccoed over. The walls of all are, internally, and of 
some, externally, covered with a hard and durable cement; 
which is capable of receiving and retaining for a length of 
time, water as well as oil colours. The same style of 



WKSLAR. — GOKTIlfi'S WKRTHER. IJ^t) 

house-building prevails thruugliuut this part of Germany 
--few, and of those only the public and important edifices, 
being built wholly of stone. Each house, indeed, may 
Jbe said to be, for the greater part, the work of the carpenter, 
jvho finishes the external frame, with all its compartments, 
casements, doorways, and internal divisions, so as to 
form an entire skeleton of what the house is intended to be, 
before the stone-mason and plasterer are called in to com- 
plete it. The timbers employed are very solid, well sea- 
soned, and in pieces of great length, planed smooth, and 
measuring about five inches in ^vidth and thickness. These 
are made to cross each other in a variety of directions, ac- 
cording to the taste of the builder. It is a matter of regret 
that the chaussce is not carried through the villages and 
(owns. These are left to the old system of paving, in 
which stones of various sizes and shapes are employed, and 
so carelessly put together, that carriages are ex))osed jierpe- 
tuully to the risk of breaking down. This is the case in 
Ihinau, Gotha, Eisenach, Erfurt, Weimar, and still more 
so in all the intermediate villages— the consequence of which 
is, that you arc absolutely compelled, if you have a regard 
for your vehicle, and do not choose to be stunned— to drive 
tlii'ough those places at a walking pace. 

\Ve soon left behind us, at some distance on our left, the 
sjiiall town of Weslar, romantically situated, and celebrated 
as tlie scene of Goethe's Wertlier. It is said tliat a {)crson of 
that name did actually live, fell in love when he ought not, 
lived miserably, and died just when he should, in that town 
where his tomb is shown to the traveller — some such au- 
thentic tomb, I presume^ as the old stone fountain trough, 
shown to Englishmen in an orchard at Verona for tlic tomb 
«f Sbakspeare’s Juliet. 

The road widened as we advanced, and appeared in most 
excellent order, save where the system of planting straight 
rows of trees on each side h^s b^n obstinately adhered to. 
In all those parts, the road, notwithstanding the hardness of 



190 


GBLNIIAUSEN. 


the materials employed in macadamizing it, is generally 
wet and muddy, and soft near the stem and in the shade 
of tlie trees. The country through which we passed pre- 
sents an agreeable as))ect with its extensive grass fields 
the bottom of the valleys ; and these are every where sur* 
rounded by low liills, studded with vines to the very top, 
and fully exposed to the mid-day sun. 

In the distant horizon the hills, becoming more and more 
distinct as we proceed, present a cheering and agreeable 
siglit, witli their' hanging wocxls and every sort of culti- 
vated ground, well-built villages and country residences 
happily grouped in different parts of the landscape, and 
cattle grazing in the intervening dells. The town of 
Oelnliausen lies before us in the dark and ample shadow 
of a high hill on its left, strongly detached from the hack- 
ground, with its towers and spires, by the bright sunshine 
that covers the distant hills beyond it. Here we changed 
horses at the Golden Sub, which is represented as a good 
halting-place, and started again immediately, passing be- 
fore the large Byzantine church, built of red stone. The 
road is carried along the slope of a richly-cultivated hill, 
midway, between its summit covered with vines, and the 
extensive valley on our right, rich and well cultivated. 
On descending into this, we remarked the ample quarry 
which furnishes the red sandstone, noticed in the various 
buildings we bad passed. This valley is frc(][uently inun- 
dated, and until lately, there was no regular road. One, 
still harder, and raised much higher, is now constructing 
on Macadam''8 principles. As we approached the termina- 
tion of the vale, a brilliant and delightful prospect opened 
before us of mountains variously shaped, and small towns 
glittering in the sun, until we arrived at the- f(x>t of a 
wooded hill, where the road ascends partly in a straight di- 
rection, nnd then winding to the left, runs along its circular 
base. The whole, valley is one extent of rich pasture, 
kept in the highest order, and irrigated like the plains of 



SA ALM U N STER.—SOII LUCHT KRUJ . 


191 


Ijoinbardy. The soil, both here and on the alopinp; surfaces 
of the hills, is alluvial, deep, and rich, through which, here 
and there, break out the shapeless outlines of red rock. 
|Fine young oaks, of al)out thirty years’ growth, form the 
.wide-spreading forest which we are skirting. We reached 
Saiiluiiinster at noon, crossing a small portion of Bavaria, 
witliout however being molested by any formalities. 1’lie 
whole of the next stage, as far as Schluchtem, is like a beau- 
tiful drive in an Englisli park, the road winding between 
two forests of young trees. Much may be inferred of the 
coiH|jarative superiority of wealth and comforts in the pea- 
santry and other inhabitants of these districts, as well from 
the clean and neat appc*arance of the many light four-wheeled 
waggons, drawn by a long double string of fine black horses, * 
profusely cay)arisoned with brass ornaments, carrying large 
l)ale8 of goods to Frankfort, and the produce of the land ; 
as from the aspect of the well-dressed waggoner, with his 
large cocked hat, blue frock, and a most humanized 
countenance. 

Beyond Schluchtem, the road follows the steep, long, 
and w(X)ded ascent of Kcilzelbach; and 1 took advantage of 
the pacx* we were going, to leave the carriage and examine 
the various specimens of rocks with which the road is mac- 
aduiiiized. These 1 found to be basaltic ; and on bi’eaking 
many of them, crystals of green and olive cpidotes and py- 
roxenes were discovered ; but tbese must have been brought 
from the neighbourhood of the Rhine, as no such formation 
is found here ; and yet the expense of its transport must be 
considerable. As 1 penetrated through the thick port of the 
forest, my step disturbed its peaceable inhabitants; and 
hares and young deer, graceful as antelopes, and quick- 
tjyed, bounded by ine in different directions. A very pro- 
minent hill stood on our right, called the Eisel Berg, as we 
reached the summit; and the country became suddenly 
ojxm, assuming a perfectly wild aspect, healthy and barren, 
^till the more distant lands, spread on the declivities of the 



192 


KISKL fi£RG.— FULDA. 


hills wliich surround the desolate plain in various shapes 
and height, tinted by the shadows of a passing cloud, 
or the streams of sunshine, preserve, here and there, the 
character of high cultivation. Among the more distant| 
ridges I caught, now and then, the glimpse of a wliol^ 
range, coloured in deep indigo and violet blue, with its out- 
lines sharp and so clearly defined against the clear horizon, 
as to remind me of wliat 1 had hitherto considered as an 
exaggerated feature in Mr. Martin-s landscapes, and those 
of some others of the water-colour school in London. Here 
the contrast with the more brilliant parts of the hills was 
impressive ; but the tints were fleeting and transitory, and 
perhaps, as such, not proper for imitation by the painter, 
whose province is to seize and embody the more permanent 
characters of nature. 

As the sun began to descend towards the horizon, on 
emerging through a wood of little extent, we found our- 
selves in the centre of a vast amphitheatre^ with a steep 
descent before us. Fulda was sc^en to advantage at sucl) 
an hour in the ample Iwsom of the vale below. 

A range of hills oti its right is remarkable for their pic- 
turesque outline and other circumstances of arrangement. 
Immediately before and around us, the rich pasture lands 
arc intersected by narrow canals, by which the fields are 
irrigated as in Lombardy; a circumstance which Mr. 
Russell, in his entertaining “ Tour in Germany,” has mista- 
ken for casual inundation, the result of neglect on the part 
of the peasants. A stone bridge enabled us to cross the two 
narrow streams of the Fulda, separated by a strip of pas- 
ture land ; and as we approached the town, the showy castle 
and park of the Duke, placed on the lesser hills liehind the 
town, attracted our notice. The immense plain on which 
Fulda stands has been, in our days, the scene of bloody 
contests 1)etween the Russian and French armies, and 
the town suftered considerably during the memorable 
campaign of 1812-13. Fulda was once the see of a Sove- 



i.ujhjrr’s concealment. 


193 


reign Bishop, who filled the town with churches, convents, 
and nunneries. With the exception of the cathedral, and 
one or two other churches — ^in one of which, by the by, is 
|shown the tomb of St.. Boniface—there remain but few of 
.the former. Most of the convents have been suppressed or 
turned into barracks; and one or two of the nunneries 
transformed into lying-in>hospitais. Since its secularisa- 
tion, tlie aspect of the town has much improved ; thanks 
to the electoral Duke of Hesse, its present sovereign. I 
cannot help comparing Fulda to Modena in Italy ; for, 
like the capital of the Duchy of that name, Fulda has its 
princely palace, with superb apartments and paintings— 
a court, one never hears of— fine houses, wide streets, and 
open squares. Like it, too, it possesses several ]mblic 
establishments— such as a library, a museum; and it 
contains an idle population, with more than a common 
share of dulness. 

From this town the road follows the meandering stream 
of the hhdda, which is embellished by gay and lively envi- 
rons, with regular slopes down to the banks, winding paths 
and vistas, that add to the natural beauties of the scenery. 
On our arrival at Eisenach, where the Grand Duke of Saxe 

eimar was staying, we found that little town in a bustle. 
'J’hc* handsome ch&teau, which serves as the Ducal residence, 
is situated on the right of the road just l)efore entering the 
town, with a very extensive park around it. This is War- 
tenhurg, a place that deserves to be mentioned from the cir- 
cumstance of its having been the abode in which Luther was 
subjected to a sort of temporal imprisonment. That event, 
which took place in 1521, originated in Prince Frederick, 
Elector of Saxony, who being the patron of Luther, andfear- 
ing the effect of the proscription issued against him by the 
Emperor, appointed certain noble and trusty men to convey 
the offending monk to a secret place, in hopes of avoiding 
danger. Luther was accordingly conveyed to W artenburg, 
where he continued ten months, engaged in writing several 

VOL. I. o 



194 


GOTHA. 


of his treatises, and in translating the Bible into German, 
This place of refuge, or, as some will have it, of confine- 
ment, he has called Fatmos in his writings. The papists 
on that occasion cMuployed the skill of wizards to seek him 
out, but they were unsuccessful, and his retreat was not 
detected. The inhabitants of Eisenach arc as industrious 
and active, as those of Fulda are indolent and thoughtless. 
The manufactories, such as they are, are numerous, and 
symptoms of business are every where visible. One of the 
branches of industry of these people is the fashioning into 
pipes the knotted roots of the elder tree, to w'hich the 
most fantastic shapes imaginable are given. These are 
sold in great number, and at a very reasonable price. Most 
of them have carvings and bas-reliefs, representing rural 
sp^irts and other objet:ts, among w'hicli the ])lace of Luther s 
imprisonment is the most frequently repeated. The com- 
merce of that other species of pi|K‘ bowls, known under the 
name of Ecume de Mer (Meerschaum or mcerstein,) which 
are so much esteemed, and so generally used throughout 
Germany and the rest of Eurojie, is carried on principally at 
Eisenach. These bowls are made of a species of magnesian 
lime-stone, commonly called soap-stone, found in great 
abundance in the neighbourhood of Koula near Eisenach. 
The best of them cost from two to live and even six rix- 
dollars. The bowls are elegantly cut into forms mostly 
imitated from antique vases. 

The next place of importance which occurs on the road 
is Gotha. This small but neat and interesting town 
should not be treated as a mere place for changing horses. 
It is, on the contrary,, highly deserving of the particular 
attention of travellers. The late Duke of Saxe-Gotha, 
who made liimself conspicuous during his residence at 
Rome, was an eccentric character, but well-disposed and 
kind-hearted. His reign was too short to allow him to 
put in execution the different projects he had formed for 
improving the political existence of his people, and for 



TFTK LATK DUKE OF SAXE GOTHA. IQ/J 

onlarfring the town. His taste for the fine arts, matureil 
|)V the daily contemplation of the chef-d"a:uvres of Rome, 
cinalified him for tlie 'task of embellishing the capital of 
lliis own principality. Unfortunately, he was possessed of 
• a feeble and sickly constitution, and w as an invalid for a 
considerable time previous to his death, wliich took 
j)lacc in the month of February, 1825. The person of 
the Duke was gigiuitic and strongly muscular. During 
liis residence of seven or eight years in Italy, he liberally 
gave his patronage to literary men, painters, engravers, 
and beaux esprits, and was well known as a professed 
Maecenas in those times. He frequented the highest ranks 
of society, with many members of which he w'as on habits 
of intimacy, particularly with Napedeon’s sister, the Prin- 
cess Dorghese. His death has given rise to a singular 
action at law on the part of his executors, who claim the 
preanium of an in.surance on the Duke's life, from three of the 
piincipal Insurance Companies in London, two of which 
have demurred to the claim, on the ground that the decla- 
rations of the medical attendants of the Duke were unsa- 
tisfactory, and not comformable with the real state of health 
of the person insured. The sum in dispute is large ; and 
a. commission having been appointed to inquire into the 
nature of the case, after several months’ meetings at Gotha, 
came to a resolution that the true condition of the Imdily 
health of the Duke had not been properly stated to the 
directors of the Companies in question. The commission 
consisted of two of the directors and their agents, assisted 
by a medical gentleman, a native of Saxony, practising at 
Leipsic, who was found particularly useful, in consequence 
of his knowledge of the English language ; on the otjier part 
there were the creditors and relatives of the late Duke. As 
the Duke had been almost in a state of paralysis for some 
time, a species of professional examination took place after 
his death, conducted by his own medical attendants. The 
result of this examination was reported to be favourable 



196 


THE DUKE OF SAXE COBOURG. 


to the general medical statement, forwarded at the time 
of effecting the insurance ; but it failed to satisfy tlie 
mind of the directors that every thing was right. On 
the commission meeting under the authority of the prcsent| 
Duke, at Gotha, a new and a more minute examination of » 
the remains took place, particularly of the head^ when it 
was found that a large tumour had existed within its 
cavity — which had probably l>een of slow growth, and 
must, it was inferred, have affected the Duke's health, and 
tended to shorten his life. This fact, it is contended, is 
sufficient to vitiate the insurance; and it is understood 
that the sums claimed will not be paid, except under a 
verdict regularly obtained in a court of law. I'he ques- 
tion is an interesting as well as an important one, and is 
now sub judice, in this country. 1 confess that 1 feel in- 
clined to side with the directors, who were evidently 
misled at the time of accepting the insurance, by the 
general statement, that tlie reporting physicians saw no 
reason for thinking that the Duke was in that state of 
health which rendered an insurance on his hfe more than 
usually hazardous. * 

For some time after the demise of the Sovereign Duke, 
Gotha remained without any regular succession; the pub- 
lic administration being conducted in the name of the 
widow, I believe, until by a Convention, dated the 12th 
of November, 1826, it was agreed that the Duke Ernest 
of Saxe Cobourg Saalfeld, brother to Prince Leopold of 
Cobourg; should take possession of the principality for 
himself and heirs. His Serene Highness, in consequence 
of that Convention, assumed the title of Duke; of Saxe 
Coboui^g and Gotha, as such, and made his solemn entry 
into Gotha on the 25th of that month. 

* The result of the trial, which has since taken place in the Court of 
Kings Bench, on this question, is in perfect accordance with the abhve 
opinion; and the execiitors'of the late Duke have notbefo able'^ ^ 
cover the sum daimed by them. 



CABINETS AT GOTHA. 


197 

Few towns in Germany, of the size and rank of Gotha, 
possess more public buildings of interest, or more valu- 
able collections, both private and public, calculated to 
^promote science, literature, and the line arts. Gotha, in 
* this respect, may be conadcred as one of the most classical 
towns in Germany, and as containing among its small popu- 
lation of twelve thousand inhabitants, the greatest number 
of eminent men of letters. The late Duke encouraged the 
fine arts with an ardour beyond the means of his limited 
revenue — ^his liberality frecjucntly outstripped his prudence. 
He projected a museum on a large scale, which was opened 
with great solemnity the year before his death, and by a 
late testamentary disposition, he left it to the town as a 
legacy from its Sovereign. The public library too is the gift 
of the same Prince ; it amounts already to 170,000 volumes, 
besides a smaller collection of books entirely on subjects 
of archeology. The twelve rooms in which the pictures, 
principally of the old Flemish and German schools, have 
been neatly arranged, are particularly worthy of notice, 
'fwcj other collections deserve especially to be mentioned, 
as being, I .believe, unetjualled in Germany— that which 
is called the Chinese Cabinet, consisting of a very exten- 
siva set of b(X)ks in the Chinese language, together with 
many Chinese costumes, utensils, monuments, and objects 
of curiosity; and another styled the Oriental Cabinet, 
in which have been arranged in a systematic order, and a 
catalogue published of them, the various objects con- 
nected with the ancient and modem history, as well as 
topography of Asia and Africa, sent home by the late tra- 
veller M. Scezen. 

1 am ho judge of medals, but I have been assured by 
some learned Germans, that the Numismatic Cabinet of 
Ootlia is one of the richest and the most valuable of the 
kind in Europe. With regard to the collection of shells 
of Mohs. Schmidt, I may assert that it surpasses in spe- 
cimens of great beauty and excessive rarity, all the cabinets 


r 



198 


BARON ZACil :-^BARUN GRIMM. 


of coiichology which I have had an opportunity of ex- 
amining. 

It may witli tnitli be said, that Gotha offers greater 
opportunities to the lover of science and the fine arts, I 
than many of the larger and more important capitals in •“ 
Europe; and it adds much to the credit of those who are 
at the head of the numerous establishments in this delighu 
ful retreat of tiie muses, that they are open to the public 
at large wth a liberality worthy of imitation. 

The astronomical obser\^ations, by which Baron de Zach 
has rendered his name so conspicuous among the scientific 
men of Euro])C, were made at the observatory of Gotha, 
situated on a hill called Seeliergen, at a short distance out 
of the town, and a little to the right of the road which 
leads to Erfurt. It forms a very prominent object in the 
surrounding landscape, being at an elevation of 1189 fcct 
above the level of the sea. Since the departure of the 
Baron, the observations have been continued by his suc- 
cessor, Professor Lindenau— a name well known to as- 
tronomers. 

On perusing this short notice of Gotha and its establish- 
ments, the reader will not fail to be reminded of that face- 
tious, witty, and acute correspondent of the ancestor of 
the late Duke of Saxe Gotha, Baron Grimm, whose sagor 
cious observations on men, manners, and literature^ at the 
French court, and in the French capital, during the long 
period of his residence in Paris, have met with such gene- 
ral success and applause. I visited his tomb. Alas, poor 
Yorick ! he was a fellow of infinite jest, and most excellent 
fancy/’ His remains rest in the cemetery of the church of 
Sicbleben, a small village on the road-side, a quarter of a 
mile from the city. Grimm, who had begun his carew in 
the world as reader to the Duke, became successively his 
minister at Paris, and afterwards minister from* Russia at 
the court of Saxony, until the death of the Emperor Paul, 
when he resigned his office on account of ill healthy and 



NAPULKON AT GOTHA. 199 

once more retired to the court of his former |)atron at 
Gotha, where he died in I8O7. 

Literature has always flourished at Gotha : some of the 
Inost celebrated German writers in our days are either 
* native or resident in this town. 

Not fewer than three periodical papers arc publislied in 
this place, whicli are generally read throughout Germany ; 
and tliere are several enterprising booksellers, who have a 
considerable share of business. 'Lhe mania at present is 
to print Jacket and cheap editions of the German clas- 
sics; and probably no establishment in Europe can send 
fortli to the public a neater or a cheaper edition of tliis 
kind, than that which issued last year from the press of tlie 
Bibliographisches Institut, under the collective title of 
“ Miniatur Bibliothek dei Deutschen Classiker.'' The 
volumes are adorned with neat jx)rtraits of the several 
authors. 

The “ Almanach de Gotha,"^ probably the oldest w'ork 
of the kind in Europe, is another of the productions of the 
Gotha press. Tt has now been in existence for a pcrioil of 
sixty-five years, and its circulation is very considerable, 
not only in Germany, but in other countries also. Its 
pripcipjd merits consist in the minute and generally accu- 
rate account given of the families of Sovereign Princes, 
and of some of the most illustrious families on the Conti- 
nent. In this respect, it is looked upon by diplomatists 
almost as an official record of the existing state of the 
political arrangements of the different Courts of Europe. 
About thirty thousand copies are sold of this |)criodical 
work, which is written in French, and illustrated by views, 
and some indifferent heads of Sovereigns and Princes. 

As it was our intention to stop for a short time at Gotlia, 
the party put up at the Post-house, which is a large inn 
yith a numerous suite of apartments, memorable for hav- 
ing served as the head-quarters of Napoleon, when on his 
return, for the second time in two years, to France, with 



200 


ERFURT. 


his y^quishcd eagles, to retrieve his lost honour, after the 
campaign of Russia. In the room in which we breakfasted, 
a sort of long gallery, from the windows of which Napoleon 
could observe his scattered columns .flying from the fieldt 
of Leipsic, did that extraordinary man pace up and down, 
venting his malediction on the fickle goddess that had 
abandoned him in the plains of Saxony,, and reflecting, 
probably, on the fortune which awaited him in his own 
Empire. The people of the inn dcscril)ed to us his con- 
duct on that day. He had appeared to them, restless, 
irritable, and contradictory in issuing his orders. His iin- 
jiatience was very remarkable, and hod extended even to 
the female serviuits of the inn. The heart was already 
cankered ; he was about to tluruw for his last great stake ; 
and the planet which had presided over his destiny, was, 
as he himself said, rapidly losmg its lustre. 

A drive of three German miles brought us to the gates 
of Erfurt. This town stands on the confines of the same 
extensive plain on wliicii Gotha is situated : the asjx)ct 
of it is imposing. Flanked by two new forts on rising 
grounds, one of which, the Petersberg, on our left, seems 
almost impregnable; and stretching itself beyond them, 
Erfurt raises its numerous towers and steeples as promi. 
nent objects in the picture before us. The road at first 
runs parallel to the town, and at a short distance from it ; 
then takes a sudden turn to the left, ascends a very gentle 
swell cut through the chalky ruck, and again descending a 
precipitous hill, brought us at once to the foot of the 
first di*awbridge over the double ditch, which surrounds 
the bastions and the escarpments. These fortifications, 
particulatly those of Petersberg and Cyriacsburg, » which 
had been completely destroyed in the late war j are now 
nearly restoreil. We observed numerous parties of .work- 
men busily engaged in their re-construction. The covered 
gateway at the end of the last drawbridge is loDg,>narrow> 



THE GREAT BELL OF ERFURT. 201 

and tortuous, and shows the thickness and strength of the 
lateral bastions. 

We traversed a number of gay, wide, and clean streets, 
tflanked by many handsome buildings, and several g<K)d- 
* looking dwelling-houses. In the principal street leading to 
the Grande Place, 1 remarked an ancient edifice gf great 
merit, in the front of which are two bas reliefs, about 
four feet high, with two figures in each, which appeared to 
he of very superior execution. On passing before the 
cathedral, we had the gratification of seeing a considerable 
detachment of troops, with six field-pieces, defiling before 
us, on their way to a review, out of the town. Nothing 
could surpass, in the opinion of Count Woronzow, the 
handsome and soldier-likc appearance of the men. Their 
dress and accoutrements seemed in the very best order. 
An army of a hundred thousand of such soldiers may per- 
form formidable deeds, if their discipline correspond with 
tlieir external appearance. 

'I'lie sight of this body of Prussian troops, which forms 
part of the strong garrison of Erfurt, fully indemnified us 
for the loss of that of the great bell of the cathedral, said to 
weigh 27,500 pounds. Hells have no attraction for me ; 
an(l as the metal of which they are generally made is infi- 
. iiitely superior to the base alloy of most of the inferior 
coins circulating in the kingdom, it is a pity that they arc 
not all sent to the mint, and cast-iron bells substituted 
for those now in use, which would have the double merit 
of being cheaper, and less troublesome to people of delicate 
nerves. Here, tor instance, at Erfurt, the inhabitants, 
with the King's permission, might, with the metal of their 
great Tom^ now wasting its sweet music on the winds, put 
in circulation, in their little, snug, quiet, and pleasant town, 
and the neighbouring country, an additional sum of two 
hjmdred thousand groschen, which would greatly facilitate 
their commercial operations. The plan of cast-iron bells for 



202 MEETING OF THE EMPERORS AT ERFORT. 


churches and clocks lias been adopted in some other parts 
of Prussia ; and it is quite delightful to hear the subdued 
tone of these iron-tongued proclaimers of the passing hour. 

In September 1808, the peaceable inhabitants of Erfurt* 
were thrown into considerable commotion, by the bustle and ^ 
magniii(;cnt display which attended the interview between 
Alexander Emperor of Russia and Napoleon. They were 
accompanied by the Grand-duke Constantine, many Kings 
and Piinces of Gemiany, with a brilliant suite, among 
whom were Count Romanzow, Marshal Berthier, Talley- 
rand, Caulaincourt, and otlier persons of distinction. Din- 
ners were given and returned, and the intercourse among 
these illustrious visitors was constant, uninterrupted, and 
apparently the most harmonious. How little good this 
pomp and show produced to the world, as well as to the in- 
dividuals themselves who formed the pageant, history has 
since told us, in language too intelligible to be misun- 
derstood. Of all the personages mentioned above, Con- 
stantine and the Ex-Bishop of Autun alone survive to re- 
flect on the vanities of this worid. 

Erfurt deserves notice in an horticultural, point of view : 
the cultivation of cubnary vegetables and garden-seeds is 
carried on to a considerable extent around the city. Most 
of the neighbouring towns and villages arc supplied with 
them from this place. The neatness and disposition of the 
many gardens which we observed extending under the walls 
of Erfurt, would do credit even to the English gardeners 
around London. 

Weimar is at the same distance from Erfurt to the 
east, that Gotha is to the west. We ran over the road in 
about two hours, and entered the German Athena—theseat 
of the German Muses and German literature. 

The whole road from Fulda to Weimar is, with few 
exceptions,* highly interesting ; convenient fmr travailing? 
on account of its being in exc^ent order; and agreeable 
to the traveller, from the variety of successive and beautiful 



ROAD FROM FULDA TO WKIMAR. 203 

landscapes which it presents at every step. The country 
between Eisenach and Gotha is of the richest description. 
The Thuringian ridge of hills, on the crest of which the 
^-oad runs, offers on cither side wide valleys, swarming 
• with population, and bearing the fruit of man’s industry. 
Throiigii these the Kanzig, the Fulda, the Werra, the 
Ncsse, and the Gex, wdth their Jiundred tributary streams, 
arc seen carrying along with them the elements of fertility. 
The high grounds and rounded hills, cultivated to the top, 
presented orchards and corn-fields where formerly stood 
impenetrable forests of oak and mountain-ash ; and this 
display of gay and picturesque scenery is heightened by 
the autuinnal hue tinting each tree and bush, as the 
year is in its vane. Some time after leaving Eisenacli, we 
crossed the beds of two torrents, now dry and silent, but 
(•xhil)iti ng, on their fringed banks and broken grounds, signs 
of former devastation. As we stood on one of the hills early 
in the morning, the sun rose without a cloud, in an cast by 
south direction, our course being S. S. E., and gilded the 
distant and highest landscapes ; while those by our side and 
below the hills continued still in the dark, lurid tint which 
corresponded with the gloom in the west. We stopped for 
an instant at Sattelstadt, and then ascending rapidly a small 
acclivity, crossed the bed of a torrent, and reached a very 
extensive plain ; in the midst of which, and on the summit 
of a gentle swell, the domes and spires of Gotha appeared 
before us, extending north and south. The town is 
approached through a long avenue of poplars. 

From Gotha to Erfurt, the country had been flat and 
uninteresting. The soil is chalky; and monotonous plains, 
or what in the summer had l>ecn corn-fields, succeed each 
other, looking now like the sand-deserts of Egypt. Here 
and there, the country is heathy, and masses of the subja- 
cent coarse limestone rpek peep through the surface, present- 
ing a naked and grey appearance, except where they are 
^y^stained by the lichens and tuffy moss. About a mile and 



204 


ROAD FROM ERFURT TO WEIMAR. 


a half from Erfurt, near the opening of a cross-road, staruis 
an insulated Gothic cross, of exquisite ^vorknianship, 
bearing a richly-carved and highly-finished bas-relief, with 
an inscription, w’liich I could not decyphcr. But what' 
attracted my attention most, on following this same tract * 
of our road, was a section, of about two feet in height, of 
the shaft of a fluted column of white marble, measuring 
at least ten feet in diameter, and placed as a land-mark at 
the terminating angle of a corn-field. No building, or 
ruins of any edifice of such magnitude as to have had 
columns of this character and dimensions, exist citlu'r in 
Erfurt, or its vicinity. Whence, then, can this beautiful 
fragment have come ? No satisfactory information on the 
subject could be obtained at Erfurt ; they could only tell 
us that the fragment in question had been known to be in 
the same place for a great number of years. 

From Erfurt to Weimar the road continues excellent, 
and, os before, beautifully macadamized. The I Jzberg, and 
beyond it on our left, the Grosse Ettersberg, with their 
hanging woods and fractured rocks, interriqiting the desi'cnt 
of a rapid torrent, tend to give a refreshing diversity to 
the monotonous scene of cultivated fields and long avenues 
of trees by the road-side. These and other hills at various 
distances, right and left of the road, form very remarkable . 
objects in the landscape around us. The wiwdy glens 
which climb up their sides break their lines, ami by their 
frequent openings invite the eye to follow the paths wliich 
lead to several cottages and farm-houses. Higher up are 
to be seen clumps of lofty pines, which, with their upright 
shafts and umbellated branches, seem almost placed on the 
summit of the mountains, to mark the approach to the 
capital of the high-minded and philosophic^ Soverei|p of 
Saxe- Weimar. 

I know not whetlier my imagination had been carried 
away by the full, eloquent, and highly interesting account 
of Weimar, given by Mr. Russell in his Tour through y 






WEIMAR. 


205 


(icrmany, which I hail more than once perused, or 
whether the impressions I received at the moment of 
entering that town were genuine; but I certainly antici- 
pated more gratification from this part of our journey, 
. and from the opportunity it- would afford me of personally 
judging of the German Athens, than on any other similar 
occasion. To attempt to descril)e Weimar, or, its jioli- 
ticul institutions, or its society, a second time, and inimeu 
diately after the copious details entered into by the tra- 
veller just named, would be presumptuous ; neither has 
niy stay of a few days in it on the present, and three days, 
again, on a subsequent occasion, afforded me suffi- 
cient means for undertaking such a task. 1 must, how- 
ever, dissent from Mr. Russell Q| the subject of the appear- 
ance of this large village, ’^rid; the character of its 
cnibellishnicnts. His assertion, that W^ii^^ar has scarcely 
a straight street ift it, or >‘a large,; hou^ besides the 
palace,” and that ** the Ilm creeps along a islrro^, muddy 
stream devoid of moral or picturesque beauty,” certainly 
(lid not prepare mie for what I witnessed. I feel no 
hesitation in statipg, that, thifispect of this place, on first 
ap})roaching it by the Erfurt ixiu,' W sight of a 
number of handsome modern houses on ihir left, as wc 
|)ruceeded towards the market-pkpe) p^ing before the 
new theatre, and through,’ the esjdan^e, which forms a 
long and wide street, and in which stahds SchiUer’s house, 
with many others of excellent appeared tp us more 
calculated to raise it, the estimation of the sfranggr, to 
the rank of a German town of thc N^ond order, than to 
lower it to thp level of a viHiijpy;/ 5^ ^^ew Strasse, and 
Carlsplatz with its avenues of streets ; the Oraben, now 
converted into a handsome street and promenade; the 
streef in which the BurgmchvU and IndusMe^^omptoir 
stand ; the Neuefrauentkor Strasse^ leading to Belvedere ; 
the A/ewe Scheunen^ and the short and clean street ig 
which Wieland lived, -are of - themselves sufficient to 



206 


MARKET-CONCERT. 


ensure to Weimar the character of a respectable town, 
of which Mr. Russell means to deprive it. 

We established our quarters in the inn called “ Le 
Prince Her6ditaire ; ” the best in the town, I have rea.<«)n 
to believe, though it might* be better. In this respect, - 
Weimar is perhaps inferior to most of the Government 
residences in this part of Germany. The accommoda- 
tions and the house are just tolerable, and no more; the 
people civil, and the charges moderate. My room faced 
the market-place, on one side of which stands the Rathhaiis, 
a curious specimen of Gothic antiquity, erected in 1526. 
On the morning after our arrival, I was delighted and 
surprised at the sound of a beautiful waltz, exquisitely 
performed on wind-instr^ents, apparently not far oft*. 
This attracted us to the^ndow, when, instead of oni* of 
those wandering troops of musicians, which one ex])ect.s 
to see at the door of an hotel, greeting, for the sake of a 
few sous, the newly arrived traveller, we observed a 
numerous band, perched in the stone balcony near the 
very top of the lofty Rathhaus, regaling with delightful 
performances of music taken from books regularly set 
before them, the assembled multitude in the market 
below, who listened to the different pieces with the 
indifference of persons evidently accustomed to such a 
practice. I learned, in fact, shortly after, from Mcinherr 
Hoffman, a very respectable bookseller in the same place, 
that this morning-concert is repeated regularly twice a week, 
on market-days at eleven o'clock, agreeably to a contract 
entered into by a society of musicians with the city autho- 
rities, who have likewise engaged them to furnish all the 
sacred music and performers requisite for the church 
service. 

In Herr Hoffmann's well furnished shop, which' waf 
formerly that of Luc Cranach, the painter, and a friend oi 
the great Reformer, I had the pleasure of making th( 
acquaintance of a literary character, by birth a Swede. 



WEIMAR. 


207 

vho had served in a foreign regiment in tlie English 
lervice during the late war, and who was now engaged 
n writing an extensive history of Germany, in the language 
)f the country, in which he is residing for that purpose. 
He gave the best reasons for selecting Weimar as the 
jlace in which to compile his work. In the first place, 
le had access to a library, rich in printed books, as well 
IS in MSS. connected with the history of Germany. 
[11 the second place, the presses of the Jndustrie-comptoir 
offered him the best, as weU as the most exjjeditious and 
economical means of giving publicity to his writings. 
And the libera] and high-minded Sovereign of the 
country, was, he thought, one of the few surviving patrons 
of literature, once so numerous at the courts of the 
lesser Princes of the German Empire. 

Tile Residenz Schloss, as it is styled, or the Ducal Cha- 
U!au, stands on the left, or east bank of the 11m, con- 
siderably above the bed of that river. It consists of 
!i handsome central building, the front of which looks to 
El wide square, and an open ground, called the Exercicr 
Platz, or Parade, and two wings, the right of which is not 
yet completed. In the interior arrangement, simplicity 
and taste prevail. The great staircase is justly considered 
one of the finest in Germany; bold, graceful, and well- 
lighted. In this part of a great building, many of our 
modern architects have egregiously failed ; and it would 
not be difficult to mention examples of such failures in 
some of the public edifices now in progress in this metro- 
polis, which, however grand in other respects, will, from 
that circumstance, be considered by the connoisseur and 
man of taste as defective. In the left wing are the 
apartments of the Hereditary Prince and his Princess, 
the Grand-duchess Maija-Paulowna, sister of the Emperor 
of Russia. The principal front of this wing is towards 
the river, facing a very handsome bridge and a fine vista 
of trees planted on each side of an ascending rood, and 



THK GRAND DUKE OF WEIMAR. 


enjoying a Biie view of the pai'k. These iqaartments, and 
some of those of the centre building, ore embellished witli 
a few paintings of value, and are superbly decorated. But 
it may be said, in general terms, that comfort, rather 
than magnificence, seems to have been the otyect of the , 
Grandnluke in adorning his residence. This is pre- 
cisely what u traveller would expect on visiting, the cha- 
teau of a German Prince, whose simplicity of manners, 
affability, and goodness of heart, have made him one, of the 
most popular princes of the Confederation. At the ad- 
vanced age of seventy-one years, Charles Augustus pix}- 
serves, in its fullest dignity, his character of on intelligent, 
acute, and patriotic prince ; equally eager now,- as in liis 
younger days, for the improvement of his people, for the 
promotion of their interests, and for the diffusion of know- 
ledge throughout his principality. His desire fur infor- 
mation is in no degree abated, nor has he sliown in a single 
instance, by any symptom of lukewarmness towards them, 
that he repents of having patronized men of learning 
throughout his long and useful career. He generally 
receives, with the least possible ceremony, all strangers, 
properly introduced, who visit Weimar, at an early hour 
in the inomingj and converses with them in that easy and 
condescending manner, which, while it encourages thc'^ 
visitor to make such observations as are likely to be either 
gratifying or instructive to the illustrious host, enables 
the Prince to form a more accurate estimate of the 
different individuals, who come from all par^s to pay 
their respects to the Nestor of the philosophical, princes 
of Europe. Such I found to he the general ife^^g of 
affection and esteem towards the Grahd-4uke, in the 
course of my conversations with some of the leading 
persons in Weimar, of both sexes, that it may he qiies- 
tioned whether any prince could desire a more gral^ying 
return from his subjects, for the unimerrupted effojrits (e 
had made lo promote their happiness. The same nni^ 



TUB PARK OP WEIMAR. 209 

fonnity of sufirage, however, it is but just to add, has 
not yet been given to the supposed utility of that form 
of parliamentary, or representative administration which 
the Duke has voluntarily bestowed on his people. Such a 
• form of goveniment, it is alleged, was not necessary for 
the improvement of the moral condition of the people, 
the examples alone of the sovereign and his consort having 
been found already sufficient to ensure that object. Neither 
did the financial state of the country require it, where 
the moderation and prudence of the chief-governor had 
already effected all that could be expected in this depart- 
ment. On the contrary, tlie machinery necessary for the 
operations of such a form of government is expensive and 
incongruously arranged. I was rather surprised to hoar 
persons of the most enlightened classes, tliemselves entitled 
hy birth and condition to sit in the legislative assembly 
for the popular party, the loudest in their criticisms and 
animadversions on this new scheme of government. All 
parties, however, allow that it has hitherto worked well 
in practice. 

For a traveller who has but a short time to remain in a 
town, and who is desirous of forming some ^neral idea of 
the national character and appearance of tnc inhabitants, 
rthe fairest, as well as the best opportunity for that pur- 
pose, will be afforded him by a “ walk in the park, and a 
peep at the play,'' as a humorous tourist has asserted. 
The park of Weimar has an extent of little more than I70 
ficres of land, and is equal in size to ono-third of the whole 
town. The river Ilm flows through it, and the most has 
lieen made of the steep and rocky banks, under which it 
flows for a considerable distance, after having quietly left 
its tortuous course across the prairk. The ground is di- 
vided into a garden of considerable extent, arranged in the 
Kijglish style, mid rich in parterres of flowers, in nume- 
rous and large shrubberies, intersected with pleasing apd 
shaded walks, which are much frequented liy the. inhabi- 
'VOL. I. p 



210 


THE PARK OF WEIMAR. 


tants, and in the sylvan or ivoody parts in which-occur, 
with plea^ng variety, opening glens, rocks, hills, and 
winding footpaths, leading to a number of striking points, 
where a cascade or a statue, a monument or a ruin, a 
grotto or an hermitage, arrest the attention of the pedes. ^ 
trian. On the borders of the park, and placed so as 
almost to fonn a part of it, as well as a picturesque ap- 
pendage to it, stands the summer cottage of Gothe, the 
only survivor of the many heroes of bterature, poets, 
philosophers, and historians, who for the last fifty years 
have shed lustre on the court of Weimar. 

Tliere is in one part of the garden, surrounded by 
plantations pleasingly arranged, a very handsome build- 
ing, called the liomischhaus^ in the best style of architec- 
ture, fronted by an Ionic portico, and containing some 
beautiful arabesque paintings, and a portrait of the 
mother of the Grand-Duchess by Angelica Kauffman. 
An excellent band of musicians assembles in some part 
of the park once a week, and 1 listened with great 
delight to tlieir }x?rforniances, which are of a very superior 
description. The whole establishment is kept in the high- 
est order, and the principal walks in it are daily frequented 
by the higher orders after dinner; while many well-drei^sed, 
happy-looking, and merry-faced people of the industrious' \ 
classes may be seen on a Sunday sauntering up and down 
its groves, or wandering through the wood, or taking re- 
freshment in front of the Schiesshaus, where formerly the 
men used to practise shooting and archery. 

To an observer placed in the centre of the volley of the 
Ilm, which forms a great portion of the park, the coun- 
try residence of the here^tary Graqd-Duke, called the 
Belvedere, forms a most pleasing, as well as striking, dbject.\ 
The intervening ground, planted in every possibly variety, ^ 
rises very gradually until it forms the lofty terr^.on . 
which stands that building. The spot eommands a magni- J 
ficent view of the surrounding country. A royal residence 



OPERA AT WEIMAR. 


211 


thus situated does not need to borrow any adventitious 
interest from private pleasure grounds, when Nature has 
embellished it on every side with such beautiful and pic- 
turesque scenery. The building itself does not call for 
niiich commendation. It is small, and rather in a barroque 
style of architecture. In eacli of the wdngs is a wide and 
open gateway, which would give to the house the apjxiar- 
ance of a large farm, were it not that the main Inxly of 
the edifice, with its great flight of steps in front, its pilas- 
ters, and the surmounting cupola, correct such an impres- 
sion. The centre of the lawn before the house is occupied 
by a piece of water with a handsome fountain. The 
grounds are laid out with taste ; and the orangery and 
hot-house for tropical plants, are rich and prettily arranged. 
A g(X)d and broad road leads from Weimar to this agree- 
able summer residence of the Ducal family. 

It may appear surprising, that in so small a place as 
Weimar, an Opera establishment can be supported. The 
[)riiicipnl expense of all such establishments, however, is 
bfirne by the Princes, in all the minor towns of Germany ; 
atul in doing this, they consult their own interest, as well 
as the gratification of their people. The theatre at W ei- 
niar- is a neat and simple building, capable of containing 
about a thousand s]7ectators. It has a principal and an 
upper balcony, perfectly open, running round the house 
without any division in them, except in the centre, in which 
is the Grarld-ducal box, with a profusion of fauteuils m da- 
mas rougey rich carpeting, and brilliant mirrors. A sin- 
gular practice obtains with regard to places in the principal 
balcony. The front seats, w^hich are always engaged f(>r 
♦he season, can only be occupied by the ladies, who have 
their names Written in front of their chairs. The gentlemen, 
whether frequenters of the theatre, or accidental strangers, 
t*an*only find room behind this privileged row of the fair on 
H raised platfbrm, which makes them very conspicuous. The 
mieti I saw assembled here, appeared of a much better 
p2 



212 MOZART AlfO litMMfeL. 

description, aiid more select, than at any other' theatre on 
oiif journey. I placed myself snugly, for the ntg^t, in a 
corner of the principal balcony, examining the various per- 
sons as they entered to take their seats. Fot* this privilege 
I paid about the value of tvfo shdlings and sixpence," 
(16 groschen.) The company looked more like a m/nzon 
defamille^ than a fortuitous assemblage of strangers; They 
all seemed to be mutually acquainted : such is the advan- 
tage of a petit paya. The ladies arrive quite alone, and take 
their scats, nodding familiarly to each other, talking 
loud, and throwing kisses and bavciamanos across the 
house in the most primitive style of simplicity imaginable. 
Some have huge bonnets on their heads, and others nothing 
at all. A few wear caps, and the youngest have chaplets 
of roses in their tresses ; but none are undressed as they are at 
the Opera in London, being, on the contrary, really dressed, 
with loose garments muffled up to the very chin, so that 
you cannot easily' distinguish the outline of their figure. 
Behind them, and shortly after the entrance of the l^ies, 
arrange themselves, the exquisites, the mi /itairesy the beaux 
esprits, and the fashionables of all sorts, likewise all inti- 
mately acquainted with each other, and forthwith the Whole 
multitude is engaged in a pretty loud conversation, which 
falls into a dead silence, at the first sound of the leaded 
psh . . . The orchestra regaled us in the most enchanting 
style with the overture to the Zauherfldte of* Mozart, and 
when I add that it was led by Hiimmel, the first piano- 
forte player in Europe, and for so many years the pupil and 
friend of that incomparable composer ; and that thifrpeffottn- 
ers ate all picked musicians,' it will be readily imagined that 
both the overture and the accompaniments fd the opei^a must 
have beCii a rich treat for one passionately fond of lniu^c. 
Unfortunatdy,' the vocal did not correspond %Sfh1^e in- 
strumental part of our evening's cntertathnneiitv ^ TH4? per- 
formers, particularly the women, were wretched; ‘ I'tievfer 
heard such screamihg ! and td make the matter ^ 



THE STADT KfRCHE AT WEIMAR. 213 

found that the wliich I had never heard on 

the Italian gtage^ h, with the exception of two or three 
pieces, as nicagre a production of Mozart, as an opera can 
well l)e from tlie pu of such a master. The performance 
• was over by nine. This is a general practice throughout 
(Jemiany, except in two or three of the largest capitals. 

J have already, in this short account of Weimar, sufli- 
ciently shown that its inhabitants are enthusiastic lovers of 
music i but there are other strong proofs of melomania. 
The first is the custom, according to which every house- 
kee]jcr of any consequence subscribes a small sum annually 
•to pay a certain number of musicians, who go round, in 
long flowing cloaks and round hats, with their music-papers 
in their hands, to every house inhabited by a subscriber, 
singing fugas and canons, unaccompanied by instruments, 
in tlic most beautiful and correct style. This takes place 
early every Sunday morning in favourable weatlier : and 
the second, is the engagement made with tlie society of 
musicians to perform instrumental music during church 
service. 

The latter 1 liad an opportunity of hearing in the 
Stadt Kirche, on tlie Sunday following our arrival. In 
this^ cathedral are shQwn the marble monuments of the 
fSaxon princes and princesses, on each side of the altar, and 
a lai'ge painting as an altar-piece, the production of Luc 
Cranach, wltose edebrity is due more to the circumstance 
of his having been the early disciple and friend of Luther, 
than to his pencil. The principal paintings by this master, 
are a Crucifixion, a very arid ])erfpnnance, in which is in- 
troduced Jesus overcoming Death and the Devil with a ray 
of light ; the fulUength figure of Luther is meant to imply 
that he is the ray of light which proved so victorious ; and 
the painter has. not omitted his own portrait in the com- 
porition, as. being no mean sharer in the toils of the 
Kefbrraer. , . 

The monumental record of the philosopher Herder, one 



214 THE liUTHBKAM CHURCH 8BRV1CE. 


of those who ^fitributed to establish the reputation of 
Weimar among German literati, and an excellent man, ex< 
cited more interest in me than any other object 1 observed 
in the church. In the building there is nothing remarkable, 
except a very large organ opposite to the altar, with a wide 
balcony in front of it ; which, during the Sunday service, 
at which I assisted, was filled with instrumental performers 
of every sort. I had never before had an opportunity of 
witnessing the pure Lutheran church service, and 1 was 
struck with the mixture of Roman Catholic ceremonies 
which it still retains, and tlie great difference that exists 
between it and the more simple form of the Evangelical re- 
formers. A crucifix, with lighted tapers, on the principal 
altar, may be mentioned as one of the striking differences 
between the two Churches. The congregation assembled 
at about ten o'clock, the female part taking their places 
separately from the male, and sitting with their backs to 
the altar. Prayers began soon after; these were not 
read, but sung, and accompanied by the organ. The 
whole congregation joins in them, without being preceded 
by the clergyman. This lasts a considerable time ; at the 
end of which, the pastor reads from the altar, part of the 
Scripture, in German, and some formula oL prayers, in a 
very high tone of voice. A piece of instrumental musiV^ 
succeeds to this, followed by a hymn, accompanied with 
violins, trumpets, bass, and flageolets, and a variety of 
other instruments. A deacon, in about a quarter of an 
hour, appeared before an insulated desk, standing in the 
centre of the church, and below the altar, imd reaciing the 
gospel of the day, after which he announced the births, 
deaths, and marriages of the week, and returned thanks 
for a favourable harvest. More prayers again succeeded, 
sung by the whole congregation, at the highest pitch of 
their voices, accompanied by the organ ; after which, the 
pastor ascends the pulpit to deliver his sermon extedj^re. 
This he interrupts more than once, by an invitation to the 



215 


GKMICTBKY OF THS ALTiSKlBqtlF. 

congregation to sing certain, fixed prayers, accompanied 
with instrumental musici At tlie cx)nclu8ion of the sermon, 
long Thanksgivings followed, with the Lord's Prayer, and 
a final hymn, which were accompanied throughout by the 

• whole orchestra^ and male singers placed in the balcony of 
the organ, conducted by a leader, who beats the measure 
in a very loud and conspicuous manner. 

In the cemetery of the Altekirche, or old church, 1 saw 
the tablet which marks the spot where the remains of the 
painter 1 have just mentioned had been deposited, with 
other monumental inscriptions to the memory of several 

• illustrious individuals who had died at Weimar; and 
ainongst these, the brave Prussian general, Scliniettau. 
Not far off, a spot on the ground was pointed out, which 
wwcrs the mortal spoils of the wife of Gtithe. without a 
shrub or a stone to tell the passenger the name or rank of 
the deceased. As 1 traced my cautious steps in this intri- 
cate and overgrown abode of death, a simple and affecting 
inscription caught my attention. It was intended to re- 
cord the grief of a distressed husband, who had the mis- 
fortune of surviving a lovely and interesting wife. The 
monument consists of a small oblong funeral urn, placed 
on a double pedestal, the lowest part of which bears, on 
bne of its sides, this simple indication : 

Nadebchda Yasnowsky, 

Bom 30th September, 1737* 30tK January, 1808. 

And round the urn the following affecting lines were in- 
scribed : 

“ llos frigidos cinercs 
lacrimis fovet 
Aiaritus moerens.^* 

The story attached to tliis melancholy record is not di- 

• vested of interest. Nadeschda, lovely and young, Iiad united 



216 


SflHlLLEJl'fi^ GRAVE AT. WEIMAR. 


her deetin^. to that of a br^v^ Fplkh ofBoer, Fho» report 
sayS) was not approved of by ^the lady's fwAy> J t b^ame 
necesMury to' quit the country of her birth;} and the 
cotiple, with sorrow, set off for . distant parts. ;To a 
sensitive mind, the coitsciousness of having, indicted a pang 
on a cherished parent is a perpetual source of pajn, and 
Nadeschda felt its corroding r fora\ Her bealilb iwas gra^ 
dually undermined ; and in hopes of raaovering it, iyV einiar 
was selected for a residence. But grief , acknowledges 
no cure from the mere change of places; and Nadeschda, 
like a rose-bud which carries within itself a qankeriug.insect, 
droojied and died, at the age of twenty-one, of a bniken 
heart. 


Turning jhrom this scene, 1 cast my eyes around me in 
hopes of discovering some sumptuous or impnesalito ntonu- 
meiijb; erected to the memory of the great German dra^tist, 
the immortal Schiller ; but in vain. Schiller lies 
house, the common receptacle of the many and the 
guldied, which forms part of the cemetery of 
kirche-^the P^re la Chaise of Weimar, without a:.lhohu- 
mrnit I ♦ Even my humble guide, who, Mke moa|j!g^iuis, 
seemed to sp&k with enthusiasm of that ex^aqfidiiiary 
graus, and' who had oftcni seen him in his glory at Weimar, 
pointed with indignation through fte grated door, wQcfr 
d<WeRjhe world over hundreds of departed lying, jn fipe 
to where: rea^^^lumoured^ 

mortal re^naof the Geilmua Shakspear^ 

servant seemed to derive satisfijK;tion from a repetition of 
the particulars of the poet's death. Schiller died when 
little more than forty-five years old ; and his body was 
accompanied to the place I have been describing, at mid- 
night, by the burghers of the city, aiid a great cotttootttse 
of students and young people of both sesees. Thn selisap 
tion produced by his death was profoiind and 


* See the adcomt 6f aSedohd Visit to Wdfeati' iii die Vofuihe. 



’ SCHILLER’S HOUSE. 


217 

The pilblfc plaros of aitiuaement were closed, and all 
haftte^ to te^y how keenly they felt the loss of their 
favourite p6et. He is rejjorted to have died in consequence 
of extensive disorganization of the lungs, and from that 
•-species of disease Of the heart; which has been termed 
hifpertfi>pfm, or excessive growth and bulkiness of its 
walls : sudh being the principal facts obtained on examina- 
fion; /Ho left a 'lddow, two sons, and two daughters; 
some of whom are still living in the house, in which the 
poet died, called now Schiller’s House, situated on the 
Esplanade, and here represented in a sketch taken on the 
• spot. 



Schiller's House. 


Anjoug the f many luxuries which a traveller may freely 
command at< auy.time'^a tMe is.certainly not the 
most desirablci Yet . on some few occasions, either from 
Necessity ;or whim,, such, an establishment may prove no 
(lcs|acable. addition to our com&rts as well as to our means 
obtaining information. It was under the influence of the 
^tter. consideration, that 1. determined on joining one day 
the first and most frequented table (Vhke kept in Weimar, 


218 TABLB u'llC/rK AT WBIMAR. 

at which, as 1 had previously been told, 1 should be sure 
of meeting with a select number of highly respectable 
people, who, having no regular household establishment, 
usually frequent these convenient fdaces. Alas l things 
seldom prove in reality so fair as in description. 1 learned, 
on taking my place at the convivial board, that 1 had the 
honour of sitting with no fewer than three Barons, Privy 
Councillors, superior employtn in the Government, and 
some military officers. My infohnant, who presided at 
the tabic, and who was master of the inn, introduced me 
to those who sat neai*est. I first addressed one, then 
another, and at last a third, with the usual introduc- 
tory observations of strangers willing to enter into con- 
versation; but to no efiect. Either my German was 
unintelligible, or my French too much for them; for I 
tried both languages. The replies were monosyllabic and 
discouraging, and I was compelled to fall back into my 
character of silent observer. As the dinner preceded, 
and the conversation, with one exception, became general, 
a boisterous band of bugles and clarionets, enough to 
startle the whole Thuringian forest, was admitted into 
the room ; and the astounding noise they made rendered 
the voices of our guests louder and louder still, until it 
became, at last, animated to the highest degree, though 
Rhenish wine, but only a single tumbler of cold punch had 
been set before them. Brandishing of knives and forks' in 
the air, as the interlocutors studio to enforce by gesticula- 
tion their narratives and propositions; picking of teeth 
with the point of the knife or a pin during the short 
pauses of affected attention to the adversary’s reply spit- 
ting across the room and at some distance on soiAe un- 
lucky piece of furniture; despoiling every plate of the list 
dh)p of the savoury sauce, with a morsel of bread held 
between the finger and thumb ; these formed some of 
episodes to the more general occupation of eating, enacted 
by these sprigs of nobility and uritravelled fashionables. 



BILL OP PARE AT WKIMAR. 


219 


Their shirt*pina, bearing stones of the diameter of a rix- 
thaler, comeliaii watch-keys like the pans of scales, pro- 
fusion of massive rings on every phalanx, coarse linen, hair 
uncombed, and nails terminated by a sable crescent, be- 
, spoke them members of that privileged class, which in 
many of the principal towns in Germany, 1 am sorry to be 
obliged to admit, do not always combine the Chcsterlieldian 
manners and neatness of person with their other excellent 
qualities of the heart and head, but whose peculiarities 
never strike the uninitiated so forcibly as at table. To all 
such, 1 wovdd recommend, as part of their education, a 
. “ season in London,"' spent in the free intercourse with the 
best classes of society. 1 have frequently had occasion to 
witness the marvellous metamorphosis which such an ex- 
periment has produced in many German and Italian noble- 
men who visit England with the benefit of excellent intro- 
ductions. One hardly recognizes them again at the time 
of tlieir departure, so thoroughly changed are their man- 
ners and general appearance, by the result of example. 
The effects of such a change remain with them tlirougli 
life ; and although on their return home they may for a 
time be considered os singular, the superiority of their 
address and the neatness of their persons readily and 
advantfigeously distinguish them from the rest of their 
countrymen. 

Our dinner began with Potage au m, with grated 
cheese, deep bowls of which were spe^ly swaUowed. To 
this, succeeded in single and onlerly succession, plain boiled 
beef with sour mustard and a profusion of fermented red 
cabbage ; boiled carp, with its silvery scales in all their 
brilliancy upon its back; large balls of a substance re- 
sembling hasty pudding, light and savory, swimming in a 
bowl of melted butter resmnbling castor oil, and eaten most 
voraciously by all. present, with the addition of a sweet 
compote de pommes. . Chwreuil piqut au lard wa^ next in- 
troduced ; followed by some sort of fried fish. At last, a 



220 


GERMAN STOMACHS. 


bdiied capon made its appearance', to whidi 1, who had 
hitherto been a motionless as well as a dlent spectator, com. 
niended myself for a iiinner ; and while thas enf^aged, I 
observed that fried parsley roots, hot ^ and hissing from 
the- pan, were receivetl m the table- with the approving 
exclamation, “Das ist ganz vortrcfflich f? This comedy 
had now lasted upwards of an hour^ and 1 began to repent 
of my expcdrnent. At last, Dutch cheese, pears^ and 
sponge biscuits, were laid on the greasy table>cloth ; coffee 
and liqueur were presented to some and not to others, and 
the “convivii turbulenti,^' after having rolled up their 
weekly na])kin, and confined it within a ring of red lea- 
ther, paid their iiuKlerate reckoning of half a rixthaler, 
(eightcenpence !) and departed, one after the other, in all 
the swaggering coniplacoiicy which a full stomach is apt to 
inspire. 

Surely, said I to myself, as I retired to tny room, these 
gentlemen's digestive organs cannot be of that class, for 
which Aberncthy and Wilson-Philip, and Paris and John- 
son have written their legislative codes of dietetics. Even 
within the singular, yet felicitous divergences which exist 
among those learned conteniporaiies, (each' preaching an 
opposite sermon from the same text,) it would not be pos- 
sible to find a place for such stomachs, as I had the leisure 
of a full hour to contemplate at the Weimar table d^h&te. 
They seem to set at nought all statutes and cegulationa 
The human cauldron is daily loaded to the brim with the 
same ominous mixture above described, and which is not 
far different from that condemned by the gay author of. the 
treatise on diet. 8till chymification and cAt/j/Srea/ioNgo on 
uninterruptedly. No hard liver, dyspepsia^ or morbid sen- 
sibility are pr^uced, as 1 have taken pains ascertain, 
and the general health proceeds uninterrupted* Somdung 
more, therefore, must needs exist in the physical ;quaiti(9i 
of digestion, which my learned brethren have not touched 



INDIOBSTION. 


upon— and sucli is in reality ihe fact. Theftirraulae which 
those authors have propounded for solving the general pro* 
blcm of digestion will not apply to, and cannot explain, the 
many contradictory phenomena, which present themselves at 
every step in regard to food, nutrition^ and disease, among 
the several civilized nations of Europe. To lay down 
general rules for dietetics*— to predict or threaten the same 
terrific catastrophe to every sinning gourmand— to explain 
by the same unvaried cause, indigestion,'' every malanno 
to which flesh is heir to, i» absurd, even when such gene- 
ralizations are confined to a large class of Society in this 
or that country, without wandering abroad. One can no 
more find two stomachs than two nases alike. The whole 
secret lies in learning how the stomach of our }>atient has 
been educated, and according to that education, to 
deal with it. This involves an individuality in the at- 
tention to be given to cases of “stomach complaints," 
which physicians would find too troublesome ; yet with- 
out it, justice cannot be done to the patients. It is 
sheer nonsense to talk of classing human stomachs, 
and cimHzed stomachs; stomachs of drunkards, and 
stomachs of abstemious people; stomachs of aldermen, 
and stomachs of Pythagoreans ; stomachs of literary men, 
lawyers, physicians, and parsons, and stomachs of young 
collegians, sportsmen, and dandies, under one and the same 
denomination and rule. Each, has had its physical edu- 
cation as peculiarly different firom that of the rest, as that 
which the possessor has received in the nursery or at college; 
and each must be dealt with accordingly. A friend of mine, 
who had occasion to see a physician write several direc- 
tions for invalids labouring under what are called “sto- 
mach complaint^'' wondered that he did not give, a printed 
circular tn each^ in imitation of a great authority who had 
tdways the same printed pagd to refer to, and thus save 
himself trouble^^ Had he followed such a plaa/he. would 



222 LANDES INDUSTRIE-OOMPTOIR. 

have done his padente injustice; fbr, as far as my own 
experience goes, 1 dm confident he never met with twQ 
stomachs alike ! 

There is an establishment in Weimar which alone 
would be sufficient to give to that city a degree of impor. 
tance among the literary towns of (rermany. This is the 
Landes Industrie-Comptoiry which for the rapidity and 
extent of its contributions towards increasing the printed 
and engraved works of science and literature, mi^t be 
compared to a steam engine daily at work on those objects. 
The establishment consists of three distinct departments, 
each of which is on a scale of magnitude that would eclipse 
our most enterprising publishers. In the first of these 
there are a number of quick and clever linguists, who are 
daily engaged in translating, either entirely or in part, 
whatever foreign book is likely to be road in Germany ; 
and such is the rafddity with which this office is per- 
formed, that frequently the translation of a book pub- 
lished in London at the beginning of one month is in full 
circulation by the end of the same month throughout 
Saxony, and the Independent States of Germany, from 
the press of the Jndustrie^Comptoir, To this department 
belong also all reprints of tlie most popular English an^ 
French works, as well as the compilation of original works, 
more particularly of those on science. The works on sta- 
tistics, which raised Dr. HasseFs name so high in Europe, 
were mostly composed in this department, at the head of 
which he presides. This gentleman is, beyond dotibt, the 
cleverest Statistical writer now existing, the most inge- 
nious in devising methodic^ arrangements for dlassing 
the many subjects which that science embraces ; and the 
most industrious in collecting facts; data, aiid all kinds 
of requisite information. His genealogical, historiicaJ; 
and statistical Almanack,' of which five- nuifibers' ^ have 
already appeared, ' as a work of one nian,' is a mdst'Siir- 



INDUSTRfS-COMPTOlR. 


prising production. The number of facts collected in 
tliis volume is really prodigious. Dr. Hasscl resides in 
tfie house. 

llie second department is that in which maps arc en- 
^aved, globes constructed, and engravings made on stone 
and on copper, to illustrate the several translations, reprints, 
and on compilations, executed in the other departments. In 
walking through the different rooms of this branch of the 
establishment, 1 was surprised at seeing the number of 
persons employed in drawing, engraving, colouring, and 
printing a variety of anatomical and surgical plates, for 
* a. periodical work or compilation in folio, intitled Obste- 
trical Demonstrations, '' in which arc included the principal 
essays and memoirs of the most celebrated accoucheurs. 
The branch of geography in this department is confided 
to a very able and experienced officer of the name of 
VVielaiul, who enjoys a great reputation for the construc- 
tion of maps. He also resides in the house. All the 
maps published at the ImlustrieXomptoir have th6 merit 
of being extremely cheap. The great Weimar map of 
(Tcrmany, in several hundred sheets, published thirty or 
forty years bofk, during the first years of this institu- 
well known to need a particular description in 

The third department is that in which all commer- 
c^iol business connected with the various branches of the 
establishment is transacted. A secretary, clerks, packers, 
and porters, are for ever busy in taking an account of, re- 
gistering, and* dispatching to every part of Germany, the 
endless productions of this great literary machine. 

The formation of this institution, which has become the 
most conspicuous in Germany, and has been productive 
of the happiest results, ia due to the late Mr. Bertuch,— a 
learned, able, and spirited individual, who, under the spe- 
eial protection of the Grand-Duke, embarked his whde 


tion, is t(X) 
this place. 



DR. FRORIBP. ’ 


fortune in a scheme, which had for its object the quick 
diffusion of knowledge, by aftbrding to the Germans the 
best and readiest means of becoming acquainted with the 
works of foreign Rations. Mr. Bertuch was himself an 
author of no inconsiderable merit ; and by him also the-^ 
schemes have l)^en framed of some of the most instructive, 
pleasing, and valuable periodical publications, on the sub. 
ject of general and elementary education, travels, astrono- 
my, and other heads of general reading. 

The successor of Mr. Bertuch is Dr. Froriep, his re- 
lation by marriage. This gentleman, who had already 
acquired considerable reputation as Professor in some gf* 
the principal Universities of Germany, was summoned 
to take charge of this vast estabUslunent at the death 
of his relative. He entered upon it with a spirit and 
activity which liave raised still higher the celebrity of 
the Institution. By his judicious arrangements, he is 
enabled to collect information from every part of civi- 
lized Europe and America, an epitome of which he com- 
municates to the learned world in a sort of Gazette pub- 
lished at irregular intervals, intitled, ‘‘ Notizien aus den 
Gebiete der Natur-und Heilkund,” or the Natural Histor) 
and Medical Intelligencer, which has a very extensive cir- 
culation in Germany. Dr. Froriep is an excellent ana 
tomist and obstetrical practitioner, on both which subjects 
he has written very creditable works, |)articularly his Ma 
nual of Theoretical and Practical Midwifery, the eight! 
edition of which was published last year. He possesses, 
also, a very choice and neat collection of preparation! 
connected with that subject and with comparative ana- 
tomy. In this museum I remarked a foetus, ten weeki 
old and well-proportioned, without the slightest indicatioi 
of a cord, or of the usual mark of its insertion. I onlj 
know of .two other examples of this rare, aberration fi 
Nature; the one at Ghent, die other at Gottingen. rTh< 
Doctor also showed me a regular and complete series oi 



WKIMAR ACADRMV. 


225 


the foetus of the negro, in all of which, the peculiarities of 
the nose and lips, characteristic of the race, are distinctly 
jjerceptible, even so early as the thiM month. Dr. Fro- 
riep has often visited EnglaiiH, speaks the^language with 
-rreat fluency, and entertains a high opinion of the literary 
ami medical character of this country. He receives every 
periodical publication which appears in England, as well 
as every work of merit on subjects of science, as soon as 
published; and, in the most spirited manner, has them 
translated and published with the least possible delay, 
with all the necessary plates and illustrations, produced 
niijder his own roof and immediate in.spection. It may 
readily be imagined tliat the building in which such an 
establishment can be conduct(!d, must be extensive. I’he 
dwelling-house, the mai^room, the library, and the numc- 
rous offices, occupy a large site in one of the new and 
luttidsoine streets of Weimar; and there is at the back of 
it ii garden of considerable extent, with a wide and oblong 
basin of water; which, when frozen over in the winter 
season, becomes, by permission of the good-naturedi pro^ 
prietor, the rendezvous of all the beaux and belles of Wei- 
mar, eager to exhibit their .skill and agility in the noble 
mastery of skaiting. 

Weimar boasts of an acailemy for young English 
' gentlemen, who, without neglecting the more important 
part of their classical education, have, here, every facility’of 
becoming thoroughly acquainted with the German lan- 
guage, which is spoken with great purity among the higher 
classes of society. At this moment there are several resi- 
dents in this establishment, and others live in private 
apartments, who attend the cla-sses of the academy. A 
nephew of our piesent Prime Minister was among the num- 
ber. The Grand-Duke and the several members of the 
Ducal family are very kind to these young gentlemen, and 
i frequently take notice of those who ffistinguish themselves 
by their conduct and attainments. 

VOL. 1. Q 



CHAPTER VIL 


SAXONY.— CENTRAL PRUSSIA. 

Boad to Leipsig.*-Tlie Kostii.-^Sait-water Baths.— The Valley of 
Suale.— Singular coincidence and contrast.— Niiiii..— MQiiumeiitiil 
column to the Duke of Brunswick near Eckardsberge.— (.'ollege whem 
Klopslock was educated.— Naum jhijuj . — Kotzebue’s drama. — Mineral 
Spring.— WEissENFELs.—Autopsiaof(justavus Adolphus.— Lutzex, 
—Prussian Obelisk in commemoration of the battle of 1813.— Gus- 
tavus Adolphus’ DM/;»m/.—LiiiPSiG.—GeneKd appearance of the 
town.— Autumnal Fair.— Tlie Mark! i’/a/z.— Booksellers.— Cheap 
editions, and English books reprinted.— Print, Map, and Music-seller$. 
— Leipsig Alouettes. — Inns. — University. — Tlie Observatory- 
Church of St. Nicholas.— The “Feast of all the (Jermans.”— Hydro- 
graphy of the town— Poniatowsky.—WiTTF.NBERO.— German Beds. 
—Reminiscences and Colossal Statue of Luther.— llis burial-place 
in tlje Cathedral.— Melancthoii— Paintings of Luciis Cranach.- 
Lullier’s Room in the Augustine (-onvent — Autograph of Pelerdie 
Great.— The Jyg and tlie Album.— Tlie Berlin Road.— Approach to ^ 
Potzdara.— The Ropl Chhteau.— Tlie .sword of the Great Frederick 
and" Napoleon.— Tlie Pcdai.s Neaf.—Sans-soQci.— Magnificent ap- 
pearance of Potzdam.— Palaces converted into Auberges.-^Rod io 
Berlin. 

The road from Weimar to Leipsig, though the distance 
is small, is quite as romantic as that over which we had 
lately been travelling; and at every tuni memorable to 
some great military achievement org^^neral ac^on, ;i^ 
which have been marked by Hie fuU of some 
military leaders engaged in them, and fbe 
fortune of others. The direction of the ro^ on 



ROAD TO LBIPSIG. 


227 

chatissee is, at its beginning, towards Jena; but on arriving 
at [Jnipferstedt, at the foot of an elevated ridge, it strikes 
oft* to the left, following the line of the hills, gradujdly 
ascending north warils, as far as Kekardsberge*, passing be- 
tween Buttelstedt and A|)olda, with a distant view of 
Dornburg and Cainbiirg, on the smiling shores of the Saale. 
I'he Ilni, a rapid river following the turns of the many 
green and rocky knolls which mark the surrounding coun- 
try, crosses ourjiath on the height of Wirthsli, and rapidly 
advancing between the two lofty ridges on our right, joins 
the clear streams of the Saale, a little beyond Auerstadt. 
•To those who are familiar with the reports of battles fought 
in this part of Saxony, between the Prussian and French 
annies, on two memorable (HX‘asions, during the late war, 
tlu?se topographical details will not prove uninteresting. 
Fvory foot of this ground has been again and again con- 
testeil ; and the defile of Kdsen, with the volley of the 
Saale, will be for ever celebrated in the military anmds of 
1»()6 and 1»13. 

Sliortly after (piitting Eckardsberge, and following an 
easterly direction, the celebrated defile just named begins. 
Stretching as far as Naumburg, and crossed between 
Kiisen and Neukdsen, at its highest elevation by the 
Saale, it forms to the north a lofty and gigantic parapet 
to the fertile and well-inhabited valley of that name. In 
this valley is Jena, which saw the blood of 50,000 
Prussians redden the hurried stream in 1806. From time 
immemorial the inhabitants of the surrounding country, 
and others from more distant parts of CTcrinany, have been 
in the practice of visiting the salt-water baths of Kdsen 
as a cure for many external as well as internal com- 
plaints. These baths are in the immediate vicinity of the 
salt-works on the right of the road, and close to the banks 
nf the Saale. They consist of brine or water impregnated 
'vitfi salt, pumped up from the wells, which are dug 

different depths in a large salt mountain. The strength 
- • Q 2 



THK DEFlfiK OF KOSKN. 


of the liquid is graduated either by boiling or by evapo- 
ration ; and some patients use only the mother-water, or 
the liquor left in the salt pans, after all the salt, which it is 
thought proper to work oft*, has been taken out. This fluid 
is intensely bitter, and contains a considerable quantity 
of Glauber salt. Immersion in the brine and the mother- 
water produces a purgative cft’ect, and is attended by a 
tingling and general irritation of the skin. I’he brine is 
never f»‘ee from other salts, particularly nitre ; and this 
circumstance leads me to assimilate the curious action of 
those baths on the constitution of most patients, to tliat 
which Results from the artificial medicated bath, called tJio> 
nitro-muriatic bath, first introduced into general practice 
by the late Dr. Scott, and for a period in much vogue and 
repute in London. 

The defile of KiJsen, which rears its rugged and pre- 
cipitous crest along the ascending road, covered by the 
troo])s of Austria on the 20th of October 1813, witnessed 
the retreat of two individuals, both renowned, though in dif- 
ferent degrees, for military talents, but who shared during 
niany subsequent years a similar fate. These were Nji- 
polcon and Bertrand esi^aping with a handful of soldiers 
from the disasters of Leipsig. The situation of the French 
leader stood as much in need of the protecting aiil ofhis 
faithful general on that and the following eventful day, as 
it did, in subsequent and not very distant times, of his at- 
tachment and unabattnl zeal to sm(X)th the way to the grave. 

The striking similarity of the campaigns of 1806 
and 1813 in this part of Germany— of the movements 
made by the contending annie&— nay of the very posi- 
tions taken and retaken on both occasions, as related by 
French writers themselves, is such, that if we read the nar- 
rative of the first, without scarcely altering any of the cir- 
cumstances, except the names of the victors for those of the 
vanquished, and inverting the order of the places they re- 
spectively occupied, we shall find ourselves in possession of 
an equally accurate iiccount of the second campaign, 'on 



COINCIDRNCKS IN THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON. 229 

that of 1813. Singular and fatal coincidence in the life of 
the late Ruler of France ! In October 1806, tliat extra- 
ordinary man, at the head of a brilliant army, standing on 
the spot which we were now surveying with increasing in- 
terest as we travelled towards Naumburg, had gathered 
laurels which withered in the signal defeat sustained six 
years afterwards on the same spot ; and the banks of. the 
Saale, which in 1813 yielded just ground enough to fix a 
miserable bivouac for himself and his Quarter-Master-Ge- 
Tieral Bcrthier, had only six years before resounded with 
the deafening vives of his Vieille Garde, proclaiming the 
'defeat of the Prussian forces and the death of their heroic 
leader, the chivalrous Duke of Brunswick, which opened 
tlie road to the capital of Prussia. 

Napoleon’s life, indeed, was fertile in singular coinci- 
dences ; but these are not to my present purpose. How 
many an hour whicli might, perhaps, have been better 
spent, must the following anagrammatic combination have 
occupied in its construction ? 

NAPOLEON. 


r- 

and 


CAOWKEU 

D£TllAOK£i> 

in 

in 

in 

1805. 

PARIS. 

1814. 

- — . — 


J 

8 


8 

0 


1 

5 



Total 14 

Deduction 

14 

Total 14 


14 

NIHIL. 



Por 

By 

N apolcone 

P russia 

I oachimo 

A ustria 

H ieroniino 

R ussia 

I osepho 

I nghilterra 

L uigi 

S vezia 


is not the least curious part of this anagram that it 
"ill only hold good in the native language of the great in- 
.dividuai. 


230 DEATH OF TIIK DURE OF BRUNSWICK. 

The fate of the Duke of Brunswick at the memorable 
action of Auerst^t was most melancholy. He hail led his 
followers twenty times, in the course of that bloody day, 
up to the cannons' mouth, himself the foremost, without 
sustaining a wound in the midst of the general carnage, 
when, at the conclusion of the engagement, a subaltern in 
the victorious army of France who had rocogiuzed him, 
springing upon him, exiiltingly exclaimed, “ Prince, vous 
^tes mon prisonnier!” The only answer to this summons of 
surrender which the Duke made, was a plunge at the sol- 
dier with his sabre. This stroke was ]>arried and re- 
turned, but with very different effect ; for the wea|ion ©f 
the enemy struck the Prince to the heart ; and he fell life- 
less under a tree not far ofl‘ from the road of Kekardts- 
berge. The spot has since been marked by a monumental 
column, erected on it by order of the(irand-l)uke of Saxe- 
Weiraar. This monument is s(?en to more advantage on 
the road from KiJscn to Kckardtsberge, than in the direc- 
tion in which mh' were now travelling. 

To the admirers of Grernian epic poetry, the aspect of 
the house in wliich the author of the l^Iessiah" passed 
the early years of his collegt* life, is not without interest. 
Klopstock, whom the German writers call their Milton, 
was brought up at a celebrated academy on the rood to 
Naumburg, at a short distance from that town, and close 
to a small village called Attenburg, near which we passetl. 
This institution is still in great rejnitation, and is kn<)i^Ti 
under the title of Landesscliule Pforta. I ts situation is one 
of the prettiest and most romantic that are to be found on 
the borders of the great valley of the Saale ; and many an 
enthusiastic worshipper of theMuses has come to thisclwrni- 
iug spot to ])ay homage to the Alma Mater of Klopstock, 
not without hopes, perhaps, of catching part i)f the estro 
poetico which that great poet inhaled amid the groves of 
Kbsen. 

At Naumburg we halted merely to change horses, 



NAUMfiURG. 


231 

notwithstanding the temptation held out by the landlord, 
of seeing the writing, in chalk, of John Frederick “ le 
Magnanime,” Elector of Saxony, who was taken prisoner 
at the battle of Miibelberg, and carried hither. This 
writing, it appears, is preserved with great care, and forms 
one of the objects of curiosity in the town. I recollect 
.'issisting, in my younger days, at the representation of 
one of Kotzebue’s showy inelodrames, of which I was re- 
minded on passing through Naumburg. The plot of the 
drama is taken from the history of the siege of this town, 
carried on in 1432, during the bloody wars waged by the 
' Hussites against the (Catholics. The inhabitants, being 
threatened by the General of thost* fanatics with being 
put to the sword, were saved, and the enemy subdued 
and diverted from their cruel purjx)se, by irresistible 
clo(juence of all the children in the place, who in a body 
'went to throw themselves at the General’s feet, and 
prayed for pardon. procession takes place annually 
in the town, as 1 was informed, to celebrate this event 
in the annals of Naumburg. The town belongs to the 
Grand-Duke of Saxe-Weimar. Near it is a spring of 
ferruginous water, which is much frecpiented, and enjoys 
great reputation. From the reijort of Dr. Froriep of 
Weimar, I conclude that it is of the same nature as that 
of the Wells at Tunbridge; and, like them, serves for the 
double purpose of drinking and bathing in cases of de- 
bility, particularly of females. 

Weissenfels, which appears next on our road, on the 
summit of a very steep hill, is a pretty town, with a 
grande place^ a handsome bridge over the Saale, and the 
remains of the old Ducal chkteau, in the vaults of which 
fhe genealogical line of the Saxc-Weissenfels Ducal family 
*r^ay be traced through a series of monumental inscriptions . 
engraved on coffins. But to a travelling physician, tlm 
dewription of the state of the parts found on the examina- 



S32 LUTZBN. — DEATH OF GUSTAV US. 

tion of the body of Gustavus, which is recorded in one of 
the chambers of the Town Hall, was a more interesting uh- 
ject of curiosity. The bleeding body of the brave Swede, 
which had been discovered under a heap of the slain sol> 
diers of his army, perforated by two balls, and an equal 
number of sword-wounds, after the battle of Lutzen, was 
brought into this chamber, where the anatomical examina- 
tion took place, the particulars of which are recorded in a 
long inscription. The wall bears still the marjts of the blood 
of Gustaviis, in spite of the successive removals of part 
of the plaster so stained, by visitors. The spot is now ef- 
fectually protected by a sliding pannel. The most remark; 
able circumstance noticed in the medical report, is the un- 
usually large size of the heart, which weighed upwards 
of ten. pounds, constituting the same disease which I 
have had occasion to mention in speaking of the death of 
Schiller. 

Lutzen is a mere village, the name of which has become 
historical from« the two celebrated battles of 1632 and 
1813. On an eminence, a little to the right of Liltzen, 
and close to the small village of Gross-Gdrsclicn, where the 
victorious armies of Russia and Prussia defeated the sol- 
diers of Napoleon, a cast-iron obelisk has been erected, 
surmounted by a cross, in commemoration of that great 
fight. From this spot, the vast plains which on every side 
surround it, and which extend as fax as I^eipsig, may be sur- 
veyed with a lively interest, as the arena on which so many 
contests have been decided. The guide pointed to the 
humble monument raised on the right of the road, at the 
foot of the hill, in memory of the fall of Gustavus, who, 
having but a few months before routed the Imperial Gene- 
ral Tilly, before Leipsig, was slain in this place, by the 
troops of Wallenstein, another Imperial commander, ujTto 
that period of better fortune. The death of Gustavus, ai)d 
the battle of Lutzen, are beautifully described by Schiller 









LBlPSiG. 


in his history of the Thirty Years’ war— a performance 
which induced Wieland to say, that by his first historical 
attempt, Schiller had evinced a capability of rising to the 
level of Hume, Robertson, and Gibbon. Gustavus Adol- 
phus’ Denkmal, as the monumental* stone is called, is 
iield in much veneration, and bfears an inscription imjwrt- 
ing that he fell fighting for religious liberty. We entered 
Slie kingdom of Saxony a little way beyond Liitzen, at a 
small place called Quesitz, without being in any way inter- 
rupted in our course. 

The imposing appearance of the town of Leipsig 
' yan only be perceived as you drive through its wide 
and well-built streets, flanked by lofty and stajtely houses, 
which wear an air of comfort well-suited to the ideas 
entertained of that great emporium of commerce. *The 
approach to the city is by no means striking. The 
dwarf and thin plantations scattered in every direction 
around it, where ramparts and ditches formerly stood, are 
not calculated to break the monotony of the vast sandy 
plniiis, partly cultivated, through which we had passed. 
Tile exterior of many of the houses is highly decorated 
with fret-work, in the old German style ; while others of 
more modem structure bespeak the progress of taste and 
luxury amongst the matter-of-fact, plodding and calculating 
people who inhabit them. Id^any parts, such as the Briihl, 
the Great Market, the Peter Strasse, and, above all, the Ni- 
cholfis Strasse, with the magnificent church erected to the 
Saint of that name, may stand a competition with the finest 
quarters of some of the largest towns in Germany. The 
appearance of these places, and of the town in general, 
receives an additional interest from the gaiety and bustle 
which attend the .fair; and m we arrived while it was in 
action, we had the advantage of sedpg Leipsig at its best 
nioment. • : 



234 TIIK MARK! PLAT? AT LKIPSIG. 


The centre of operations on this important occasion, is 
the Markt Platz, a view of whicli I have here introduced. 



Tlie Markt 1‘liitz. 

The adjoining streets were now crowded with double and 
triple rows of temjwrary sheds, sliops, stalls, and other con- 
trivances for tile disjday of the wares, manufactures, and 
merchandize brought from almost every corner of the earth. 
These, however, serve only for the retail trade. The prin- 
cipal business of the fair, to an immense amount, is carried 
on in the regular shops, many of which are splendidly fur- 
nished, and may vie with those of Paris and London ; and 
in the houses of the resident merchants, whose establish- 
ments are on a magnificent scale, and who, though devoted 
to money-making, possess polished manners, and are cour- 
teous and obliging towards strangers. The number of fo- 
reif^ merchants who are in the habit of visiting Leipsi^ at 
the time of the fair, is said to be Very little short of a thou- 
sand, including tliose engaged in the book trade. Their 
names are published in the Lcipsig Almanack. In Visiting 



LEIPKIG FAIR. 


2X1 

some of the |)riiicipal shop, I could not help Win^v sstnick 
with the comparatively small quantity of Knjrlish 
wliich were exposed for sale. No prohibitory laws exist— 
nay, I believe that wh6re a purchaser is obstinately l)ent 
on procuring an article of English manufacture, the shop- 
keeper will not hesitate to present something which he pre- 
ti;nds to have been received from England. • Yet, practi- 
‘cally, English wares, particularly Birmingham and Shef- 
field articles, are effectually excluded from fair competition 
with the immense quantity of home manufactulres from 
different towns in Germany, which are sold at the fair ; 
^nd, probably, by that spirit of rivalry which induced the 
German manufacturers, a few years back, to enter into a 
compact not to encouiAge English productions. It is a 
fact, that in the course of our whole journey from the 
Rhine to Berlin^ I did not observe a single knife, or any 
other table utensil, which wa.s not of German origin — 
clumsy, awkward, badly finished, indeed— but stDl pre- 
ferred, because German. 

Our business, however, so far as the fair is concerned, 
was with booksellers; and to some of the |>rincipal of 
these we proceeded in search of novelty and information. 
Al)out sixty houses do business in the book-trade during 
the Autumn, Christmas, and Easter fairs ; but particular- 
ly at the former. Half of these are only commissioners 
for other houses. The greater number of the booksellers 
in Germany, of whom there are, perhaps, from three* to 
four hundred of consequence and respectability, semd a 
clerk, partner, or reprejientative to the fair, who establishes 
himself* in an apartm^ at one of the numerous hotels in 
the town, or in the hbuse of a correspondent, and there 
daily transacts Imidness. Besides these regular book- 
sellers, there arrive at Leipsig to attend the fair, book- 
agents from idl the civilized nations in Europe, Russia, 
Benmark, Sweden, France, and even England. It is com- 
puted that the. value of business done at this fair, in books, 



2a6 


LITKRATURK OF GERMANY. 


amounts to half a million of dollars. The titles of the 
books are published at full length, and their prices affixed 
to them, in a catalogue which appears at Easter and 
Michaelmas. This catalogue, however, contains not only 
the new books published in the course of the six preceding 
months, but also old works with new faces, and works 
which are brought hither by foreign merchants in exchange 
for German bcxiks. It is calculated that about 5000 new 
works are published annually in Germany, and 1 was as- 
sured that the average yearly number of sheets printed in 
this town, amounts to 40,435,000. Assuming the average 
length and breadth of a sheet of printing paper to be 21 •• 
by 26 inches, the number of square inches contained in it 
will be 546; consequently, the total number of sheets 
printed annually in Leipsig, contain twenty-two thousand 
and seventy-seven and a half millions of square inches of 
paper. The side of the square containing such an area, is 
148,585 linear inches, or 4,127i yards, or 2J miles, and 
the area is equal to about 5^ square miles. The quantity 
of paper, therefore, printed annually in Leipsig, is more 
than sufficient to cover the whole town and its environs. 
If we pursue this playful calculation a step farther, and 
suppose each octavo leaf put together lengthways, the line . 
formed would extend three billions, three hundred and 
ninety-six millions, hve hundred and forty thousand linea^* 
inches, or rather more than 53,607 noilcs ; being sufficient 
to go round twice and one-third the largest circumference 
of our globe, on which such wonders are performed by the 
printers of one paltry city alone ! If this be not a proof 
of the march of intellect,^ it may at least be assumed as 
a fair indication of its dimemiom. 

The mania for cheap and portable editions has extended 
to this great emporium. The compression into one single 
volume, of some of the largest works, has been adopted, 
and is carried on with as much perseverance in Germany, 
as it is in England and France; and the fever of periodic^^ 



ERNST FLEISCHER. 


237 

publications is raging and iinquenchcd. About twenty or 
thirty new publications of this description are added at 
every fair to their airily overgrown number. 

In addition to this, there are the reprints of English 
books, which are carried on here very extensively, as well 
as of some of the Italian and Spanish classics, y)articularly 
by Fleischer. To the latter gentleman 1 paid a visit, anil 
had some conversation with him on the subject of his com- 
inercc. He entered into business with a capital of 20,000 
dollars, and has in a few years accumulated a large inde- 
pendent fortune. He showed me his editions of Moore, 
Sir Walter Scott, and Shakspeare, each in one or two 
volumes, hut printed in a way very creditable to his house. 
The price at which these books are sold is really trifling. 
M<x>rc''s poetical works, complete in one handsome octavo 
volume, containing “ Lalla Rookh,'” “ The Loves of the 
Angels,’” “ 3'he Fudge Family,"” eight numbers of “ Irish 
Melodies,'" The Blue Stocking,*” “ The Works of 
Little,'” “ Tlie Intercepted Letters,'’ Epistles, Odes, and 
other poems innumerable, four numbers of “National 
Airs,” Songs, sacred and profane, “ Trifles Reprinted,’” 
“ Rhymes on the Road,” “ Miscellaneous Poems and 
Fables,” are sold for seven shillings ! Ernst Fleischer has 
’ lately issued about 3()0 different works of English reprints. 
The rage for Sir Walter Scott’s novels is unabated. This 
induced a few of the booksellers, some time ago, to attempt 
a kind of clumsy hoax on their German brethren, by giving 
as a translation from a pretended new work of that highly- 
gifted writer a novel in three volumes, called Walladmor, 
which I found regularly announced as such in the cata- 
logue of the Easter fair of 1824. The novel hunters of 
Allemagne received, read, and highly commended the 
spurious production of the author of Waverley. 

I’wo other branches of the business of the fair are those 
of print, map, and music-seUers. Perhaps in no city in 
Europe is such a mass of bad works in geography and 



238 


PRINT AND MAP-SRLLBRS. 


trash, under the name of engravings, sold, as in Leipsig. 
But, on the other hand, many very highly-finislied prints, 
and some really valuable maps, are offered in the market 
at a much more moderate price than that at which very 
inferior productions of the kind are sold in other parts erf 
the Continent. Music is not so reasonable; 1 should 
almost be inclined to say that it bears a comparatively 
liigher price than the average value of it in London. The 
trade in this latter article is really prodigious. It is the 
custom both with book and music-sellers to allow an im- 
mediate discount upon every book or quantity of music 
purchased. The allowance by the former is four groschen 
on every dollar, that of the latter three groschen on the 
same sum. Tliis amounts to a sixth in the first, and to 
one-eighth in the stniond case of the original ])rice. Great 
advantage also is derived from the paying in gold Fre- 
dericks, as they pass in licipsig for three, four, and even ■ 
five groschen mure than in the other States of the German 
Empire. 

The thing may seem somewliat ridiculous, but one ob- 
ject which "attracts iqany people to Leipsig from distant 
parts of Saxony, is to gourmandizc, or rather friandize 
on Leipsig larks, celebrated for their taste and size 
all over Gennany. As we were indulging in this indi-’ 
genous luxury, mine host of the Hotel de Saxe, where 
we were sumptuously lodged, informed us, that in a 
good year, nearly half a iiiilliofi^)f that species of the 
feathered tribe are sold at the Mi^iaelmas fair. A great 
number are prepared in a particular manner, and sent to 
distant parts of the country. 

We found the inns at Leipsig quite full, and with 
difficulty got an apartment. These establishments; are 
very large, and of the first order. Nothing, can exceed 
the neatness of most of the n)om& of the Hotel de Saxe, 
including those which 1 was fortunate enough to occiipy 
on two different occasions ; and 1 may with justice assert 



UNIVERSITY OK LKIPSIG. 


m 

that a stranger, let him come from England, or from any 
other i)art of the world, and Ik* his notions of comfort 
ever so exalted, will find no reason to be dissatisfied or to 
grumble at liis fare and entertainment in tliis wealthy and 
cummercial city. The principal inns have a porter at 
the street-door, with a cocked hat and a halbert like an 
Knglish sergeant-major. 

On my second visit to this place in January 1828, I 
obtained some information froin Dr. Has))er, a physician 
practising at Leipsig, on the subject of its* University. 
There are alwut 1400 students who attend the different 
classes, and their orderly behaviour contrasts singularly 
with the conduct of the students in some of the Prussian 
Universities. They have indml oc^casionally nmnifested 
symptoms of insubordination, but never to the extent 
wiiich has been represented in some {mblications that 
have ix'cently appeared in England, remarkable for exag- 
gerating the foibles and defec/ts of foreign nations. There 
is not, projMjrly speaking, a spi*cific building for the Uni- 
versity ; but colleges and academical halls, in whicli the 
Iretures are given. The principal colleges are the Fiirsten 
Collegium and the Fauimum, I'he collections for the 
use of the classes are not numerous, nor very showy, but 
i^uiKcient for the puiiios(^ A rich collection of minerals 
bequeathed to the University by a rich merchant, named 
Liicarriere, lately deceased, will be added to the depart- 
ment of nalural history in that establishment. The collec- 
tion in question is one of the finest in Europe. One of 
the best features of the whole establishment is the clinical 
ur practical school of medicine and surgery, attached to 
which is an hospital containing about two hundred beds. 
The professor of clinical medicine is Dr. Clarus, whose 
])raetice is most extensive, 'i'his latter circumstance in- 
duced him to d^line an offer which had been made to him 
by the Prussian Government, of the chair of clinical me- 
dicine at the University of Berlin. Dr. Hosper himself 



PHYSICIANS.— OBSERVATORY. 


though young, is a distinguished professor at the Univer- 
sity ; and Professor Ccruti* is also attached in that ca- 
pacity to the establishment The University of Leipsig 
enjoyed at one time a very extended reputation, and pro- 
duced men of great eminence, particularly in theology, 
philosophy, and liistory. This reputation, although per- 
haps more confined to Germany at present, is still main- 
tained iniull vigour by Professor Krug, the very emincii;^ 
lecturer on philosophy, and by the erudite and inde- j 
fatigable editors of the Greeek chissics, well known to 
English scholars, Professors Herrmann and Schafer. The 
former has the character of being one of the best Greek 
philologists in Germany. Several very able physicians, 
too, have been formed at this school. But in point of 
medical science, the Leipsig University is not, now, as 
well known in Europe as in former times. 

In the south-west angle of the town, on the right 
Peter’s-gate going out, are the only remains of the anifpfl 
fortifications of Leipsig, well known under the name of 
Pleisenburg, and still called the Castle. They form a trian- 
gular lunette, with an outwork at the extreme [joint of two 
converging bastions. On this pcjint is erected the btem- 
wartey orObservatory, in the form of a round tower, of 
great elevation, but of sufficient strength not to be affected 
by the shock of passing carts, waggons, and carriages. 
On the top of the tower is a circular apartment which is 
of smaller circumference, so. as to allow of a space before 
it railed all round. The view from this balcony is exten- 
sive, but the country around uninteresting. ■ The students 
of the University who attend the lectures on Astronomy, 
have here the advantage of receiving practical as well 
as theoretical instruction. I recollect hearing Monsieur 
Arago, the distinguished Astronomer Royal in the Ob- 
servatory at-Paris, state, in the course of hia very eloquent 

* This gentleman has done me the honour to translate into Gannan 

my work on Prussic acid. 



CHURCH OP ST. NICHOLAS AT LEIPSIO. 241 

li«tiires, that more of astronomy was learned in one hour 
spent in the telesco[)e-chamber on a clear starry night, 
than in the course of a whole series of lectures on the 
nature, elements, position, and movements of the heavenly 
bodies. I was not fortunate enough to ini?et with the 
Professor of Astronomy at Leipsig. 

The spirited merchants of this city have shown that 
^ey, too, can cherish a taste and becoming admiration for 
modern architecture, by erecting, at their own expense, 
the noble and magnificent structure of St. Nicholas. This 
church, dedicated tto the Lutheran service, has an im- 
^ loosing character in its interior. A number of lofty 
columns, of more than ordinary size, spring from the floor 
to the very roofj which they support, dividing the centre 
from the side aisles. I know of no other church, built in 
the s(|uare form, with a flat ornamented roof, and deco- 
rated with handsome pillars, like this of St. Nicholas, 
except the Jesuits’ church at Mantua: but in both, the 
effect is puredy architectural,; and, being unsuited to our 
habits, is unattended with tiny religious impression. The 
paintings in the church of St. Nicholas are feeble produc- 
tions of the modern Historical School of Germany. 

^ Nor is it to be supposed that the inhabitants of this great 
iTiercantile city are at til insensible to the beauties and 
pleasure of music, scenic representation, or the works of 
imagination, which they are so busy in printing, and so in- 
strumental in circulating through Europe. When the play 
of the “ Jung frau Von Or/eows,” or, “ I’he Maid of 
Orleans,” was first performed at Leipsig, a general .shout 
arose as the curtain dropped at the conclusion of the first 
act, and a perpetual exclamation of Es libe Friedrich 
Schiller,” accompanied the sound of music. When the 
piece was concluded, the audience crowded round the door 
through which Schiller was Expected to pass ; and on his 
appearance, the admiring spectators, uncovering themselves, 
■made a passage for him; and holding up their children, 

*VOL. I. R 



242 


BATl'LK OF LBlPSie. 


that they too might behold the great poet) exclaimed, 
“ Das ist er^ — That is he. 

We were at I^eipsig ten days too soon to witness the 
anniversary of the V'6lkersMacht^ or battle of the people, 
as the famous battle of Lcipsig of 1813 is caUed in this part 
of Saxony. The fete kept to celebrate that anniversary, 
takes place every year on the 18th of October, and is em- 
phatically styled the “ Allen Deutschen Festtag.” Some 
the streets of Jjeipsig bear sufficient evidence of that great 
struggle, which scarcely requires any other memento. 
Cannon balls are imbedded in the wdls of many of the 
houses ; and the perforatctl doors and shatters in some of 
the lower stories, show how closely the enemy hod been 
pursued through the intricacies of the town by the tri- 
umphant armies of the Coalition. Those armies defiled 
afterwards in excellent order, as on a parade-day, on the 
great Markt PlatZy in which the fair is held, and a view of 
which 1 have given; and the distinguished officer whom J 
was accompanying on the present occasion, and with whom 
I 'had the pleasure of walking on the same spot, was one 
among the victorious generals who presented themselves on 
that memorable day to receive the thanks of the allied Sove- 
reigns, and the deafening applauses of the multitude. The 
King of Saxony surveyed, from^ one of the casements 
of the large building on the right of our sketch, with 
feelings not easily described, the glorious scene before 
him. 

Leipsig is surrounded by very extensive gardens , and 
orchards on all sides, and has, on the north mid west, a 
triple , and natural barrier of water formed by the P^e, 
the Plejsse, and the ELstcr rivers. These inters^t e^b 
other in a variety of way.s, i^rming a complicated 
of water-courses in the immediate vicinity of the tpi^.* - T)» 
intermediate ground is laid out in gardens 
by canals, which serve fur various purpos^.^ of iq^ifjEfCtUf^< 
It is through, the intricate mazes of these natur^n^T^;^^^’ 



DEATH OP PONIATOWSKY. 


243 


artificial water-ways, which thus bar the progress of an 
army inarching, from east to west, through Leipsig, that 
the discomfited h?giment8 of Napolwii, at the memorable 
“ battle 'of the peojde,” had to retreat for safety. The 
close pursuit of the allied forces rendered the retreat ar- 
duous and full of danger; nor would it have bmi eftcnited 
but for the self-devotion of a leader whose name was made 
"^lustrioiis on that fatal day. Poniatowsky, one of the ge- 
nerals whose troops formed part of the army of reserve 
at that great battle, observing the tumultuous and dis- 
orderly retreat of the French soldiers whom the Swedes 
^‘werewaimily pursuing, fronted the latter for a considerable 
time, in order to allow the troops of Napoleon to defile 
over the only remaining bridge across the Klstcr, intending 
aft(’rwards to follow. When, however, it came to his turn, 
after performing so important a service, to cross the river, 
and seek safe ground lieyondit, the bridge had disappeai'ed. 
An order of the very man, whose last resources Ponia^ 
towsky had saved, had cut oft* this last line of escape. The 
light troops of the allies, in the mean while, and “ a cloud” 
of Cossacks, were closely ]>ursuing the brave Pole. 'I’hose 
of his officers who were nearest to him had already fallen 
under the unerring aim of the militia of the Don. Po- 
niatowsky, galloping along the banks of the Elster in 
search of a passage, hunted by that militia, ]L)enetrated 
into the garden of Mr. Keichcnbach, and where the stream, 
narrow hut deep, seemed to afford a chance of esca|)e, he 
urged his horse, already wounded, to leap on the lofty 
opposite bank, but failing in the attempt, sunk and pe- 
rished: We contemplated with melancholy interest the 
plain monumental stone, bearing a Latin inscription 
descriptive of the event, which was raised on the spot by 
the Polish soldiers to the memory of their chivalrous 
leader. A mbnurhent of more pretension to style and de- 
has been erected in another part of the garden by 
’some Polish jg^tlcmen in the name of the Polish army 



m 


WITTENBERG. 


An urn placed on a cubical altar, standing on a platform 
raised upon two steps, and sliaded by two weeping willows, 
thus tells Poniatowsky’s fate L'armce Polonaise au 
Prince Joseph Poniatowsky. Ne le VI de Mars I 76 I. 
Mort au champ de bataille le 19 Octobre 1813.” The spot 
is concealed within a thick plantation of cypresses and 
weeping willows. , , 

The Russians keep a consul at Leipsig, who visite(f 
Count Woronzow, accompanied by the son of the celo- 
brattxl llarclay de Tolly. 

Two roads lead from Leipsig to Berlin, through Wit- 
tenberg, to which town we made for the night. The on® 
by Crensitz and Duben, or the winter road, is paved and 
the longest, and was moreover under repair cm this oc- 
casion. The other by Delitzsch and Bitterfeld is .shorter, 
and, in fine dry weather, is represented as tlie most plea- 
.sant. We found, however, that we had to ydougli at a 
very slow rate, with the liorses knee-deep through roads 
and over fields of sand ; and that it took us not less than 
nine hours to get over a distance of not quite five German 
posts, or about fifty miles on a perfect ])lain, bounded only 
by the horizon, and the surface of which w'as parched up, 
no rain having fallen for two months since the harvest. 
This we understood hod proved most abundant. 

At a small place called Hayn, noi cyuite half way to 
Delitzsch, the first halting-place, we entered Prussia ; and 
it is but justice to this power to say that the police 
regulations of the Goveniment are as little troublesome to 
the traveller as they can well be. The only fonnality 
which I noticed on this occasion was the approach of a 
gendarme in the middle of the plain, who rode uj) and in 
the most civil manner imaginable asked the Count's courier 
for the names of the party, and was instantly out of sight. 

After our tedious drive of nine hours, and crossing two * 
branches of the Elbe, we were glad to find ourselves snugly 
and comfortably lodged at the Rmsin at Wittenberg. It* 



GERMAN BEDS. 


215 


is not only in respect to their cuisine, table rrholes, 
and domestic comforts, that the Germans differ from other 
nations in matters of living, but in the shape and arrange- 
ment of their beds also. As this was the first place in 
which I observed, what subsequent experience taught me 
to look u])on as general, the peculiarities of a genuine 
(lerman bed, I took a more s])ecial notice of them. For my 
part, I cannot imagine how any jierson can sleep at all in 
what may be called a bachelor’s l)ed in Germany. We 
arc to figure to ourselves a d«»p wooden cradle (which, in 
the present instance, was mailc of highly polished maho- 
^ gany,) about five feet four inghes long, and just three feet 
wide, containing a hard, thick mattress at the Iwttom, rest- 
ing on a number of cross pieces of wood, and a full feather 
bed at the top, covered with the .sheets, over which is laid, 
.as tlie only cover, a puffy silk bag, the length and breadth of 
the crib, stuffed with the lightest down, and weighing con- 
sequently a mere nothing. Two square pillows, both filled 
will) feathers, and a straw bolster of the same shape, in- 
tended to raise the former, are so arranged as to give them 
considerable inclination. These, from their great size, 
take up at least one half of the length of tlie bed, so that 
.tt) lie flat in it, is out of the question. A large propor- 
tion of the miseries of human life are really so many 
bonbons, compared to the misery endured in such a 
bed. If you attempt to stretch your legs, the solid foot- 
board reminds you to kwp your knees bent ; if you turn 
on your side, again the poor knees are the sufferers, for you 
are sure of knocking them violently against the side-boards. 
The feather bed heats your loins— the down bag heats your 
chest — the feather pillow's heat your shoulders— and by the 
time you are worked up into a fever, perspiration flowing 
from every pore, and drowsiness at last overpowering you 
—off flies, at an unlucky turn, the flimsy and untucked bag 
under which you were buried ; and a chattering shiver of 
the frame awakens you to the full consciousness of bruised 



246 


MARTIN LUTHHR. 


flesh, sore bones, broken back, ahd stiff neck, with parched 
mouth, and a dreadful headache into the bargain — the 
inevitable results of such a feathered nest. Now all this I 
do not pretend to urge against the good taste of the Ger- 
mans ; — far from it. They like it — it agrees well with 
them ; things in Germany are made for Germans; and not for 
foreigners; anil, therefore, why grumble when you go tliere^ 
to seek them ? But 1 mention my observations, to show tlie 
necessity of being ])re})ared (somewhat in the manner de- 
scribed in the first chapter,) for a Continental journey in 
point of bed ; or of making up your mind to bear patiently 
“things as they are;” you cannot alter them, without ap-' 
pearing a dissatisfied traveller in the eye of the mtives. 
For my part, I determined from the very first, after we 
had quitted the luxuries of Anglified and Frenchified . 
hotels, to ])repare my own sleeping couch every night, and. 

I recommend every traveller to do the same. The ope- 
rations for this })urpose are brief. 1 first demolished three 
of the wooden sides of the bed ; tossed the down bag, the 
bolster, and one of the pillows, into a comer of the room; 
reversed the order in which the mattress and feather-bed 
were arranged; laid over the former my ample leather 
sheets, to one side of each of which was fastened a flannel^ 
and a calico sheet ; tucked the wide pillow double into a 
pillow-case of my own of moderate dimensions; and, if 
the weather was cold, spread a wide military cloak over 
the whole structure, and put myself into a real bed. 

Wittenberg is the Mecca of the Lutherans. Insignifi- 
cant as a town, unimportant as a fortress, and not v^ry 
celebrated as an university, Wittenberg has nevertheless 
ranked with the most celebrated towns in the annals of 
the history of religion. An humble and unknown indivi- 
dual, whose career began in this secluded part of Germany, 
and whose early prospects were by no means calculate to 
raise high expectation, accomplished, in this place, the ^ 
memorable separation of the Protestant world from tl\e 



STATU K OP LUTHER AT WITTENBERG. 247 

Church of Rome. Luther, in Wittenberg, clad in a monk’s 
cassock, and ariuod only with the sacred volume, which his 
duty and inclination called him to expound in the vulgar 
tongue both from the pulpit and the professor’s cliair, 
succeeded better in his zealous endeavours to unmask the 
}xiatifical errors of his time, than the chief of the Hussites, 
or Apostle of Cracow, one hundred years before, wiio, 
armed as a soldier, and at the head of armies, had waged 
bloody wars against the followers of Rome. It was during 
the period of the revival of science, literature, and the fine 
arts, that Luther appeared. As if to place within Ids 
" reacli the })owerfu] means of rajddly spreading his prin- 
ciples of reformation, the art of printing had been dis- 
covered by one of his countrymen, Guttemberg, a fcAv 
years before ; and to balance, for ought we know, for the 
world’s sake, tlie effect of two such events, the Inquisition 
was first established in Spain in the very year of his birth, 
A.D. 14J{3. Here in this town, and in tlie square before 
us, was the celebrated Bull for the sale of Indulgences 
committed to the flames, and thus the first blow struck at 
the Papal authority. Then it was, that the name of 
Wittenberg, which had until that day lain in coni])arative 
, obscurity, blazed forth with a light that shone over almost 
every country in Europe. Such were the reminiscences of 
times gone by, mid of tlie effects they left, which crowded 
on my mind as our travelling party were pacing the small 
square, in which stands the colossal statue in bronze of 
Alartin Luther, the Augustinian monk and Professor of 
Wittenberg ! 

This statue was erected in the year 1821, and is the 
work of J. Gottfried Schadow, Director of the Royal 
Academy of Arts at Berlin; an artist, to. judge by this 
performance, of very superior merit. It represents, in 
colossal proportions, the full-length figure of Luther, sup- 
porting on his left; haiid the book of the Old and New 
Testament, kept open by the right hand gracefully rest- 



248 STATUE OF LUTHER AT WITTENEERO. 

ing on the left page, pointing to a passage in the Scripture. 
The pedestal on which the statue, stands, is formed of one 
solid block of red polished granite, twenty feet high, ten 
feet wide, and eight feet deep, which is supposed to weigh 
650,000 pounds, and rests on three steps. On each of its 
sides, there is a central tablet,* bearing a Geiinan inscrip, 
tion, the principal of which runs thus : — 

“ Tsts GottEs werk, so wirds bestehn, 

Ists Mcnschens werk, wirds untergehn 

the import of which is, that if it be God's work, it is iin- 
perishable ; if that of man, it will fall. , 

Over the figure of the Reformer is a very handsome, 
light canopy, in a Gothic style, supported by four corner 
pillars, and surmounted by eight filigrt'c- pointed pin- 
nacles; between which rises the point of the acute Gotliic 
arch, highly ornamental, seen on each of the four sides of' 
the monument. This canopy is beautifully cast in iron, 
while the statue itself, as I before stated, is of bronze, 
and weighs ^,500 pounds. Luther is represented, not 
as an Augustinian monk, but in tlie flowing and simple 
drapery tuid wide sleeves of the reformed clergy. There 
is much dignity in the position of the figure, and the coun- 
tenance has been cast in a nobler mould than the por- ' 
traits of Luther, by contemporary painters, represent him 
to have had. Taken altogether, it is a most creditable 
piece of workmanship, and does honour to the present state 
of tlie fine arts in Prussia. 

Luther was buried in the Schlosskirche, which is also 
the cathedral. A brass plate in the pavement of the church, 
marks the site in which his remains are deposited. It 
bears the following inscription : — 

Martini • Lutheri * S * Theolo- 
gian ' D * Corpus* II * L * S *£* qui 
AnChristiMDXLVIXII- 
Cal • Martii • Kyslebii * in • Pa- 
Tria • S • M * ■ VjAnn • llTlli • 

Mll-DX* 



CURIOUS PAINTINGS BY LUCAS CRANACH. 249 

In the same church is deposited the body of Tjiitlicr’s 
friend and companion, a far more accomplished and amia- 
ble character than the Reformer, a deep and erudite scho- 
lar, and professor of Greek at the University of Witten- 
berg, I mean Schwartserdt, or as he was afterwards called, 
Melancthon. His tomb also is marked with a suitable 
inscription. Melancthon survived his friend some years, 
and being thus deprived of his example and counsels, 
wavered in his opinions on religious tenets so often, tliat 
lie ac(|uireil the appellation of the German Proteus. The 
person of Melancthon was dwarfish, and his countenance 
ill-favoured by nature, that he could never show liim- 
self in ]mblic without lieing exposed to the derision of the 
rabble. Yet such wore the brilliancy of his wit, liis elo- 
i|uence, and fluency of diction, that his lectures attracted 
at one time upwards of 2,500 auditors. All the )iortraits 
observed in Saxony and Prussia of this theologian, bear a 
faithful record of the description given by contemporaries 
of bis jiersonal appearance. His pale, hollowed, ascotic 
countenance contrasts singularly with the well-nourished 
rotundity of tliat of his friend the Reformer. 

A mem^ito to Lucas Cranach, the |)ainter, the contem- 
^lorary and friend of Luther, which we observed in the 
same church, reminded us of the curious pictures on pan- 
nels existing in the Town Hall of Wittenberg by that 
early master, representing the Ten Commandments. Lucas 
Oanach hail visit(*d Italy at the end of the fifteenth 
century, and brought back with him the hard dry style 
and extravagant conceptions which marked that infant pe- 
riod of the art of painting. Kach Commandment forms 
the subject of a picture, at the bottom of which is writ- 
ten the Commandment itself in black German letters. 
'I’he singularity of these curious performances consists 
in the presence of the ‘'Evil One, or great Tempter,'’ 
urging his victim to violate the Commandment ; and the 
representation of the dark fiend, though varied in each 
picture, leaves no room for hesitation as to its identity 



250 


MrTfIKR''S CLUMBER. 


in all. The figurative meaning of some of the pictures 
is sufficiently clear, while in others it is not so. The 
best representation is that of the sixth and eighth Com- 
mandments. The arrangement of the figures, the ex- 
pression and grouping, and the presence of the evil genius 
in all the |)ictures, strongly remind the sjK'ctator of the 
story of Faustus. There are some other paintings by 
this master and his son, particularly a Crucifixion, a fac 
simile of one which 1 mentioned as,forining the altar-piece 
of the Stadt Kirche at Weimar ; a Nativity, and another 
exceedingly curious picture of the Reformation, with por- 
traits of Luther and his contemporaries, which, as links in * 
the history of the art, deserve attention. 

As we were determined on viewing every object con- 
nected with the recollection of the great Reformer, we 
could not resist paying a visit to the chamlKn* which lie. 
had occupied in the Augustine convent, while htvfonried 
part of that monastic congregation. The most and in- 
deed only remarkable object in this room is tlie autograph 
signature in chalk of Peter tlie Great on a door, which 
has resisted the eff’ect tif time owing to a glass cover placed 
over it. The room contains also the large o%k table on 
which Luther wrote his theological disquisitions ; and Sp 
very curious stove, lofty and elegant, with several figures 
in bas-relief upon it, of ratlier a gay description. The 
drinking-cup, deep and ample, out of which the Augus- 
tine monk drank invigorating draughts, is here preserved, 
and an album is kept, in which visitors are requested to 
inscribe their names. 1 observed that the greater number 
of these were English travellers. But this is the case in 
every album I have seen in Europe. 

Being again on our way to Berlin, we passed through 
the Schloss-gate close to the Cathedral, taking the road to 
Kroppstadt, which is partly pavedy and partly macadam- 
ized. Neither the country around us, which consisted of 
a poor, chalky and sandy soil, with, only here and there 



UEKLIZi-^LAKK OF SOHWIRLOW. 


251 


some patches of young firs ; nor the village last-mentioned, 
where we halted to change horses, were calculated to raise 
our wearied spirits. We hail, however, the of 

being well and steadily ^driven by postilions, whose neat 
uniform, clean persons, and good behaviour, reconciled us 
to tlie tediousness of the road. 

We next passed through Treuenbriezen, a large 0])en. 
market-tow'n, having several large houses, with inhabitants 
remarkably clean and generally good-looking. The road 
is excellent, and but recently finished. It continues the same 
to Bix^liz, the next halting-place, and from thence to Pots- 
dam. As we approached that part of the country in which 
the latter town is situated, the wide and tedioifs plain we 
were traversing appeared broken on the farthest horizon, 
hy partial elevations of the ground. On getting nearer to 
.those we found the hills on our right covered to the very 
summit with dense wikxIs, presenting an uniform mass of 
pleasing verdure, except in partial places where the rocky 
structure of the hill was seen through the clumps of trees. 
On our left, iniTnense fields extended far beyond our view, 
and a])pcared in a high state of cultivation. The villages as- 
sumed a more rural as|K?ct, and were every where enlivened 
•with gardens, and clean-looking. The road we found uni- 
formly *good and hard, following a straight line d perte de 
vtfc, and flanked on each side by a line of k)fty f)oplars. 
'rhe stones employed for this road, are the large rolled 
{Khhles found in the beds of torrents, which wlien broken, 
exhibit a granitic structure. Many forests and recent plan- 
tations of fir-trees ap^ieared here and there on the right and 
left of the road, the only trees, besides the poplars, which 
can thrive in this thin and sandy soil. 

a party of travellers, who for three whole days^ and 
ever since (putting Weimar, had crept along heavily through 
interminable plains exhibiting no natural object of interest, 
it was k great aiid wdcdme change to be greeted with a view 
pf hills and lakesy which suddenly burst upon us as we 





POTSDAM.— PRBDBRICK THE GREAT. 

after crossing the 

Isehe See. 

ue scenery around the Lake 
luster of locks and other 
iSntSSisite water beyond it— the town 

little our right, with the Baben- 

^e^^tre of the Potsdam forest 
at a good rate onwards, 
Poti^am itself, rising as it were 
Ihiflpreads its bosom before it, 
that we could not help 
I ^;ii^:i^mplate happy an assem-* 
fEurt, and situation. We then 
ly ;^||^|he :^any connecting bridges bo- 
' through the handsome 
]&ving the Radstadt-house,, 
Atlas, on our right ; and 
of the Royal Chateau 
; it9 gardens. 

palace, not far from 
‘ of a minister, 

fb^^yea^^^verted into an hotel. Im- 
r^l^ipents, we hastened to visit 
the pMl^pher of Sans-Soud. The 
th^ extraod^tf^y man inhabited for so 
the whic^fi Stranger is directed to see 
pven ^ JjiS indination not induce him 

to b^ much in the same condition 
lefl^ them, although the palace itself has 
i^itilxiiis aid embellishments at different 
'complacency (and it must be 
j^e) that thecAi- 
igtorecalthepe- 
f |hat Prince, 
mind by 
;-hall; 

from which the faitlffid i 








NAPOLEON AT POTSDAM. 253 

his master during his rqpast. Beyond it, u spacious music- 
room, supported by columns, exhibits an old spinette, at 
which presided the leader of the royal band, when Fre- 
(ItTick entertained his courtiers with concerts. The library 
comes next, in which two small bookcases remain, con- 
taining a few select works on geography, history, the art 
of war, a few classics, and the productions of those con- 
temiiorary French philosophers, of whom it is difficult to 
siiy whether the head of their Mmcenas was most turned 
by their flattery, or their own by the condescension arid 
familiarity of the Sovereign. They must, no doubt, have 
laughed heartily at each other’s foibles, and inwardly felt 
the egregious folly of their attempts to reform mankind. 
In tins room, which is divided from the preceding or 
music-room by a dwarf balustrade of silver, ornamented 
with some figures of cupids of the same metal, the «ccrc- 
or writing-desk of the King is shown, from which one 
of the French marshals removed and carried away a por- 
tion of the covering as a rdic. In another part of the 
library we observed the table on which lay the scarf, sword, 
and cane of Frederick. It was now twenty-one years since 
Napoleon Buonaparte entered Potsdam, and immediately 
paiil a visit to the Royal residence of the warrior, for 
whose memory he ever professed to entertain a veneration. 
I’he place which had, for the space of seven years, resisted 
the joint cflbrts of half Europe, had then yielded, in as many 
weeks, to the eagles of France. Butr how far was their 
leader from anticipating that, from the very palace in which 
he stood on that triumphant occasion, would, after the lapse 
of another septenary, issue that proclamation which was to 
animate Prussia and the whole of Europe in the accomplish- 
ment of his lasting destruction ! Napoleon entered the library 
of Frederick with rapid steps, and walked up to a writing- 
desk, on which lay a work of Puysegur on Strategy, and 
near it the sword and ribbon of the order of knighthood, 
which that Sovereign had worn during the Seven Years’ 
W ar. N apoleon took up the weapon, and for some seconds 



^54 


PAL’AGK AT POTSDAM. 


cuntemi^ted it with attention: he then committed it to 
the care of his attendants, together with the scarf and 
cane, saying, in his emphatic style, — Qu’on depose ces 
objets pr^cieux a THotel des Invalided de notre bonne ville 
de Paris. Jls seront pour ces braves veterans, le bulletin 
le plus glorieux, le plus eloquent de la Grande Arm^e.” 
It is almost a pity to spoil the theatrical effect of this 
address witli a statement of the fact, at least so the worthy 
I'hdtelain informed us, that the said sword was not the sword 
of the (jreat Frederick, but another, which had been sub- 
stituted for it on the approach of the French armies. 

The last room into which we were introduced, wjis the 
bed-chamber, from which however the bed had been re- 
moved, though the bell-pull which hung by the b^l-side 
yet remains. These apartments are embellished with a 
few pictures on pannels, representing principally^ some 
favourite female dancers, among whom the |wrtrait of a 
Signora Barberini, who afterwards married a president 
and counsellor, appeared conspicuous. 

Next to these historical apartments, are the lately 
modernized suite of nxuns, which serve, on some (X^casions, ^ 
iis the residence of his present Majesty ; and have been, 
at different times, inhabited by inijxHrial and royal visi- 
tors,*— by Alexander, Napoleon, Bemadottc, and others. 
The furniture is new, splendid without being gaudy, and 
in excellent taste. Beyond these come the apartments of 
the late Queen, like her, modest in their apfx^arance, free 
from vain magnificence, and exhibiting an air of case and 
comfort. In the last room, a very neat, and retired 
boudoir, hung all round with fluted white drapery, is 
deposited on a marble slab a cast of the bust of that 
excellent Princess, taken from the statue at Charlotten- 
burgh. The old are se|)arated from the new apartments, 
by a liirge and magnificent saloon or state-jtmm, lofty and 
of correct proportions, einliellished with four gigantic alle- 
gorical paintings, which contain several portraits, and record 
some of the Fasti of the House of Brandenburg. 



PALACES AT POTSDAM. 255 

VV^e liad no time to extend our visits to the other Royal 
Palaces, the Palaw Neuf, and Marmor Pallast ; neither 
did we pay our respects to the chambers of Voltaire at 
Sans-Souci. We surveyed at a distance all these re- 
mains of the grandeur and magnifiamce of Frederick, the 
exterior of which is calculated to excite admiration. A 
view of the Pfl/aw Royal will convey, better than mere 
de.scription, a good idea of its architecture and magni- 
tude. 





The Royal Chilteaii at Potsdam. 


I’he charming and sylvan retreat of Sam-Soud, placed 
much nearer to the town, is approached through the Bran- 
deul)urg-gate. On a small hill, disposed in terraces, 
stands the chateau, to which the ascent is by a flight of 
steps, with quickset hedges on each side. Fach terrace, 
mid the well-arranged shrubberies hy the side of the palace, 
are ornamented wilit flowers and fruit-trees, vases and 
. bust.s. At the foot of the hill the gardens, decorated with 
single statues and ^ups, and two large marble rescr- 




256 APPROACH TO BERLIN. 

voirs of water— and, a little -more to the right of it, a Iiaiul- 
some building, which we were told contained a gallery 
of pictures, form togethej^with the principal building an 
exceedingly pleasing landscajxj, wliich we viewed with 
pleasure from the western extremity of Potsdam. 

The appearance of this second royal re^dence of the 
Great Frederick, though now seldom animated,, as it was 
in his time, by the presence of Royalty, is still striking 
and magnificent, on account of the many palaces, |)ubli(; 
buildings, chambers, and private houses of great dimen- 
sions; the varied and imposing exterior of which exhibits 
almost every style and ornament of modern architecture. 
Wliole streets of splendid mansions are seen at every turn 
as you proceed through the town; but tliesc, like tht 
glorious remains of oligarchical splendour in modern 
Venice, are either verging fast on ruin, having been de- 
serted by their former masters, or are converted into 
auberges and hotels, to shelter the stranger, to whom a 
pilgrimage to Potsdam will be prexiuctive of gratification, 
not unmingled with regret. 

’ We now began to be impatient of reaching the Prussian 
capital ; and bidding adieu to the colonnades, statues, and 
obelisks, which crowded on our passage, we followed a 
straight road, lying between the broad stream of the 
Havel, and a small lake on our left. We soon crossed 
the former over a wooden bridge, where the two branches 
of the river, after having for a short time united, diverge 
in two directions. Descending the Stolpe, a keep bank, 
we penetrated a thick and imposing forest, which we did 
not quit till we were near tlie last post-town, called Zeh- 
lendorf. From thence a beautiful macadamized road, 
two German miles long, in one continued straight line, 
planted with a row of trees on each side, and lighted at 
short intervals by large reflectftg lamps, brought us to 
the gate of Berlin, early in the evening of the 9th of 
October. 





J5 X 








CHAPTER VIII. 


PRUSSIA. 

Hi:rmn. S triking appearance and extent of the Town.— Tlie principal 
Streets. — Uii/er ffen Ziiftdlen.— Potsdam Gate.— Brandenburg Gate. 
—Churches — Srpiares. — The Park and Public Ganlens.— Museum. 
•— Tlu: Ufiyiil Pahicti. — The Arsenal. — Colossal Statue of Bliicher. — 
(ieiimls Billow and Scliarnorst. — Inns. — The Opora-ilouse.— Made- 
tnoiselhf Soiitag. — Gorman Opera and Gennan acting.— The Schauspiel 
IJans.— King Lear.— Grand Coucert-K)om.— The University.— Tlie 
Professors. — Its Cabinets, — Collections of Anatomy and Zoology.— 
British Mu.setnn and English traveller.— Institutum Obsletricum. 

--- llnsjutal of La Chariti^.— Medical Practice.— Remuneration for 
incdiciil attendance. — Price of Medicines fixed by a tarif. — New 
Berlin IMiarmacopajia. — Profe.ssor Hufeland.. — His opinion of 
^ Pliietiology. 

Onk of those French traveller, whom their countrymen > 
style spirituelsj considered that Berlin was not far enoufj^h 
j-eniovcd from Pari.s to give him “le droit de mentir,” 
(those are his expressions) in describing that place to his 
hiends. I can conceive that the sight of Berlin may be 
a source of mortifying recollections to a Frenchman of the 
present day ; but to us the view of the Prussian capital was 
associated with feelings of another nature, and I therefore 
i^t'ed not alledge its ^ort distance from England as an 
apology for adhering to truth, in stating the result of my 
observations. » 

* VOL. I. 


S 



258 


BKKLIN. 


Berlin is justly reckoned one of the most beautiful cities 
in Europe ; and for size and population it may be con. 
sidcred as tlic second city in Oorinany. It covers an area 
nearly eipial to that on which Paris stands. The dislancc 
from the f^ate thrmi|^h which wv entered to tlie Prank, 
further I'hor on the opposite or north-east ipiarter, is 
nearly tliree miles; while a line crossing tins distance IVoni 
the gardens of the Hospital of La ( 'harite, to (Iberhauni, 
near the Stralaner 'J'hor, is very little short of four 
miles. 'I'he general circumference is com])uted at twilvi- 
miles. 

Tlie S|)ree may Ik* said to divide the more r(‘(;ent from 
the older ])arts of the town. This liver, where it passes 
between Stralaii and Louisenstadt as for as the VVaisenluiiis 
bridge, is of a uniform though not considerable hreaillli. 
It then branches into two slightly diverging streams, om> 
narrower than the otlier, both bending first to the sontk, 
and then taking a north-west direction until they once' 
more meet at the Mchlliuus, beyond which the river con- 
tinues in a tortuous course through the remaining part 
and out of the town, in breadth about half the dimensions 
of that which belongs to it at its entrance into Berlin. 
Tile sjiacc between the two branches just mentioned con- 
stitutes a very iiupirtant part of this city, called Olil ('‘>- 
logne, (Alt Coin,) which may bo truly considered as the 
centre of the capital. That part of the town which is 
properly called Berlin is situated to the north-east of this 
central district, and is surrounded by a ditch comnuini- 
catiiig with the Spree. Three extensive suburbs diverge 
from it, bearing the name of Spaiidaii, Kiinigstadt, aiul 
Stralau. To the south and south-west of the centre of the 
town, or Old Cologne, are the Frederick werde, the Do- 
rothee, or Neustadt, and the Frederichstatlt, forming the 
most conspicuous, the princi]>al, as well as the most fash- 
ionable* ])art of this city. A small and a larger district, la 








” , ■ ’-'■V-'i'V- 


UNTER URN LINDEN. 


259 

addition to these, have been recently added, in a south- 
eastern direction : the ground of wliiclx is as yet but par- 
tially built upon:-^these are called the New Cologne and 
the Loiiisenstadt, already inentioneil. 

Such is the general jdan of the town, which I was en- 
abled to trace nios.t distinctly with the help of a Ciceroncy 
from the tower of one of the churches in the Place des 
(iendarmesy on the maiming after our arrival. 

1’he streets in that part of Berlin which lies to the south 
of tlie river, are straight, broadband regidar. One in par- 
ticular, called the Frederich Strasse, is the longest and most 
uniform stre^^tinKu^o|:)e, being nearly two Kiiglish miles and 
a-half in length. It extends from the Place de la Mle AU 
lifiiice to the Oraniehburger gate, crossing the Allee des Til- 
hnls, and the bridge of Weidendamer over tbe Sj)ree ; and 
is intersected iii its whole extent by no fewer than twelve 
streets, at right angles, some of Ajif e from a mile to a 

mile and Ji-half in length. ' 

Several handsome and some maj^i&ent edifices are met 
with here and there among huiidreds of neat houses which 
line, with uninterrupted regularity, the streets in the Neu- 
stiult, as well as in the Frederichstadt and New Cologne. 
M«)st of the former an; built of free-stone, with considerable 
arelutectural taste ; and a few of them are s])lendid speci- 
nuMis of art, 1’hose of the second class are neat, generally 
of an uniform exterior, from two to three stt)ries high, and 
of brick covered with plaster, with a slight tinge of yellow. 
The largest, as well as the best private houses, arc on each 
^ide of the bcautifubwalk called “ Uhter den Linden.” 

'I'liis gay and splendid street^ planted with double ave- 
nues of lime-trees, presented to niy view a scene far more 
keaiitiful than 1 had hitherto witnessed in any town either 
>n France, Flandfers, or Germany. It extends from the 
Gpera-house as far as the principfil or Brandenburg-gate. 
fhe centred walk, appropriated to pedestrians, is fifty feet 



260 


TH£ rOTSDAM GATE. 


wide, and covered with hai’d gravel. On each side arc triple 
rows of trees, outside of whicli is a wide drive for (carriages. 
To c()in))lete this beautiful street in a suitable manner, 
paved troHoin are still wanting. That j)art of it by wliidi 
alone access can be had to the different handsome shops, 
and to the houses which flank it on either side, is roiiglilv 
and irregularly paved with stones, uncomfortable ami in- 
convenient to foot |)iiHsengers. I)etw^‘cn the hours of twelve 
and two in the afternoon during the winter season, and 
early in the evening during the summer montlis, this walk 
offers a most lively, cheerful, and almost theatrical ap- 
pearance, from tlio number and variety of ptTsoiis who 
resort thither, for the IkMiefit of air and exercise, or from 
idleness and curiosity. The stranger who freejuents this 
walk, may, in the course of two or three days’ residence, 
pass in review, in every gradation, the different classes 
of society in Herlin. At night it is brilliantly illumi- 
nated with gas, as are all the principal streets iu the 
neigliboiii'hood. 

'rhe gate through w'hich we entered Berlin, called that 
of Fotsilam, claims the attention of the traveller for 
its chaste ami beautiful design. It consists of a barrier of 
ten insulated pilasters, about fourteen feet high, phuHid at 
short distances from each other, and connected by a lighl 
iron railing, the terminal |Knnts of which are gilt. Witliio 
this barrier and on each side of it rises a liandsonie lodge 
with a tetrastyle })()rtic(j of the (Ireek Doric order, produciug 
a most pleasing effect. One of these lodges is occupied by 
a guard, which is constantly pn duty at the gate. Immedi- 
ately within tile Gate, is a large opm sjiace of an octaf^mal 
form, enclosed by many liaudsome houses, called LejpaigtT 
Platz, which faces a broad and straight street of the same 
name, nearly a mile in length. In this street, after having 
wandered about the town in sejgrch of apartmeints, and 
visited all the principal hotels, which we found already 



THE BRANDENBURG GATE. 


m 

full, we quietly settled at the Hotel de Pnisse— a suffi- 
ciently comfortable bouse for persons of nKwlrrate ex|H‘ctji- 
tions. The effect of the long and straight streets in this 
quarter, lighted profusely with gas, imich in the same 
style as in fiondoii, was particularly striking. 

lint the most imposing and magnificent specimen of 
modern architecture in Berlin, and, without exce])tion, the 
most colossal structure of the kind in Europe, is the Bran- 
(lenbiirger I’hor, or (rate, placcxl at the w'estern extremity 
of the Unterden Linden, rising, like the Athenian Pro- 
pylea, above the adjoining buildings, but with greater 
elevation. Two colonnades are placed in parallel lines, 
across the road, one hundred and five feet in length, and 
each consisting of six fiutod pillars of the (Irecian Doric 
order. These sup|M>rt a well-projxirtioned entablature, 
surmounted by an attic, and in the centre of these stands 
a beautiful quadriga, with the figure of \"ictory bearing 
in triumph the Prussian eagle. 1’his triumphal car had, 
(luring the Prench invasion, met with the fate of many 
other monuments of art in comjuered countries, and was 
tnmsported to Paris; but after the victories of lbl4, 
it was convoyed back to Berlin. The elevation of the 
colmniis of this gate is forty-five feet, and their largest 
(liariu'ter five feet nine inches. The seventeen nieto])cs 
Iwtween the triglyphs of the frieze, represent, in Imsxo 
rilievo, the battle of the Centaurs with the Lapitha? ; and 
on the attic, immediately under the quadriga, another bas- 
relief represents the Margrave Albertus Achilles seizing an 
enemy’s standard in a battle against the people of Nurem- 
berg. The two parallel colonnades are connected by a lateral 
wall or humerus between each bi-colunmiation, and tlie five 
inter-columniatidns constitute the five great openings of this 
gate ; the principal or centre of which is eighteen feet . 
wide, and the others twelve feet four inches. 



T1IJ{ IIUANUKNISUK<; GATK. 



Thu Ltrandeiibui^ CJutt^ 


There arc about thirty churche^s in Berlin. The greaier 
part of them naturally adhere to the Lutheran creed, in 
which the service is performed in (rerman. A smaller 
proj)ortion belongs to the reformed religion, wliere the 
service is jjcrfornied in the French language ; and two of 
tile churches are appropriated to the Homan Catholic com- 
munion. As arctiitectural objects, almost all these edifices 
arc deserving of attention. In the course of his walks or 
drives, the stranger cannot fail to be struck by tlieir ap- 
pearance ; but two or three in particular, which 1 examined 
with some care, deserve a more especial notice. These 
arc, the church of St. Nicholas, the Roman Catholic 
clurrch, and the beautiful structures in the Place des Gen- 
darmes, one of which is represented' in the accompanying 
sketcli. The first is situated in that part of the town 
which is properly called Berlin. Considering its antiquity 


CHURCHKS IN BERLIN. 


263 


jiiid Sax()-^;»thi(* design, it may be deemed tlie most inte- 
ri'stin^ specimen of that style of !)uihlint)[ in this capital. 
Amon^? the variety of objects sliown in tlie inlt'Hor of this 
elnirch, the momiment of Piiff'endorf claims |>articular no- 
tice. 'rhis prodi<ry of historical erudition, so well known 
as the author of “ The Elements of Thiivcrsal .lurispni- 
dciico,"'* was held in *rreat esteem at the court of the Elector 
of Brandenburg, and died in Berlin at the close of tlie se- 
venteenth century. 'J'hc si^cond church stands in an ojx'n 
space at the back of the OjK^ra-houae : it is built in the form 
of a rotunda, wu’th a handsome front, enriched by a portico 
of six Jonic columns, to which you ascend by a fliufht of 
steps ; and is surmounted by a cupola, resting on twen- 
Iv-fmr Corinthian pillars. This building reminds the 
I livelier of the I’antlunm at Rome Of the two handsome 
dm relies, which form wdth the new Theatre the most 
striking embellishments of the Place des Oendarmes, tliat 
which belongs to the French service is the most imyiosin^, 
i'rom tlie number and ^rcat beauty of its various ornaments 
ind details. 

'rhe plan of the church is in the form of a cross, having 
three sides ornamenttxl witn Corinthian pillars. To the prin - 
cipalfrontis attached a portico of beautiful ])roportions, con- 
sistinjy of six columns of the Corinthian order, under which is 
the great entrance, wdth two niches on each side, containing 
the colossal statues of four Apostles, and above these are 
representations, in bas-relief, of the most important events 
in the life of our Saviour. TJie pediment, which is large, 
i'csts on an unadorned frieze and comice, and is in keeping 
with the grandeur of the rest of the elevation . The group of 
figures in the tympanum, disposed in the classical man- 
ner of the Grecian architects, represents Jesus Christ con- 
versing with his disciples. A colossal statue is erected 

• un each of the acroteria, and a group is placed over the 
centre of the pediment. The tower rises immediately be- 

* bind this. Its ])lan or basis is a square, with two di- 



The Freodi ChuTch. 


niinisliing horizontal compartments, or . blocking coti 
about it. At each angle of the basis there is a n 
pedestal, su])porting a statue of one of the Evangelists.’ 








WILHELMS PLATZ. 


265 

dome is elevated over the basis in the form of a rotunda, 
ornamented with statues and bas-reliefs, and a colonnade of 
Corinthian pillars of two-thirds of the proportions of those 
of the portico of the church, producing alto^ethiT a very 
pleasing effect. ( )vcr the colonnade is a gallery with haliis- 
trades, ornamented with large vast's. Out f>f the peristyle 
rises, within the gallery, the drum of the cupola, with circu- 
lar windows ; and the cij|x)la itstJf, of an elliptical form, 
covers the whole, and is siirmoiintc^d by a gigantic figure of 
Heligi<m, made of bronze richly gilt. This tower is of a 
date ]M)sterior to the building of the church, .and was only 
completed in the year 1765. It measures two hundred 
and twenty-five feet in height, including the statue. For 
grandeur and magnificence of exterior, this, noble elevation 
is far superior to any of the modem churclies lately 
erected in London. 

The square in which the church stands is a regular 
jjarallelogram of large dimensions, into which open, at right 
angles, twelve handsome streets. This, however, is not 
the only fine open square in Berlin. The Wilhelms Platz, 
with its statues of the five heroes of the Seven Years’ War, 
Schwerin, Seidlitz, Keith, Winterfeld, and Ziethen, shaded 
^ hy a double row of trei^s ; the Platz before the King’s 
Palace; that before the Opera House, those of Paris, Leip- 
zig, and La Bcdle Alliance, with two or three others, which 
I noticed in my rambles, are equal in beauty to some of 
the s(j[uares in London, (though not so extensive,) and su- 
l)erior to them in regard to the surrounding buildings. The 
cdFect of the much^talkcd-of Wilhelms Platz, however, is 
considerably lessened, by the circumstance of its not being 
wther paved or planted in the centre, but presenting a 
dreary desert of thirou^ which the pedestrian, to 
avoid a circuitous course, has to wade up to his ankles. 
When tile wind is high, it must be a task of no little risk 
to face the clouds of fine sand raised by the tempest, a cir- 
cumstance, too, which is a serious annoyance to the inhabi- 



266 THK THIKR GARTKN.— THE LUST GARTEN. 


tants of tile surrouTulin^ houses. The Diinhofseher Platz 
is another Imndsonie though irregular K(|uare at one end of 
Leipsig Strasse. 

Berlin has also its park and public gardens, which aiv 
gay and much fretpiented. I'he 7 '///>/• (iarleu^ or (.ireat 
Park, is situated iumu'diately outside of the Brandenburg 
Gate, and in front of the (*hanipde Mars, or Exercier 
Platz. It is ])lanled in ])arterres and shrubberies, some- 
what in till* fashion of an Englisli park, but wants its 
luxuriance of vegetation and fine trws. ^I’he \iml (imini, 
or JanJiu occupies a large space in the ciMitre of 

tile town, and is bordered on one side by a branch of the 
S])rei‘, and flanked on the opposite side by the ( Jathedral 
and the Exchange, a very handsome modern building. The 
reviews or daily })ara(les, which take ])lace in this garden, 
add to its attractions. It contains also the statue of the 
Prince of Dessau, to whom the infantry of Prussia is in- 
debted for its discipline. At one of the extremities of the 
Lust Garten is a new building, wliich was not cjuite com- 
pleted at the time of our visit to Berlin, but intended for 
a iiuiseum of anti(|uities. 'I'he front of this magnificent 
edifice, which will be ond«»f tbemost striking ornaments of 
this part of the tow n, alreiuly so rich in handsome monu- 
ments and })a]accs, presents a bold colonnaile placed on a 
continued pdestal' or terrace, forming a handsome |K)rtico, 
which extends the whole length of the building. The 
ascent to the terrace is by a wide flight of steps, on the side 
walls of which arc erected equestrian statues. Above the 
portico is seen part of the liody of the building, of a square 
form, rusticated, and having at each angle, on square 
])edestals, a group in imitation of those of Monte Ca- 
vallo, at Rome. The columns of the portico, which 
arc cigliteen in niimlier, and of the Ionic order, rise to 
the top of the first story of the buikling, and produce a 
very grand eftkt. 



MUSKITM OP ANTlQUlTItsS. 


207 

This buildiii^? is ilustiried to niieive, in ap^n-oprijitc gal- 
leries and a inagnilimit rotunda lighted from the top, the 
several collections hitherto contained in some of the apart- 
niciits of the Royal l*alace. Tliey consist of cameos and 
medals, mosaics and other objects of anti(|uity, of great 
merit and of every age and nation, among which is a col- 
lection of gems made by the celebrated Stosch, objects of 
art of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries; 
armour, models of carriages, wax figures, and many other 
rare articles, of great value. To these will be added an- 
cient grou])s and statues, and bas reliefs; casts, and ar- 
chitectural sjxicimens, forming a complete assemblage of 
whatever can illustrate the fine arts, and the history and 
mainuM-s of ancient times. Paintings also will be arranged 
in an appropriate gallery, among which will figure the col- 
lecthm sold by M. Solly to his Prussian Majesty. This 
o^tablisliment is highly htmourable to the liberal spirit of 
the Sovereign with whom it has originated, and reflects 
lii’cat cretlit on M. iShinkel, the arcliitect. 

I'lie Royal Chhteau in which the Great Frederick re- 
si<led, and which forms a very imposing and striking ob- 
ject from its massive and colossal dimensions, statids op- 
posite the new- Museum, at the other extremity of the 
Ivoyal Garden. This building, w hich is very lofty, con- 
sisting, besides the basement, of two ])rinci])al stories and 
an attie, is of a mixed kind of architecture, and by no means 
symmetrical. The facade hxiking to the sejuare is 430, 
while its longest side is 460 feet in length. The line of 
elevation of this side is broken by two projecting tetrastyle 
porticoes, attached to the first and second story, their double 
Corinthian columns resting on rusticated basements the 
wh(jle height of the ground story. On the top of one of 
these |K)rticoes, supporting an irregular ornaraented entabla- 
ture, four statues are placed, and. a handsome balustrade 
runs all round the building. The principal entrance into 



26 H 


KOYAIi PALACE OP BERLIN. 


this |)ala(« is very lofty, and ornamented by a bold archi- 
trave with columns of great dimensions, supiwrting a raas- 
sivc entablature. 

1 visited the fine suites of nanns, halls, and staircases, 
which are to he seen in this royal residence. Some of the 
rooms are very striking, particularly the Sulk Jllmiche and 
the Salle des Chevaliers. In the tbrmer of these, which is 
ninety fwt long, and fifty wide, with an elevation of forty 
feet, are held the festivals given by the Court on great 
occasions, particularly on the marriages of any of the mein- 
bers of the Royal Family. Part of the palace is occupied 
by the picture gallery, which is 196 feet in length, and 
contains nearly three hundred pictures, most of which 
belong to tlic Flemish and (lerman schools. But the rou.<it 
interesting apartment in thisChfitcau, is the suite of rooms 
formerly occupied by the Great Frederick, which command 
a view of a branch of tlie Spree. They are now inlmbited 
by one of the King’s sons. The most favourable jHtiiit 
of view for the Royal (liateau is from the ([uay, a little 
below the Lange Briicke, by which not only two whole 
sides of the building are jm-cived at the same time, but 
the equestrian statue of Frederick William, standing on a 
projecting arch of the bridge, is brought into the view, 
adding considerably to the grandeur and striking efiect 
of the whole. This statue is of bronze, of colossal dimen- 
sions, and is said to weigh fifteen tons. I cannot speak 
highly of its execution. 



THK royal palace op HKRLIN. 


m) 



llie lioyul CliAtcaii and f .singe Driickc. 

IWforo I returned home, after my first day’s excursion 
tlirou«rli tlic town, I could not help stopping for a mo- 
iiieiit to contemplate another magnificent building, which 1 
observed on my right, as I was going from the Royal 
I'astle, in the direction of the Linden Walk. The profu- 
sion of trophies which dmiratc the balustrade at the top 
of the edifice, the variety of bronze helmets placed on the 
key-stone of each window of the basement story, and the 
statues of heroes ornamenting the exterior of the principal 
entrance, soon told the object and intention of the building. 
As a specimen of modern architecture, the Arsenal pos- 
sesses great merit. Its style, which approaches to the 
Palladian, is^ grave, and bears a character of great solidity. 
These qualities of the building are in character with its 
purpose. The portico attached to the principal story 
forms a very striking and pleasing feature in the compo- 


TH£ ARSENAL AT BERLIN. 


270 

sitioii of tlio fa^jule ; and the whole institutes, perhaps, 
the linest hiiikling of this class in Berlin. The interior 
of the Arsenal, for one who is neither a military man nor 
fond of military parmle, offers but a monotonous and unin^ 
teresting siglit. Here is a long range of guns and field- 
pieces, with tumbrils and caissons : there, bombs and 
mortars, howitzers, blunderbusses, and musquets. One 
of the walls groans under a loml of sabres, swords, and 
pick-axes : another is almost Ux) small to hold the groups 
of battle-axes, halberts, sarbacans, and culverins. In fact, 
all the instruments of destruction that have been devised 
by man to injure, maim, and annihilate his fellow-creatures, 
are here systematically and beautifully arranged, ready to 
gratify curiosity, or serve as models for the instruction of 
future heroes. 'Fhese are the museums and their scientific 
classifications tor a soUlier. 





The Arsenal. 



STATU K OF BLUCUKR. 271 

It is not without reason that the jx^iple of Ilerliii 
have selected the immediate iieij^hhourhood of the palace 
of their King, and such a warlike place as the Arsenal, 
tor the purj.)osi* of placing the colossal statue of lUiicher, 
inteiidexl to commemorate the glorious achievements of that 
»rreat general. 1’he liero stands on the opposite side of 
the Arsenal, and seems by his attitude, and the ilaring 
expression of his manly countenance, to Iml his country- 
men be of stout heart; for the Brandenburg banners had 
uniler him triumphed, as in the days of F rederick ; and 
the Prussian eagle, which had dr(M)jH*d for a moment in 
the field of Aiierstadt and in the defile of Kbsen, had 
soared higher than ever after the glories of J/iitzen and 
\V^‘lterloo. ^rhis fine statue of tlie Prussian hero is of 
bronze, and the prcxluction of llaueh, probably the most 
tlistingiiished (lerman statuary now living. I'he veteran 
general is represented in the act of pressing his left foot 
on a dismounted cannon, and grasjnng a sabre in his right 
hand. This statue was erected on the annivm-sary of th(‘ 
bailie of Waterl(K), 1826, amidst the entliusiastic ap- 
plause of the whole jiopulation of Berlin. Its design is 
ehast(? and generally correct ; hut the attitudes given to it 
Jias hel rayed the artist into the error of raising his figure 
nut of the line of gravity; so that viewed in tront, one is 
struck with the appartmt impossibility of any man main- 
taining himself securely in such a posture for more than 
a minute. By the skilful disposal of a military cloak 
thrown over the shoidder, Rauch has been able to over- 
come garments the most inimical both to painting a.nd 
sculpture, hussar jackets, Prussian pantjiloons, and Hessian 
boots. With ecplal gratitude towards two other Prussian 
champions in the late contest, the Government has erected 
statutes of Biilow and Shamhorst in marble on the parade 
ground, executed by the same artist. 

I returned home much gratified by what I had seen, 
following the outside carriage-road, formal by the last 



HOTELS AT BEKLm. 


272 

row of trees of the Linden promenade, and the houses, 
many of which, as 1 had now an opportunity of seeing, 
have an imiK)sing exterior, and are the abodes of the great, 
the military, and the diplomatic^ with here and there a 
splendid Magasin de Limes or de Modes, an extensive 
hotel, or a restaurant, much frequented by young men of 
fashion and by strangers. 

Some of the finest hotels in Europe are to be found in 
Berlin ; all exceedingly well i-egulated, and in respect to 
charges, the introduction of servants, and admission of 
strangers, under the immediate surveillance of the police. 
The mention of such a system may sound harsh to the ear 
of an Englishman, free born, and at liberty to be fleeced as 
he (deases by both landlords and waiters at home, without 
the interference of Sir Richard : but to those who, without 
guide or counsel, without friend to instruct them or pre- 
vious experience of their own, find themselves, on their 
arrival in a ca])ital, placed at once in the midst of an im- 
mense establishment, where language, wages, servants, and 
the vidue of things are all injually unknown— the know- 
ledge that they are under the direct protection of a power 
that watches to j^revent fraud, imposition, and the chance 
of a swindling valet de place from unduly diminishing their 
resources, and to which appeal may be had for immediate 
redress in unforeseen conjunctures, is comforting in the 
extreme. For all these boons, the stranger has only to 
submit to have his name, quality, place of birth, &c. 
entered in a register kept ad hoc by the landlord of the 
hotel, who procures for him, without any further ceremony, 
the necessary authority to reside in the town for an in- 
definite period of time. Living in an hotel at Berlin, is 
au prix Jixe for every thing, from Uie apartments down to 
the wages of your servant. An uipncumbered travdlfir 
may get an excellent room, breakfast and dinner, keep a 
vaki de place, and a hired carriage, for seven rixthalers 
a day. 



THB OPKRA-HOUBB. 


273 

The inns at Berlin are divided into classes. Among 
those of the first class, some are positive palaces, both in 
external appearance and internal arrangements. The Ville 
de Paris, L’Hdtel de Russie, or widow Obermann''s, as it 
is called, from the name of the landlady, are situated in 
the most desirable parts of the town, and for internal de- 
coration, comforts, and good livings much resemble some 
of the first hotels in Paris. There are some, however, 
of the first class, which are not remarkable for cleanliness 
or comfort. This 1 had (Xx;asion to notice on my visiting 
a friend at the Hotel de Rome, the most straggling esta- 
blishment imaginable. 

In the evening we prepared for the Opera. The house 
is situated at the eastern extremity of the Linden-walk, 
nearly opposite to the University. It is a handsome build- 
ing, two hundred and seventy feet long, and one hundred 
and ten feet wide, perfectly insulated, with a portico of 
fluted Corinthian columns, 8upjx>rting a handsome pedi- 
ment, on the acroteria and keystones of which are allego- 
rical statues. The portico rises on the top of an advancing 
rusticated basement, in front of which is the lower entrance 
into the theatre; while on each side of it, a flight of steps 
leads to the principal entrance placed under the portico. 
I’lie face of each side of the building is divided by hand- 
some windows, arranged in such a manner as to give it the 
appearance of a handsome private palace, rather than of a 
public building. The form of the interior is that of a 
perfect horse-shoe. The pit is divided into a double range 

fifteen rows of seats, regularly numbered, which are oc- 
t-upied according to the number on the ticket purchased 
at the door. Around the jnt .runs a range of boxes, and 
above theto there are two principal tiers, and a third row 
of lioxes, which is divided into two parts, that nearest the 
•stage being called the amphitheatre. The lower boxes are 
supported by very handarae caryatides of white scagliola, 
•and the upper kxes by eomoles. The ornaments ai’e of 

VOL. I, T 



THE opera-house: 


274. 

a superior description, and in excellent taste. The houst* 
is lighted much in the style of an English theatre. Two 
very rich Corinthian columns at each end of the stage en- 
noble the proscenium, between which there are three hand- 
some private boxes. One of these is generally occupied by 
the King, who prefers it to the Royal or centre box. The 
latter is of an oval form, with a cupula supported by eight 
fluted Corinthian columns, the capitals of which are richly 
gilt. The dccx)rations of this box are magnificent. Not 
only the Royal Family, but a great number of the King’s 
Ministers, the principal general officers resident in Berlin, 
and having commands, and the great officers of the Cemrt, 
have the entrk to this lx)x. The range of boxes are per- 
fectly open, as in the national theatres in Ijondon— -their 
great dey)th, however, is a serious objection, as it prevents 
those seated at the back, w'hcn the house is crowded, 
from seeing the stage, and hearing the performers distinctly. 
I have been informed that this theatre will admit com- 
fortably more than four thousand spectators. 

On our arrival at Berlin, we had found the whole city 
in an uproar, and people running in all directions to pro- 
cure a ticket, an admission, or a corner in a box for the 
Opera, for the purpose of hearing Mademoiselle Sontag. 
Entreaties, bribes, extravagant prices for a place, were all 
in turn resorted to, as the only moans of gratifying a wish 
which seemed to animate at one and the same time the 
whole town. I soon discovered that the inhabitants were 
positively wild about this much-talked-of Mademoiselle, and 
I insensibly caught the general enthusiasm. What Was mere 
curiosity on my part, to hear this celebrated songstress, of 
whom so many and singdarly romantic reports had been 
circulated in England, was soon changed into Atf irtfesistible 
desire to be present at her performance in the'eVertir^. I® 
this, however, I should have been disappoint^,' but for- 
the kindness of the English Minister, who ver^r fortu- 
nately sent me in the afternoon a ticket for his W, jud* 



THR OPERA-HOUSE. 


275 

lus 1 had been told by our landlord and mlel de place, that 
it was impossible to procure an admission for tliat even- 
ing, for love or money. At a very early hour, the house 
was full. The King, two Princesses, one or two Princes 
Royal, the Duke of Cumberland, with a long string of 
courtiers and officers, glittering with stars and crosses, 
attended the representation. With the exception of his 
Majesty, who sat in the side-box, near the stage, they all 
occupied the magnificent box in tlic centre of the house, 
already described, brilliantly illuminated, hung with rich 
drapery, and ornamented with mirrors and gilding. The 
boxes contained the most select society. Among the ladies 

there was a fair sprinkling of beauty ; but Lady B , 

wlio graced the box in which 1 had the honour of sitting, 
and wlio had just returned from a trip to Moscow during 
the summer holidays, was easily distinguished amongst the 
fairest Berlinoises ; and, from the first of her entering the 
house, attracte<l universal attention. The Duke of Cum* 
berland, on perceiving her from the Royal box, came 
round to pay her a visit, before the opera began, after an 
interval of intense anxiety. 

At length the orchestra, consisting of nearly double the 
nuinlxjr of ]K*rformers composing the orchestra of the 
King's Theatre in London, began the magnificent over- 
ture to Winter’s new opera, entitled “ The Interrupted 
Sacrifice,” (Das Unterbroche Opferfest), which was divinely 
executed. No one can form an idea of the difference be- 
tween the performance of this, or any other piece of music, by 
a German orchestra, and the orchestra of any other nation, 
who has not heard lx)th. One of the highest gratifications 
wliich a successful composer can enjoy, must be that of liav- 
ing his productions executed in such style, and in such an 
admirable manner. When the uproar which the overture 
excited had ceased, aU eyes and opera-glasses were at once 
directed towards the stage, and we watched with impa^ 
•tience for the appearance of the idol of the night. At 
t2 



276 MADKMOISBLLB SONTAO. 

last, Mirrha entered, and /every i^andl was. instantly in 
motion. The star-rthc wmet»r-the. attxaction^the Hen- 
riette Sontag, Kdiiiglieh Kan]mer8angeriMi, of whom poets, 
sonnet-writers, newspaper-compilers, prose-composers, and 
travellers, . have raved so much about, stood befbice ug. 
She is slender, rather pettVe mi mi^nome. Her counte- 
nance, like that of Canova's nymph, is full, of that sweet- 
ness, which belongs more to the beau ideal than to> mortal 
reality. 1 would say, that her foot is the prettiest thing 
1 ever saw, if her hands were not prettier still. She is 
faultless as to teeth, which the sweetest smile, for ever 
hovering round her mouth, sets oft* at every warble in all 
their glory. Her cheveiure^ between auburn and blonde, 
is magnificent; and to conclude with the most essential 
part, the quality of her voice is, beyond measure, pleas- 
ing, and she possesses great and remarkable facility. . Yet, 
with all these attributes, she is not a first-rate opera- 
singer-blacks judgment— is indiscriminate in the intipduiv 
don of ornaments — knows no method, and bebngs to no 
school. Of all these negative qualifications, the first only 
it will not be in her power to alter. Nature has refused 
to her the two principal requisites towards forming a first- 
rate opera performer— ^^xpression both of countenance and 
in the tone of her voice, and a commanding person* Ma- 
demoiselle Sontag can never attempt the grand style ; she 
cannot depict strong passions, and is as much the tevqrse 
of Pasta or Pisaroni, as any singer can well be. Sheris, in 
fact, a pretty thing, a pretty singer, a pretty and 
nothing more. Madame Catalaniwas quite .correiet when 
she said, /that Elle est la premiere dans, son gem^ier^niais 
son genre nW pas le premier*"^ . /is imposiiblja not to 
agree with this description. My own: disappmnliinent at 
her performance,' however, was i»t very consideiih^ after 
all ; for 1 could have listened to her warbUngs, such as. 
they were, ftar ever. My expeetadona, however, had been 



ItfADBMOlSBLLB 80NTAG. 277 

raised too high; I expected a eantntrice di prirno cartelloy 
and I found only ati agreeable songstress. 

Mademoiselle 'Bontag's voice is a soprano of a pleasing, 
clear, and sonorous She can reach the high E 

without screaitimg. The flexibility of her organ has se- 
duced her into tihat peculiar style of singing which made 
Madame Catalan! the wonder of musical Europe for a few 
years, but which disables the performer from -ever being a 
scientific singer; It is this quality of the voice, united to 
the personal gifts so profusely lavished by Nature on one 
of her favourite daughters, that brought Mademoiselle Son- 
tag forward as a miracle oi^the German stage, and made her 
at once, without any preliminary step, a precocious priwo 
dotOia, at the age of seventeen ! But the first station at the 
Opera cannot be held on such easy terms. There must be 
science, and we must have acting and correct declamation. 
We require a just and impassioned conception of the cha- 
racter to be represented, a classicvd acquaintance with the 
drapery oMhe 'Subject, to constitute a real prima donna. 
Now, none of the ornamental singers, whose astonishing 
facility for flourishes, roulades, and -chromatic notes, lifted 
them up prematurely to the seat of pre-eminence for a 
time, have ever possessed any of those important quali- 
fications. The necessary time for acquiring them has 
been {(jpent in receiving early applause to the one dazzling 
gift of Nature^-<a flexible voice, rendered more seductive 
by personal beauty. Such applause has spoiled all these 
Infant liynis, and, in their aduk years, they have found 
themseives desmed. Who could i»ve patiently listened to 
a Catalan!, any night within the last twelve years? On the 
other haiidf lonk at MAra, Banti, Grassini, Camporesi, Pasta, 
Pisaroniy toilii^^ through ^ the diffloultiea of the profession, 
moulding thdr taste to the best moddsjTora^ their early 
^ay thnmgh')kiflaea tn* ehil^ and at last com- 

|K*lling the capricious^ public to - bestow admiration and 



MADBMOISBLLB SONTAG; 


278 

applause, where they displayed but indiiFerence. They 
become absolute on the stage, and retain their post, with 
increasing credit, to the end of a long and brillitint ca> 
reer. 

The part of Mirrha is suited to Mademoiselle Sontag, 
except in the last two scenes, where she is required to re- 
present great feeling and acute distress of mind. In both 
these she fails. Her unalterable sweet face is the same 
under the influence of pleasing as of afflicting passions; 
and the extent of the expression of her large beautiful 
eyes consists in lowering them with the bashfulness of one 
of Carlo Dolce's Madonnas, o^ in raising them towards 
heaven with the tenderness of Cleopatra. These two 
movements are introduced into every character, and at 
every step of tlie representation, succeeding each other at 
times with unceasing rapidity. If ever Mademoiselle 
Sontag visits London, the frequenters of the King's The- 
atre will not be long in remarking this singular limitation 
of power in a lady, who, I doubt not, will Bivertheless 
be received with general approbation. 

On the following evening, the same enthusiasm and 
ardour prevailed at the representation of the “Barbiere’’ 
of Rossini. This master is now as popular in Germany 
as he is in Italy or France. The part of Rosina seems 
to have been written expressly for Mademoiselle Sontag. 
She is unequalled in that character, and l^ves even Fodor 
behind her. Her grace, and the charm of her voice, in 
* Una voce poco fa, heightened, no doubt, by her faultless 
person, drew down such thunders of applause as had never 
before been heard within the walls of the Berlin Theatre. 

For the twelve representations for which she Was en- 
gaged at Berlin, she received 600 IdUis d'ors, and the 
receipts of the last^night, free of all expenses. The admi- 
nistration of the national theatre made her an offer of 
4000 ducats (2000/. sterling) for a season, which she r^ 
jeeted; probably owing to a previous engagement with 



MADBMOISBLLE SONTAG. 2^9 

tlie Parisian manager. In the French capital, Mademoi- 
selle iSontag is also a very great favourite ; but the French 
admiration for her talent does not, like that of the Ger- 
man, border on extravagance. She has performed at the 
Theatre des Italiens, in some of the master-pieces of 
Kossini. In “ Tancredi,” unquestionably one of the must 
magnificent productions of that composer, she does not 
ap|jear to advantage. The part of Amenaide is too full of 
sentiment and elevation of character to be at all repre- 
sented with effect by an actress and a singer of the calibre 
of Mademoiselle Sontag. She seems aware of this, and 
consequently omits one or two pieces which require much 
and sweet expression. The Amenaide of Mademoiselle 
Sontag is a coquette, looking almost too innocent for such 
a character, but still a coquette, elegant, graceful, agile, 
smiling, bewitching— but not the Amenaide of Rossini. In 

Otcilo '' again she has attempted the character of 
niona^ and has. failed, even in the opinion of her fondest ad- 
mirers. Mcr mignonne figure will not yield to the impres- 
sions of tragic emotion ; her destiny is to shine and be un- 
rivalled in the Opera Buffa. If she appears on the Lon- 
don boards, and consults her own credit and fame, she will 
select for her debuts “ La Donna del Lago,'*' La Cenc- 
rentola,” or “ 11 Barbiere di Seviglia.” 

On my return from Russia to England, I had the good 
fortune of again hearing this popular singer in Paris. 
The performances were “ La Donna del Lago,'' and “ La 
Cenerentola.^ In the former opera, Mademoiselle Sontag 
had, by her side, a most powerful rival for public favour, 
in Signora Pisaionij that giant of strength, grandeur, and 
energy, both in singing and acting'^-^that unparalleled con~ 
traltoj some of whose notes thrill through the veins, and 
make the very heart quake against the course of nature. 
■ This circumstance seemed to give Mademoiselle Sontag 
more animation. From the moment in which she sung 
' a beautiful duet with Pisaroni, her voice, her taste, even 



280 


MADBMOlj^EJLLK 80NTAG. 


lier science, 1 was about.ta«dd, aeeined at once to improve. 
She atrove to give more.eti^gy to, her action,, and more ex- 
pression to (her pretty countenance ; but with little success. 
Mademoiselle Sontag must study, for some time^ the great 
Italian > models of her art, before she can hope to succeed 
in her- praiseworthy eObrts, or equal that great singer, 
in whose company she has so often performed. With- 
out exaggeration, 1 may . say, , that in no ^untry in the 
world have 1 been a witness to the degree of rapturous and 
enthusiastic expression of applause which followed the con- 
clusion of 'Madame Fisaronfs cavatina, “ Oh, quante la- 
grime!'^ The ardent passbn, the affecting melancholy, 
^e anguish of mind, pourtrayed by that extraordinary 
performer in the course of this cavatina, with a display of 
mastery of her art seldom equalled, and never surpassed 
by any other singer — positively turned the head of most of 
the melomanes va. the crowd, who, with screams and vocife- 
rations, clapping of hands, and beating of sticks, bravoing 
and vivaing^ and waving of handkerchiefs, and throwing of 
flowers on the stage, testifled, for some minutes, their con- 
viction of the superiority of science, taste, action, and 
voice, unassisted by a single spark of feminine beauty, 
over mere beauty and facility of execution. These are 
the models that Mademoiselle Son tag will see the necessity 
of studying. 

The Geneientola^ is, in the opinion of many, one of 
Eossioi's best producUons in the comic style. Most of the 
principsd songs and pezzi concertaii it, had. beei^ sent 
forth , to tile public by their eccentric comixiser, in other 
(qpiera8,»with a view to try the taste and judgment of the 
connoisswri respecting them. They were ingraftied on the 

Pietra diPiusagone,'' performed at Milan in 1812; in the 

Turco in :ltjiha,”>’!vrhich appeared also at Milan in- 1814; 
lastly, in OteHo," ; whirii was first played at Naples in 
1816 ; and,,beiiig afterwards collected together, th^^ were 
introduced as the forte of the ‘‘ Cenerentola,'' the first re- 



MADBMOISELLB SONTAG. 


281 


presentation <rf whibh tcKik place at the ‘^ Teatro Valle, ’’‘at 
Rome, in 1817* ' Mad^biseUe«Bonta^ has taken' a great 
many liberties wHli ' her part in this operai, and haa made 
transpo^tions of keys, i^ich are not always compatible 
with what is to follow. She is very fond of: singing in G. 
This, indeed, appears to be the key fo which she can 
mostly display tho extent and power of her voice. One of 
her most Sticdessfol^ transpositions is that in her cavatina 
in the finale, which, from E, she raises a tone and a half 
to G. This cavatina may be assumed as a favourable 
specimen of the utmost which this sWeet songstress can do. 
She descends to the G below the lines, sliding over, in the 
prettiest manner possible, achromatic scale of great extent, 
with a grace and neatness that are absolutely irresistible. 
Her appoggiaturas are expressive ; her sostenutos firm, 
clear, and sonorous ; the silvery tone of her vciice is de- 
livered with a well-managed breath; she is daring; and 
launches, at all hazards, into a sea of flourishes, of the 
result of which she appears not to be certain, but which is 
generally successful, and concludes by darting towards the 
audience those glances, which have^called down, in Berlin, 
and which will call down in London, if she comes hither, 
^thunders of applause. 

In her dress, Mademoiselle 8ontag requires also much 
wholesome advice. She seems more intent on finding a 
toilette that best suits her person, which wants no embel- 
lishment, than in discovering the most appropriate drapery 
for her theatrical character. She is too fond of trinkets 
and ornaments; and whether ahe appears as the represen- 
tative of a heroine or a suivante^ the presence Of brooches, 
necklaces, rich wstistbands, rings^ and ringlets ih profusion, 
proclaim her oi!ly,Bs a lady fond of showy ^dress®, and 
following the fancy of the day; In La BoOna del La^,” 
for instance, 1 have seen her in a rich plaid dress, covered 
with dazzling ornaments, her head surmounted by the 
tnost preposterous structure of bows d lu girajfe of the 



m 


GURMAN DRAMA. 


same mingled with others formed by hbt own hair. 
In this humble attire the simple boat^girl of the Loch leaps 
upon the stage to sing her Cayatina;* 

As 1 am on the subject of Theatres, 1 may as well dis- 
pose of what I have to say regarding the new Schauspiel 
Haus^ or National Theatre. I visited it the next evening, 
and actually stood out the best part of the representation 
of King Lear in German. The actor wlio played the 
part of the distracted father, and whose name is Gossmann, 
gave me but a feeble notion of the state of tragic acting 
in this capital. 1 have, in common with many thousands, 
heard a great deal of ranting on the London stage, and 
that not unfrei][uently. I have h^rd it still more violent 
on the classic boards of the Comidie Fratifaise: but in the 
whole course of ray life, 1 have never been stunned by 
such boisterous vociferation as my tympanum was ex- 
posed to on this occasion. I really expected at one time 
to see the audience take their departure from incapacity to 
resist much longer the appalling effect of such thunders 
on their brain, and 1 dreaded, when Uerr Gossmann cried 
oiit with a violence which increased at each syllabic, “ 0 
Lear ! Lear ! Lear ! beat at this gate,'' that his head, and 
the organ of his voice would crack at one and the same^ 
time, and put an end to the tragedy. It is but justice to 
say that this actor is what the Germans call a Gast RoUe, 

* This account of Mademoiselle Sontag found its way into a periodic^ 
publication a fortnight before tlie first appearance of that l^y ou the 
English boards. It was from thence copied in several 'daily ]^rs, 
and variously commented upon by some of them, or objected to by 
others. Hftr debut, however, has shown the correctness of the descrip- 
tion, thereia ghen of her person and voice,^^ as well as of the strictoies 
on her singing. Site very judiciously selected one pf iba ppeiss which 
seem better calculated for her talents. The . author has had leisure, 
since his return, to hear Mademoiselle Sontag; but on perusing tl»e 
daily accounts given of her performance, he is glad to hhd %i not 
only his opinion, but his very language, lespectnig her, have h^ii 
adopted in their articles 1 



FRKDERIGK WILLIAM. 


m 


namely, a stranger, and not regularly belonging to Uis 
Majesty's servants, Gkmeril was as vulgar as her father 
was stentorian; and of Cordelia little more can be said, 
than that her beauty made amends for her indiflerent 
acting. But 1 must have been unlucky in the choice of 
my night, for to judge by tihe number of spectators, there 
must have been some sad yet timely misgivings about this 
said Herr Gossmann. The audience consisted of twenty 
people altogether! and this in a house calculated to 
receive two thousand spectators. His Majesty, who is 
reported to be partial to theatrical representations, was 
present on the occasion.r in a private box. He is indeed 
seldom absent from either the opera or the play, both of 
which he seems greatly to enjoy. The King of Prussia 
is accustomed to appear among his subjects with very 
little of that reserve and form which are deemed, in some 
other countries, indispensable to the dignity of the So- 
vereign. It is the common opinion in Berlin, that this 
practice only tends to make their King, if possible, more 
beloved. It is true that no demonstration of loyalty, 
beyond that of respectful behaviour, follows the almost 
daily appearance of hhrederick William in public. But 
,when on extraordinary occasions the Sovereign shows him- 
self to his subjects in state, the ^tfaufdasm with which he 
is received by all classes of people is sufficient to prove, 
that if the person of the King he familiar to them, their 
respect for Majesty is not diminished on that account. 

This national Theatre (which has only been in ex- 
istence since 1824, and rose out of the ai^es of another 
built by Langhans,) is a most singular building, and as an 
example of genuine German taste in architecture, one of 
very doubtful ehatticter. Ilhas not, fkirhaps, occurred to 
one other architect in the world, besides Professor Shinkel, 
to place two pedinients, one above the other, in the same 
building. By this extraordinary arrangement, the effect 
of a beautiful Ionic hexastyle portico, thirty-eight feet 



TUB NEW TfiBATRB AT BERLIN. 


284 

high, is destroyed, which would otheiwise have been mag- 
nificeht. This portieb is' 4tected%* lidviuioe of the main 
body of the building, on a rustic basement, in front of 
which is a very bold but too steq) 8ight of steps, 'confined 
by lateral Walls of the same hdght with the stylobate. 
Under the portico a teaifiage-way has been formed, by 
which contrivance the company is set down at the'entracce 
to the boxes in wet weather, without bring ^poaed to the 
rain. A colossal group is placed 6n each lateral wall of 
the stairs. The inscriprion on the friexe is commemora- 
tive of the present King's liberal patronage of the arts in 
restoring this edifice. Single statues are erected on the 
acroteria of the lower, and vases on those of the upper 
pediment. On the summit of the latter, high in the air 
Apollo, placed in a triumphal car drawn by two pegasean 
coursers, seems in the act of taking his flight from this 
abode of Thalia and Melpomene. 




THE NEW THEATRE AT BERLIN. 285 

to be Struck, iu looking at the , woodcut, with the sin- 
gularity oi the attic, which reminds one for- 

cibly-of a large manufactory. In the interior ar- 
rangcinent of the buMng, the . architect has been ihore 
fortunate. The form of the house is that of a converging 
ellipsis, ; The pit, divided into a double . series of ten 
ranges of seats, to the amount, oi 264, rises from the or- 
chestra^ up to the lower part , of the roy^l box, placed in 
die centre of the house. Qn each side of. this box extend 
ten handsome private boxes, constituting what is called 
the royal tier, in front of which is the first balcony, stoetch- 
iug as far aa the proscenium on either side. Above the 
royal tier, is the first range of private boxes, with a second 
balcony before it;. and higher still, a second tier, with 
lateral amphitheatres, The decorations of the house are 
chaste and simple. The. stage is contracted ; deep, but 
not roomy. Over the centre of the stage is a transparent 
clock, and the house is lighted by a>very large and hand- 
some chandcliei;, bearing a multitude of argand lamps, the 
glare of which is increased by reflectors placed above them. 
One great« improvement introduced in this builefing by the 
architect, for the advantage of did spectators; is the having 
doubled dm cen’ridors, which. TUB round, behind each 
'tier of boxea, % diii all draughts and the 

possibihly^^lm^ifAternal mt than ia.d^«d)lejbeing ad- 
mitted, ^ pievented. The vestibules, which 

lead to'.1|i|^rs conducting to vidio boxes and balconies, 

front, under the ji^dep, the pub^ 
admitt^, cK^ons, into 

large dimensions. The orchestra is placed at its upper 
extremity,, , on ascending steps, with a handspmP 
trade in frimti, .fmd acconunodations at each end ^Qrjdm 
^^horus singers. The audience is arranged in the centre. 



286 OBIIMAN^ LANQUAGB. 

as well as round the room : on one side of it arc the roval 
boxes. The room ia lighted^ like.|he theatre, by a sb^lc 
chandelier, suspended from the ceiling, and by side-lights 
projecting from the wall. The chasteness anddraplicity of 
the opaments of this concert-room aihs in charimteF with the 
beauty ofuts p^portion^V Ocmeerts, declamations, and 
improvisations are given' frequently in this ibom^ during 
the winter seasonal whiclh are much' frequented, and in 
which most of the iirst-rate performers take an active part. 
I was obliged to be satisfi^ with Viewing the /oea/, with- 
out having an opportunity of enjoying the entertainments. 

As 1 shall not, probably, have pocasion again to revert 
to the subject of German operas and plays, sufKcient speci- 
mens of which I have seen in the course of my journey at 
Aix-la-Ghapellc, Coblentz, Frankfort, Weimar, Berlin, St. 
Petersburgh, and Dresden, 1 will say word or two on 
their merits in this places 

1 have already observed, that the German language ap- 
peared to me ill suited for the musical expre^ion of the 
softer passions; and of this truth, the performances . of 
Mademoiselle Sontog, in German, have only served to con- 
vince me. If any actress could have made^German operas 
palatable, it was most assuredly this fairest of all the Ger-^ 
man songstresses; but her exertions have had a contrary 
effect on my ears, accustomed to the harmonibhs sounds of 
Italian words in music.- That which gives; energy to 
Italian music, is the facility with which it lends ritself to 
the adaptation of impassioned notes, on sonor^nmone* 
syllables or on strongly accented words, either siibstantiVe 
nouns, CHT the futures of verbfe' Who that has^ seen Fasts 
represent die heart-struggles of Medeai can ever ::lforget 
the single lo T which thrills the olidience^: and actu^y 
makes the theatre vibrate? On that very monoi^llrible has 
the great Master placed Cue of his rncait powcilid 
tion of netes^ and there stamped the v^oUi^uf « ehdte 
scene ! Fancy now a German Medea exclrifmn|f^^; I** 



GERMAN GOMPOSKRS. 


2«7 

in all the 8e[)ulchral drawl of guttural pronunciation— 
what becomes of the expression of music wasted upon it ? 
Again, substitute to the accented words co/a, 

sard, cosi, noted with the exquisite art of Cimarosa, or the 
vivacious gaiet 3 r ef Bossini^the corresponds^ Gennan 
expressions, Tugend, Giaube, tfbMny lch werde seyn, and 
judge of the ^ect. It may be laid down as an indispu- 
table truth, that languages aboundiBg in gutturals are not 
susceptible of melody; One or two such languages, besides 
the German, may be moulded into something pleasing, 
affecting, amorous, merry^ or martial, in the shape of a 
glee or a ballad, a seguidijla, a jovial song, or a loyal anthem ; 
but neither they nor their guttural kindred will ever pro- 
duce theraagic effects of Citalianafavella, on the heart and 
imagination, even though Mozart, Winter, or We1)er, 
should have lavished their best inspirations on them. It is 
a curious fact, that all the music recognised as barbaric, 
such as the Turkish, Arabic, the Moorish, the Persian, the 
Hindoo, belongs to strongly guttural languages. 

It is the charm, the force, the irresistible conception of 
the instrumental parts, so peculiarly the gift of German 
musicians, that have given a name to, and upheld the exis- 
tence of Gennan Operas. Hence it is that before Mozart 
introduced, and eac^ of his followers adopted, the practice 
of frequently-^ giving the singer's part to the orchestra, and 
of drowning with the rich, full, and playful rioting of 
the instnimentai accompaniments, the monotonous and 
necessary Jnsi^^ notes of the singer, few, if any 
of us, ever hdskl of the merit of a G^an opera. Then, 
as mudi as now, Vras the triumjdi of the Italian language 
con8]Mcuoua ? when, left to its own intrinsic mekdy 
evolved fay>the mple yet tender notes of Cimarosa and 
-Paesiello^ with a munniving arpegg;io as its only orchestra 
accbtnpaniniMbt^it exhibited, in all its force, its^great capa- 
bility, its exehiaive power in music over every other idito 



28B 


UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN. 


As to German plays, the case is very difterent. Judg, 
ing from what 1 have had occasion to see, 1 hesitate not 
in placing the German next to the English tragedians, 
always excepting my friend Hmr Gossmann” In the 
walks of genteel comedy^ the Germans mfty also claim a 
consideral^ degree of merk. But broad farce seems to be 
their forte; and their idioms, customs, and 

absence of all 80|diisticat]on, seem calculated to facilitate 
the acquisition of that species of talent. 

But to bid adieu for the present to architecture and 
singing, let me proceed to some more important oocupa- 
tion. I went the next morning to Professor Lichtenstein, 
the Rector Magnificus of the University., I had been 
paying my respects to that gentleman the day before, and 
on the present occasion I called at his apartments in the 
Palace of the University, for the purpose of exaimining 
that establishment under his sanction. A physician, or 
a scientific man,’ has one great advantage over any other 
individual travelling through the different cafdtals and 
principal towns of Europe, particularly if he has given 
to the public the result of liis own speculation or experience 
on subjects of general or scientific interest. This advan- 
tage consists in being eertain of a gratifying reception from 
his fellow-labourers in whatever part of die Ckmtiiient they 
may be resident, and may visit them. The recollection 
of name (ff such strangers, associated 'with ttny known 
work they may have written, ensures to them evisry Ikdli^ 
for examining public and private institutions^ ^eodiig 
information, assisting at the meeting of learned 
bodies; and, by an insensible transition, it’dso procures 
them an introduction into society, kind treatment, and 
leads to the formation of valualde frienddapij^^which fre^ 
qucntly remain through life. In all such <^^00868, the In- 
dividuals in question need no lettm of ilitrodi^^ 
neither will they Save to complain, tut travellers a nio*e 
general character do, that they are compeHed^^^ 



UNIVERSITY OF BFRLIN. 


moment, to dip their hands into their pockets for admis- 
sion to see public buildings, and public establishments. 
Such are the advantages which name or authorship pro- 
duces. abroad; advantages which convert you at once, 
in whatever phme of ' importance you may happen to be 
residing, from a mere stranger into , a member of the great 
and numerous family of those who cultivate science in all 
its branches. There is a freemasonry among scientific 
men, which, I would venture to say, is more advantageous 
to the members than the real freemasonry of the craft. 

In the short, space of the first thirty hours passed in 
Berlin, 1 had visited, and been visited in return, by men 
whose names and productions had inspired me with a strong 
desire to form (heir personal acquaintance. Each proffered 
his assistance in forwarding my views of examining col- 
lections, buildings, and hospitals, with an earnestness that 
left no doubt of his sincerity. Of several of these offers 
I availed myself immediately. By means of notes or 
personal introductions, 1 obtained free access every where. 
Tlie gentlemen belonging to the several establishments 
afforded me every information; and, not unfrequently, 
would })oint out to my notice objects of great interest, 
which might otherwi^ have escaped my attention, and 
file consideration of which served to prolong an interview 
of so much import^qe to me. ScHne* particularly Pro. 
fessor Wagner, to whom I had had an opportunity of 
showing BCHne dviHty in London, would devote two or 
three hoiursjpgethqr,. although engaged in considerable . 
practice, to ,c(^vey nae. from one di&timt .institution to 
another, in oirder to procure me the gratification of ex- 
amining them under their own guidance. Invitations — 
ticketjs of adnd^on-^written information of every des- 
t^ription— -doeuraents illustrative of the state of science, 
:poured in from all quavers.; and at ti^e expiration of 
the second day. after our amval in Berlin^ 1 found myself 
as fully msUdled in that claw of society in which it must 

'OL. I. u 



290 UNIVERSITY OP BERLIN. 

be the ambition of a physician to move, as if I had been 
long resident in that capital. 

The University of Berlin stands high in public estima- 
tion on the Continent ; and, as a medical school, it is pro- 
bably the first in Germany, although some may consider 
Gottingen as disputing with it the palm of pre-eminence. 
The number of students who frequented this celebrated 
school during the scholastic year of 1826, amounted to 
1642. Of these, 466 studied theology, 602 the law, 346 
medicine, and the rest philosophy and literature. Among 
this number, 379 are strangers to Prussia; and of these, 
some were natives of England and America. In the 
course of the present scholastic year (1827^ the number 
has considerably increased. 



The University of Berlin. 


The faculties composing the University,^ four, in 
number, namely, theology, jurisprudence^ medidne, and 
philosophy, 'rfe latter comprehendis Grecian and BomaD 
literature, antiquities, statistics, modem language^} mathe- 





UNIVERSITY OP BERLIN. 2«)1 

Italics, mechanical and natural philosophy, history, geo- 
graphy, chemistry, mineralogy, and every branch of na- 
tural history. 

Although the Berlin University has been in existence 
but a few years, having been founded by the King in 
1B09> it has been more fortunate perhaps than any other 
similar institution; in quickly collecting together such a ga- 
laxy of talents, to fill the chairs of professors, as at once to 
establish its reputation, aiid irresistibly attract students 
from every part of the country, as well as from abroa.d. 
It is not given to every infant enterprize of this descrip- 
tion to be so supported in its outset ; nor could such an 
event be anticipated, except in a great capital, where men 
and nieans are always to be met with at the disposal of 
those in power, and where these arc sufficiently upright 
and impartial to allow their own sagacity to guide their 
flioicc, and sufficiently sagacious to make that choice use^ 
ful, as well as creditable to the public. Berlin possessed 
:ill these advantages, and the result has proved most pros- 
perous and successful. In matters of science alone (for I 
iiave had no leisure to enter into the examination of the 
other branches of learning at this institution,) the names 
of Humboldt, Hiifeland, Rudolphy, Lichtenstein, Graefe, 
Siebold, Heyne, Rust, and Schultz, without mentioning 
many others of the highest respectability^ are sufficient at 
once to stamp the character bf the Institution, and give it 
relebrity. Whp that is at all acquainted with tlie mo- 
dern history of : scienceji v^uldt hesitate * in’ placing his chil- 
ilren under stMsi 3^ hand, 

with their labours and fame, when the University was 
projected. And the choice for the professorships natu- 
rally fell upon them. Nor was it the desire of gain that 
prompted such men^ to accept the task, since some, like 
Humboldt, for instance, lecture gratuitc^sly, and those 
who have salaries, are very moderately paid. It was 
*cal for their own individual branches of learning that 
u 2 



PROPESSOR RUDOLPHI. 


moved them ; the some zeal which stimulates them now to 
farther exertions. The largest salary given to a professor, 
I believe to be from twelve to fifteen hundred rixthalors, 
(I 70 guineas) ; but the majority have a much smaller sum. 
Those who have large collections to keep up, are allowed 
an additional sum, varying from two to three hundred 
dollars, for that purpose. Such is the case for instance 
with Rudolphi, the professor of anatomy, and Lichten. 
stein, the amiable projpessor of natural history. 

Charles A. Rudolphi is by birth a Swede. He was 
formerly professor of medicine in the University of Konigs- 
berg, from which he removed to that of Berlin, where he 
fills the chair of general and comparative Anatomy with 
considerable success. He has edited several periodical 
publications; but the two works which have raised him 
highest in the estimation of the profession, are his natural 
history of intestinal, worms, which appeared first in three 
volumes at Berlin in 180(1—1810, written in Latin ; and 
his Treatise on Physiology, in two volumes, written in 
German, and published in 1821 and 1823. This last 
prodtiction of the professor of anatomy at Berlin is re- 
markable for the very luminous manner in which the most 
difficult questions in physiology are explained and dis- 
cussed, and for the opinion expressed in it in favour of 
spontaneous generation. It was likely, indeed, that tlie 
classical historian of those singular animal productions, 
the intestinal worms, the origin of which is enveloped 
in 80 much obscurity, should have adopted ^an opinion 
so strongly suggested and corroborated by what he must 
have repeatedly observed in the course of his studies. 
RudolpM is the sworn enemy to quackery : if is not only 
against the doctrine of Gall that he has waged a scientific 
war; he has also raised his voice, at various epochs, against 
the mystic exaggerations of animal magnetism. • 

The collections belonging to the two last^mcntioned.pru* 
fessors, and more particularly that of natural history, 



ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS. 293 

superior, in extent, in the number of valuable and rare prepa- 
rations and specimens, and for the beautiful order in which 
they are kept and arranged, to any collection 1 have hail 
an opportunity of examining in other Universities. The 
Anatomical Museum contains the well-known collection of 
the late Professor Walther, in which are several fine 
specimens of injection of the lymphatics, aiul prepar 
rations of the nervous system, both dry and moist, ex- 
tremely valuable. One of the Prosectors of the Museum, 
Dr. Schlemm, had just completed the dissection of all the 
extracranial and facial arteries, which for minuteness of 
detail, neatness and distinctness of the origin, connection 
and intricate ramifications of even the smallest vessels, sur- 
])asses every thing of the kind produced by modem ana- 
tomists. This valuable preparation was in progress of 
being engraved, and will be published shortly. Another 
. curious if not interesting specimen, which was pointed out 
to my attention, and which 1 was allowed to take out of the 
spirits, and minutely examine with proper instruments, 
is an example of intro-abdominal hermaphroditism, which 
had lately occured in a foetus, and which leaves no doubt 
as to the existence of the capricious yet real combination, of 
tjie two sexual systems in the same individual. This com- 
bination, however, did not extend beyond the internal pe- 
riphery of the abdomen. The profession will soon have an 
opportunity of judging for themselves of the merits of this 
singular preparation. In this place 1 must forbear enter- 
ing into particulars^ nor can I be expected, in a book 
of this nahtre, to use strictly professional language in 
describing anatomical preparations^ 

The great facility which was afforded in my instance 
for the minute examination of the specimen in questiem, is 
not a solitary example of that spirit of Uberalitj^ which 
* presides over the studies in this seat of learning, and wluch 
ought to preside over every university in Europe, as well 
" as over every institution founded for public instruction. 



294 


ANATOMICAL PRKPARATIONS. 


With regard to the Anatomical and Zoological Mu. 
seums of Berlin, every matriculated student, or scientific 
stranger, is permitted in both those establishments, to re. 

, move preparations from the public into adjoining pri. 
vate rooms, kept open for the purpose, for a more particular 
study of the specimens ; and on this, as well as on all other 
occasions, they are allowed to make drawings, write descrip, 
tions, and publish an account of the various objects whicli 
they have selected for their own especial study. Hence 
comes it that the Prussian Journals of Medicine, Surgery, 
and Zoology, and the Theses publicly defended at the Ber- 
lin University, often contain so many valuable and interest- 
ing facts, taken from these great emporia of science, with 
the concurrence and frequently the co-operation of the 
Professors. 

The Anatomical Museum occupies two immense saloons 
and several smaller rooms. The preparations arc arranged . 
as usual round the room on shelves ; but in addition to 
this, another contrivance exists^ which is peculiar to this 
Institution, and only practicable where the rooms are of 
such colossal dimensions. This consists in the arrangement 
of a great number of tables, five feet high, placed in 
rows in the middle of the room, with spaces between 
them, which allow a free passage around each. On thest' 
tables, preparations, illustrative of particular branches of 
Medical Science, are disposed in double or triple Hues, the 
largest behind, the smallest in front, in such a manner that 
a student, having made his election iof his* iubjeeti is cer- 
tain of finding on the table whatever specimen may tend to 
its illustration. Beside! a number referring to a descriptive 
catalogue, each glass bottle bears a concise Latin deierip' 
tion of the preparation and the history oitoched to it. 
That SMch is the intention of these IfaAu/or subdivisions of 
the Anatomical Muieum, I feel convinced? but candour* 
requires me to state, that a d^ee of eonfusbn seemed to 
prevail in the disposition of the preparations when I- exsr* 



ZOOLOGICAL MOSBUM. 


mined the tables, and that a greater degree of neatness 
should be displayed to complete the useful intention of the 
Professor. 

But the glory of the University— the jewel that shines 
fairest in the crown of this great school— is the Z(X)lugical 
Museum, When it is considered that in the department 
of Ornithology alone it contains 7000 individual birds, of 
which 500 are distinct species, an idea will be formed of the 
value of this collection, which is, as it were, but the creation 
of the other day, and yet abounds so much in duplicates, 
that at this moment the director of the Museum, Professor 
Lichtenstein, can spore to any infant university, and at a 
very moderate price, a finer, and more useful, and better 
arranged zoological collection than can ever be hoped to be 
formed, by joint or individual exertions, in the course of 
several years. As the Council of the London University 
has reared a gigantic structure, with a room for a Museum 
of Natural History, which years of industry will scarcely 
furnish at the rate at which such matters proceed in this 
country, they may perhaps, when means are placed at tlieir 
disposal, think this hint worthy of consideration. The zoolo- 
gical department of the University occupies, altogether, 
fourteen large rooms, on the door of each of wliich is in- 
scribed the name of the particular branch of Zoology 
contained in it. The distribution of this Museum is ad- 
mirable. The specimens are prepared in a style that has 
induced the dire^rs of several of the German and foreign 
Gniversitiea to pnocure some of them as models. This pro- 
cess is peculiar to. the present professor, to whom is also 
due the imw imd ingenious mode, ift which are arranged 

'—and the> riianncor by which; the geographical distribution 
of the animals is marked 1^ particular colours on the stand 
of each specimen, The .rooms . .follow each other sutVe, 
hut not in a::line.; They>iaie haiodsorae, lofty, and well 
lighted. No meretridoiMa. ornamenti^ have been admitted 
into them, and the cases in^whicb the specimens axe placed. 



ZOOLOGICAL MUSEUM. 


arranged around, or placed in rows in the middle of the 
room, ore remarkable for the simplicity and great beauty 
of the large plate glasses, which admit the most perfect view 
of the object in every direction. The mammiferous animals 
occupy the two first rooms. In die two following are dis. 
played the great variety of birds already alluded to. The 
next room contains fragments and skeletons of mammife. 
rous animals and birds; with the numerous and differently 
constructed nests of the latter. The amphibious animals 
are plaanl in the sixth room, near to which is ahother for 
fishes. Then follows a very large rooni, around which are 
disposed the Zoophyte, and in the centre the Crustacea and 
Molluscse. The insects occupy one whole room, and this 
collection, though not so striking in appearance as that of 
the birds, is stated to be one of the most valuable in the 
Museum. Lastly, a room is set apart for the stuffed skins 
of all the Mammalia. The remaining rooms are used 
for the various purposes of preparing specimens, for dis- 
sections and injections, drawing, shading, &c. consti- 
tuting an establishment unequalled by the best zoolo- 
gical galleries in Europe. There can be no question as to 
the superiority of an arrangement of this description 
over those lengthened and interminable galleries, in which 
objects are displayed for vain national pomp more than for 
study, and in which the earnest observer is disturbed at 
every instant by people promenading, for the sake of diver- 
sion and curiosity. 

The collection of Zoology owes much to the> young emd 
zealous Prussian travellers, who have^ of kteiyearfi^ under- 
taken voyages and journeys to remote , paris of the glebe, 
in search of scientific infe^ation; and. likewise toi the 
industry of the commercial agents and other lendents froih 
Prussia,, established in foreign countries, i It is inccediUe 
how much may be effected by sudh means in ibilning a 
coUec^n of natural history and although in the icaseof 
the Berlin University, it has been found that a great num- 



ZOODOOIGAL MUSEUM. 


297 

l)er of duplicates have been brought together by such a 
method; that circumstance itself has proveil advantageous 
to the institution,’ since it has given the director an oppor- 
tunity of procuring, by way of exchange with other esta- 
blishments or individual collectors, objects which could 
not otherwise be procured, or were not to be obtained 
without considerable expense. The surplus, too, or du- 
plicates out of the patriotic and scientific gifts sent from 
abroad to the Museum, being disposed of, by sale, have 
produced additional pecuniary resources, which have in- 
variably been applied to the enlargement of the original 
collection. 

It is matter of just sur})rise to all who cultivate science in 
England, that some such system has not been adopted there 
with a view of forming a museum of natural history worthy 
of the character of the nation and of the rank it holds 
. among the most enlightened countries in Europe. No 
nation can boast of more travellers or more commercial 
agents, ministers, and residents settled abroad than Eng- 
land. None possesses such an extent of power and govern- 
ment-influence as England docs over countries far and 
wide apart,” and rich in every object dear to natural 
science. Scarcely two other nations can stand on parallel 
ground with this country for universality of trade and 
navigation. And yet what results have these gigantic 
means produced in favour of natural history, particularly 
Zoology ? None. We blush when we look at the dej^art- 
ment of Zoology in the British Museum, and recollect the 
zoological collections to be seen at all the principal towns 
on the Continent^ even in the modlst and quiet “ free city ” 
of Frankfort, where the Museum (rf Zoology, as has been 
observed; ig' to the zoological department of the British 
Museum, what the Elgin' frieze is to the has relief regi- 
ment of cavalry over the 'Hew colonnade at Hyde Park: 

yet the'-Fronkfort obllection is the result of mere in- 
'fbvidual effort^; while with us public money is yearly 



ZOOLOGY OP ENGLAND. 


voted for the support and improvement of the general 
establishment, and of course of its specific departments. 

But, from whatever cause, England has done little or 
nothing towards a real national collection of Zoology ; and 
the superiority she may boast of over other nations, in the 
number and spirit of enterprise of her travellers, has been of 
little or no avail to natural science. History, antiquity, and 
the fine arts, have derived immense benefit from that circum- 
stance, but science none. Does the fault lie in the education 
of her youth ? Greek, Latin, and the branches of manly 
knowledge which spring from it, are certainly excellent 
and indispensable things to acquire. Armed with these, 
the traveller is prepared to see with advantage, and collect 
information with profit; but science in the meanwhile 
makes no progress, and derives no benefit from their end- 
less peregrinations. Such travellers neither know nor care 
about science, and on their return home, its diferent . 
branches look in vain to them for an addition to tlieir 
store of valuable information apd new discoveries. With 
the exception of the voyages lately undertaken under the 
patronage of the Admiralty, what other voyage or journey 
by an English traveller has added one solitary specimen to 
public or private collections of Zoology? and yet many 
such travellers, in other respects highly gifted, have re- 
turned with interesting information, who might have l)een 
of the greatest service to science, had they devoted but a 
portion of their time and study to scientific pursuits. Now 
in the capital of Prussia, (not to mention Paris, Munich, 
and even St. Petersburgh and Moscow,) things- Sire diffet- 
ently managed. Travellers have gone abroad, and trave- 
lers have come home as in England ; but instead of {mb- 

lishing a book on antiquities and the proportions of temples 
—instead of giving dissertations on the manners^ prejoi^cefl, 
and peculiarities of nations, whidh have -been for the ' 
dredth time repeated ; those traveUers have brought home 
valuable collections at ol^ects of natural history^ * 



UNIVERSITY OP BERLIN. 


299 

riched their country with additional and lasting means of 
knowledge. Bergius, Chamisso, Dr. Eversmann, have 
added to the Berlin Museum, within the last few years, 
valuable syiecimens from the Cape, and from the northern- 
most countries in Europe. From the Brazils, upwards of 
2,000 birds and 7)^00 insects have been sent home by 
Freyress and Hello. Mund and Le Maire forwarded from 
the South hemisphere, in 1816, large collections of birds, 
fishes, and shells, among some of which there were many 
new conquests to science; and lastly from Egypt, Don- 
gola, Syria, and Arabia, Dr. Erhenbcrg, Professor Ex- 
traordinary in the University, to whose modesty, pro- 
found knowledge of natural history, and affability, 1 am 
happy in having the opportunity of bearing my humble 
testimony, as uniting in himself the double character of an 
excellent scholar and a scientific man, has presented to the 
University his rich harvest of objects of natural history, 
and is now publishing the first part of his Voyage, de 
deux Naturalistes datisle Nord de t Afrique etdans t Quest 
de rAsie^"^ 

The building which is now the Palais de ITJniversite, 
was formerly the residence of Prince Henry of Prussia. 
Its exterior is very striking. The centre building is de- 
corated with a handsome portico of six Corinthian columns, 
attached to the two stories of the. building above the base- 
ment story ; and the two wings, which arc considerably in 
advance of the main building, so as to form three sides of 
a square, are ornamented with pilasters of the same order. 
A handsome iron railing, with a gate in the centre, con- 
nects the two wings in front; and; a balustrade runs round 
the building at the top, rendered more imposing by statues 
placed on the Attics,- suolnounting the portico of the main 
building, aa-well^na the pilasters of the wings. In this 
■ building are the collections I have described, the anatomi- 
cal in the left; and the zoological in the right, wing, with 
• the residencesof the Professors and Sub-professors, charged 



300 


UNIVERSITY OP BERLIN. 


with their superintendence. The centre is occupied witli 
the theatre, lecture-rooms, and audience^hall, one of 
the handsomest rooms in Berlin, highly and richly gilt, 
and having valuable paintings on the ceiling. The fes- 
tivals of the University are held in this hall, but the 
examination takes place, and the degrees are granted, 
in another part of the building. Degrees are granted 
at any period of the scholastic year, whenever there are 
candidates, (or even a single candidate,) ready to receive 
them. As students will enter at different periods of 
the year, the facility thus afforded to them of quitting 
the school as soon as they are entitled to do so, without 
having to wait for the periodical return of terms or seasons, 
is an improvement on the more common practice observed 
at other Universities of only making doctors e» wzasse, or 
by the Almanac. 

Besides the ordinary professors, the number of which . 
is c6nsidei%.ble, there are several professors extraordinary, 
who either lecture on separate subjects, or perform tlie 
duties of the former, in case of "illness or absence. In 
addition to these a third class of teachers, without the 
title' of professors, arc authorised to lecture, their names 
being enrolled in the Curriculum^ as “ privatim docentes.’’ 

The University of Berlin, unlike that of Bonn, is strictly 
Lutheran ; ho provision being made, as in the former 
institution, for theological instruction on the principles of 
any other religious communion. This is so much the less 
necessary in Berlin, as the Roman Catholicsr and dissenters 
resident in that capital are veiy inconsiderable in number. 

The success of this University, in the very heart of a 
capital, not more remarkable than either Ptois or L'ondou 
for the absence of temptations to irregularities, is another 
> strong proof that such institutions '^ill flourish as ibubh (1 
am inclined to thiiik more) in large cities, as' in sinall|>ro- 
vincial tovms. 

To the University also belongs an observatory, a beta- .* 



OBSTETRICAL INSTITUTION. 301 

iiical garden, a collection of mineralogy, one of surgical 
instruments, and a clinical or practical school for study- 
ing the nature and treatment of both medical and surgicid 
diseases. This latter establishment, which is known under 
the name of Policlinic Institute, is open daily to the stu- 
dents, who are sufficiently advanced to profit by their 
attendance on the practical illustrations given daily by 
tlie senbr professor and Counsellor Hufeland, with Profes- 
sors Osann and Buss. The dinical lectures on surgery 
and on diseases of the eyes, given by Professor de Gracfe, 
are exceedingly popular. 

My character of accoucheur^ and the publication of a 
few works connected with midwifery, procured me a ready 
admission into the Institutum Obxtetricum, whicli is other- 
wise lield too sacred to allow, of the introduction of stran- 
gtTS. This establishment is dependent on the University, 
and has two professors attached to it, who reside in the 
house. I received the greatest attention from the only 
one present at the time, Dr. Siebold, junior, to whose 
father obstetrical science is much indebted. 1 could not 
but approve of every thing 1 saw connected with the esta- 
blishment. Cleanliness, great precision, and order, seemed 
to prevail throu|^out. But to the complication and size 
of some of the instruments, and, above all, to the contri- 
vance of a complicated though ingenious lit de travaily of 
which Siebold is proud, I cannot extend the humble meed 
of my approbation. The latter is perfectly unnecessary, 
not to say disadvantageous; and instead of multiplying 
the former, or augmenting their size, obstetrical practi- 
tioners would do . well to diminish their number, as well 
as their proportions. To follow a diffierent course, is one 
of the strong^! marks, of the decline of obstetrical science. 
I felt disappointed also at the manner in which die registers 
: of , the. result.of practice are kept. The model is simple, 
and kept with regularity ; but the heads of information, of 
which it cousistsi are, as usual , very limited^ and would 



302 


OBSTOTRICAL INSTITUTION. 


supply but meagre facts, when consulted tor statistical and 
physiological purposes. I had brought with me from 
England blank models of a tabular arrangements for class, 
ing fai;ts, connected with the physiology and practice of 
midwifery, in such a manner as to supply a vast number 
of curious as well as valuable deductions, which tabular 
classifications have been kept for the last ten years, at two 
lying-in institutions in London, under my direction, and 
the deductions from which wiU shortly be submitted to the 
Royal Society. These blank models, however, I was not 
able to fill up either at Berlin, or at any other place 1 
have visited in the course of my late journey, in con- 
seciuence of the registers kept at all the lying-in hospitals 
containing only the namefand age of the patient, with little 
else than the result of the case. For the sake of science, 
such deficiencies are to be lamented. 

There were about twelve females pregnant, or just con- 
fined, in the house. They occupied very neat and clean 
apartments, where the greatest order and silence seemed to 
prevail. A matron has the superintendence of the esta- 
blishment, under Professor Siebold and his son. With an 
adherence to the strictest decorum, and with proper limita- 
tion, this establishment is rendered instnnnental in afford- 
ing that practical instruction to male as well as female stu- 
dents, without which oral lectures are of little use: by 
the laws of the country, none can practise midwifery with- 
out having previously had both theoretical aiid practical 
instruction. 

I cannot say that 1 found the inscription in front of the 
Clinical , Institution in good taste. Why any inscription 
at all ? But the mania for Latin inscriptions is carried to a 
great excess in Berlin. The outside of the theatres, the 
arsenal, the churches, the King's PaliuM;, the University, 
the Hospital, all bear Latin inscriptions, in which theiMme 
of the sovereign is generaUy introduced. That ofH:he Ob- 
stetrical Establishment runs thus : “ Institutum Uni- 



HOSPITALS AT BERLIN. 


m 


vertdtatis Lutheranae Regium, Lucinae sacrum. Perenne 
in iEvum Monumentura, Glemeiitissimi, Sapientissimi, 
ac Justissimi conditoris Regis Fredcrici Gulielmi. A. 
M.DCCCXVII. 

But, d propos of hospitals, I must beg my roader'’s for- 
bearance while I visit the principal one in Berlin, in com- 
|)aay with Professior Wagner, and the only one 1 had 
leisure to examine. This is the hospital of La Charit^, 
situated at one of the farthest extremities of the town, 
which we reached, after a long drive through deep sands, 
by the Louisen Strasse, and Carl Strasse, and Charite 
Strasse, and 1 know not how many Strasses ; returning by 
a much pleasanter road, which passes close to the Royal 
Manufactory of Porcelain, an establishment well worth 
seeing, for the extreme beauty and finish of the painting 
on the china. 

La Charite is a large building, forming tliree sides of a 
s([uare. Its front faces an open ground, on which, how- 
ever, building is going on at present at a great rate. On 
tlie north-west there is a large garden, cut out in squares 
and parallel walks for the convalescents ; and the liack 
looks over the Spree, and enjoys a fine view of the Thier 
Garten and neighbouring country. The elevation is not 
fcuiarkable for architectural beauty, and there can be no 
doubt that the interior is susceptible of the improvements 
which the medical officers themselves are aware it requires. 
Some alterations,, and even considerable additions, are al- 
ready in progress. The establishment will then be more 
worthy of the capital As it is now constituted, it consists, 
first, of a number of Ivards for the admission of cases of 
medical and surgical diseases of every description, divided 
into two classes or wards. In the one, the poor are gra.. 
tuitously admitted ; in the other, patients are received who 
; can afford to pay a moderate weekly sum, as is the case in 
Mahtm de SarOi in Paris. Secondly, of a lying-in 
• institution. Thirdly, of a separate building for the treat- 



304 PRACTICE OK MEDICINE IN PRUSSIA. 

ment of cutaneous and otlver foul disorders. Fourthly, and 
lastly, of an hospital for the admission of insane persons. 
The whole establishment is supported by funded and land, 
ed property, besides the produce of certain nSwnicipal taxes 
authorised by Government. The Clinical Institute, and the 
military department of medical instruction, are connected 
with this hospital. There are physicians and siii^eons be^ 
longing to the establishment, as well as assistant physi. 
cians and surgeons. The latter are compelled to reside in 
the house, and are precluded from* private practice. Pm. 
fessor Rust is the principal surgeon ; he enjoys a very high 
reputation botli as a surgeon and an oculist. The resident 
surgeon is also the accoucheur, superintending the lying-in 
department, and is allowed to give lectures on midwifery 
to pupils, who »pay a fee of about two guineas. About 
four hundred of them attend annually these lectures. The 
wards of these ^hospitals are open, under wholesome and 
proper regulations, for the instruction of the students of 
the University, 

As it cannot be expected that 1 should enter into the 
pai’ticulors of medical practice, either public or private, in 
pages destined for general readers, I shall merely state, 
that from general observation^ personal communications, 
and the perusal of some of the most approved medical pub- 
lications of the day, 1 have ventured to conclude, first, that 
the knowledge of diseases in Prussia, as well as in many 
other parts of Germany which ! have visited, when not dis- 
figured by an occasional singularity bordering on eccenr 
tridty, is, in general, sound, because founded on an excel- 
lent academical and medical'cducation ; but that it is also 
too systematic, and partakes of that propensity to ideahsm, 
which is the delight of a German mind ;^and secondly; 
that the treatment of diseases is too experimentdand phar- 
macological^ to be steadily successful Not that the 
sian practitioner is rash, far from it ; but that asiribing» in 
his own conception, the fancied virtues of certain remedies. 



MKDICAL PRAC'i'lCK JN PRUSSl V. 305 

to the fancied peculiarities of the disease*, suggested by sys- 
tematic theories, he will not unfrequently make experiments 
on those grounds, predicating effects which, in reality, do 
not, or cannot take place. 

The most celebrated and successful practitioners, the 
Halfords and the Matons, the Coopers and the Brodies of 
Berlin, are Counsellors and Doctors Heime, Horn, and 
Graefe, all of whom have a most extensive practice, and 
begin their morning visits as early as eight o’clock. By 
popularity, however, I do not mean to assert that these 
professors are either more learned or eminent for scientific 
lore than some of their brethren, whose practice is more 
limited. Public favour, in Berlin, as well as in other 
capitals, is apt to settle itself par hasard, 

Keinuneration for medical attendance, is generally a 
s])ontaneous act on the part of the patient ; but at Berlin 
it is regulated .by 4aw. Many physicians are paid yearly ; 
a few receive a consideration at each visit. The remu- 
neration, however, in either case, is not considerable; 
notwitJistanding which, all the principal physicians and 
surgeons live in a superior style, keep an elegant equipage, 
and receive their friends very hospitably. A few of these 
are decorated with Prussian and foreign orders of kniglit- 
liood, and have the honorary title of King’s counsellors 
conferred on them* It is not the practice of medicine and 
surgery only, the price of whiph is fixed by the law, but the 
price of medicine and drugs also, and of all pharmaceutical 
preparation^ A list of such drugs and preparations, with 
the price which it is lawful for a chemist to charge, is pub- 
hslic'd from time to time by authority, under the name of 
Medizinal Tins is regulation. 

Some of our wealthy apothecaries, who sell their practice 
lor five or six thousand pounds on retiring from the pro- 
fession, would Be appalled rat the low rate at which a 
draught nr powder is , rated in that tarif. Another ex- 
^eellent regid^ionvrespects the delivery and of medi- 

VOL. I. X 



306 


PROFESSOR HOFELAND. 


cines, however trifliog in quantity^ or . innocent in their 
nature, which may not take place without a iwritten ottlcr, 
or p]:escFiption, from a physician or surgeon regularly 
authorised to practise. All ofBcmal preparationaare to be 
kept prepared, or extemporaneously up, where neceg. 
sary, agreeably to the formulie contained in the Phanoa^ 
copoeia Berolinensis Bprussica. ^ Of this book, a new edition, 
greatly improved, had just appeared in quarto, which 
sold for a rixthaler and a-half, half^bound. The edition 
consists of live thousand copies of fifty : sheets each, and 
costs the department of the interior, in which it is published 
under the direction of the University, about a thousand 
rixthalers. The whole edition is generally sold in the 
course of two years, by which time, the diepartmont in 
question finds itself a gainer to the amount of five or six 
thousand rixthalers, which are set apart, as 1 understand, 
for the promotion of science. 

It was not to be supposed that a foreign physician could 
remain some days in Berlin without paying his respects to 
the patriarch of medical literature in Germany, Professor 
Hufeland, whose name is as familiarly known to the 
profession in England as it is in Prussia, or any other part 
of civilized. Europe. 1 found it necessary to wait on him 
as early as eight o'clock in the.moming in order to see hint; 
as he is daily in the habit of leaving home before nine 
o'clock, to visit the King at that hour. Hiifdaiid is .s 
Saxon by birth, and about sixty^-five years of age. He is 
conseiller as well as physician to his Majesty, principal 
medical officer to the Hospital of La Charity, and pro- 
fessor at the University. In his younger ’days he had 
been professor at Jena and physician; to die Grandrlluke 
of Saxe-Weimar.' His countenaneeLisiihat nf a mim o^ 
sagacity rather than genius. The ample and^ uncovered 
forehead, bounded on each side by a few 
locks, would give great character to his face,' wMre^t the 
lustre of his eyes dimmed l^age, and his sight greatly. 



PR0PE880R HUFELAND. 


307 

impaired. In his person he has what the Germans call a 
philosophical toumure^ and his manners are simple. There 
is nothing reckercM either about his dress or the interior 
of his house ; and I thought I even perceived a want of 
method in the arrangement of the papers and books lying 
about the table in his Study. My conversation was neces- 
sarily short and rapidi*^ We spoke of the state of medicine 
in Germany apd England; of the public and scientific 
institutions in the two countries; of oiir mutual literary 
productions connected with medical science ; and of modem 
discoveries. Few living physicians have written so much 
as Professor Hiifeland. He has touched upon almost 
every subject ; and although it cannot be said of him, as 
was said of his illustrious countryman Hoffmann, that 
whatever branch of medical science he treated, there he 
shone preeminent, Hiifeland, nevertheless, amply deserves 
the praise of. originality in many of his writings. In- 
dependently of bis workSi this indefatigable writer has 
for many years published a journal of practical medicine 
and surgery, which is much esteemed by the profession ; 
and with the same zeal for the promotion of medical know- 
ledge, he gives an account of his practice at the hospital of 
La Charity at the expiration of every year. The works by 
Vhich he is best known in this country are his Treatise on 
Scrofulous Diseases, and on the Art of Prolonging Life. 
The page^ of both these volumes abound in original and 
valuable facts, and in luminous views of the most abstruse 
parts of the subjects under consideration. There is so 
much varied information throughout the works in ques- 
tion, that the reader is insensibly led on, abijmo usque ad 
mala, without- being wearied of his task. 1 asked Hufe- 
land what he thought of phrenology now ; for I recollected 
that he had at ohp time taken an active part in that branch 
cephi||(miantic knowledge. His reply did not convey 
iiis opinion on the subject very distinctly. “The ‘skull 
. doctrine,’’’ said he, “ as phrenology is now styled in Ger- 
X 2 



308 ' PROFESSOR HUFBLAND. 

many, is undergoing the fate of your Brunonian system 
of medicine. We, who were the first to adopt, and both 
strenuous and in earnest to defend the philoso'phy of 
Gall, while you remained sceptical on the siibject, and 
full of mirth at our expense, are now smiling in our turn 
at the seriousness and pertinacity with which you en- 
deavour to uphold the falling struolure. Precisely as we 
did with regard to the system of medicine of the Scottish 
professor, which we were maintaining to be excellent with 
all our might, while you, who had been the first to adopt 
it, were laughing at our bonhommicy and what you wen^ 
pleased to call * German stupidity,' for yielding credence to 
it, though not till after a period of incredulity. But if you 
wish to hear more on the subject of the skull doctrine, sa* 
Rudolphi about it.” Unfortunately, the professor of anor 
tomy was absent from Berlin ; a circumstance which I re- 
gretted much on this as well as on many other accounts. 
I had, however, been informed beforehand, that Rudolphi 
was one of the most powerful opponents to the doctrine of 
Gall, and that his testimony goes a great way in settling 
that much..debated question. 



CHAPTER IX. 

BERLIN CONTINUED. EASTERN PRUSSIA. 

Royal Egyptian Museum. — Passalacqua and Baraii Minutoli. — Baron 
Alexander Humboldt — His course of Physical Geography. Scientific 
Academies. — The Royal Library. — Collections of Paintings. — Arts 
atul Manufactures. — Sculpture. — CnARLorrENBUEO. — ^The late Queen 
of Prussia.-— Popular character of tiie King.— The Princess de 
I.eiguit2.— Ball at the house of the Echanson du Roi.— State and ton 
of Society.— Influx of Foreigners. — Military aspect of the Town.— 
Depiirture from Berlin.— Panoramic description of the Road towards 
tlie Russian Frontiers, through Custrin, Landsberg, Konitz, Marieuburg, 
Euuno, and KuMtGSBERG. — AntcdUuvian Rocks. — Teutonic Castle 
of Marienburg.— The Vistula. — Commerce and fertility.— Fbauek- 
BERc and Copernicus. — Appearance of Konigsberg. — Tlie harbour 

of Pill.iii. — The Town The Cathedral. — The l*hilosopher Kant. — 

The Observatory.— Tlie Strand. — T imit. — ^T he Niemcn. — Alexander 
* the First and Napoleon on the raft.— M emel. — E nglish sailors.— 
Exchange of money. — Last Prussian Station. — Prussian and Russian 
F routiers. — Douane. — Po l an c en . 

• 

In that quarter. of Berlin which bears the name of 
Spandau, is an irregular and rather modem building 
called Monbijou, surrounded by a garden which ex- 
tends to the bank of the Spree. The entrance into the 
grounds id through a^ lar^ gate, facing a square of the same 
name, and flanked by two handsome lodges. This build- 
ing, which had once b^ a Royal residence, and since 
much neglected, has recently acquired a high degree of 
interest, in consequence of the extensive collection of 
^^Syptian remains brought to Europe by Signor Passalax^ 



310 


BERLIN. 


qua, having been placed in it. To this has been added 
the smaller collection formed by Baron Miniitoli, which, 
although considerably inferior in value to the fohner, serves 
nevertheless to complete the largest and most important 
Museum of the kind iiow existing hi Europe^ Havin|T 
learned that this Museum was not yet open to the public, 
and that Signor Passalacqua had omy just completed the 
arrangement of its numerous objects pmiously to its being 
visited by his Majesty and the Royal Family, I waited 
on that gentleman, and requested permission to accompany 
him to see his interesting collection before I -quitted Berlin. 
With the utmost good-nature and teadiness, he fixed an 
early hour in the afternoon of the same day; fUlditmay 
readily be imagined that I failed not to keep my appoint- 
ment. 

The return of peace having afforded to travellers of all 
nations innumerable opportunities of visiting Egypt, the 
result of their enquiries and discoveries has been nlost bene- 
ficial to science, literature, and the fine arts. Collections 
of every object that can serve to illustrate the history of 
the celebrated people which formerly inhabited that coun- 
try, have been made and sent to Europe at different epochs. 
These have dther become national property, or have con; 
tinned in the possession of private individuals. In the 
former case, the collections have been devoted to public 
use ail instruction; and hence has arisen that strong 
interest which is at present felt in almost every* part of 
Europe respecting Egyptian antiquities. Turiii, 'Paris, 
Vienna, Florence, Rome, Naples, and LoiidoDy bow |)08- 
sess ^llections of such antiquities of various d^;re» of 
extent and importance, most of which are of a ve^ ifecent 
date. By the fortunate acquisition of Pliissffla^UaV col- 
lection, Berlin may now bOast of the Saiiie advahiilge,Naiid 
may fairly claim palni of superiority with resjKMit to 
that class of ancient remains which ^rve to make Us ac- 
quainted with the private life of Hhe early Eggjrptians. ’ 



EGYPTIAN MUSEUM. 


311 


These are comprehended under four general heads. The 
jfirst refers to ?eli^pu$ rites observed at different epochs 
of human life, and. under different circumstances, during 
the moBt dourishing period .of the history of Kgypt. The 
second.embraces every object ivhich has serv^ for the 
various purposes of domestic and social life. The third 
relates to objects comiiected with funeral ceremonies ; and 
the fourth contains miscellaneous articles. 

It would, no doubt, be possible, by means of a simple 
description, to give an account of the number and character 
of each of the sixteen hundred objects contained in Signor 
Passalaequa's collection; but no words can convey tlie 
impression and effect which that collection produces on the 
bt'liolder, when seen en masses nor the interest excited by 
it, when examined in detail, with the aid of the patient and 
elo(]uent explanations of the enthusiastic traveller who 
. formed it. 

The objects relative to religious worship and ceremo- 
nies among the Egyptians, which this Museum contains, 
are subdivided according to the materid of which they are 
composed, as follows ^Objects in wax, bitumen, and terra 
cotta (30 in number). Of glazed or enamelled earth (108). 
Of different kind of stones, including lapis lazuli, serpentine, 
cornelian, amethysts, hematite, and jJabaster (144). Of 
various .metals, such as bronze, silver> and gold (35). Of 
animal substance, such as ivory, and leather (4). these 
are added 131 sacred animals, embalmed or dried, among 
which 1 observed a.buman monster from Hermopolis; ten 
mummy cats, , jtifp of which are inclosed in coffins, found at 
Thebes; two rats; twenty-four Theban mice; four toads; 
four siTo ^H enyelpped in bandages and inclosed in 

boxes, hayb^ thq %xn ^ the animals, three other fishes 
diiad, mcipsed in;^^ without bandages, twp vipers, 
’ascara]lMeus,aod,oaecai^^ . 

The oljeots wUch serve to illustrate the civil and do- 
; mestic life of the Egyptians, are. classed as follows 1st. 



312 


BERLIN. 


Instruments of agriculture and fishing, including some of 
the agricultural produce, such as fkiits, wheat, and even 
bread, found in the tombs at Thebes (22 in number). 
2d. Linen, cloth, male and female garments, a variety of 
specimens of shoes, sandals, > &c.*-rimplements for spinning 
and weaving (23). 3d. Baskets made - of palm-leaves, 
three of which are filled with fruit (15). 4th. Objects 
relating to medicine and surgery (33). A most inte- 
resting object in this division of the collection is a meiU- 
cine chest, two feet high, and one foot four inches and 
a half wide, contained within two external cases, orna- 
mented and inscribed with hieroglyphics. The chest has 
a lid, which is lifted up by means of a small wooden button, 
inlaid with ivory ; it contains six vases of the most exqui- 
site workmanship, five of which are of Oriental alabaster, 
and one of lava. These are filled with medical prepara, 
tions, that have not yet been analysed. There are also in 
the clicst a small number of pharmaceutical implements, 
and twenty-five different sorts of roots of aromatic 
plants. In this same division are two of the hooks which 
were used for drawing out the brain through the nostrils 
in the process of embalming, several spatulas in bronze or 
iron, scissors, scalpels, lancets, and a variety of other sur- 
gical instruments, the existence of wliich, at so, remotes 
period, hod never been suspected. 5th. Arms (10), in- 
cluding wooden and flint knives, bow and arrows, a lancc, 
liatchets, a pqniard. 6th. Implement and substanws re- 
lative to the art of painting and calligraphy (14) : among 
these, a wooden palette of a rectangular form^ ia^^prtlQr of 
remark for the beauty of its ornamente, as well, , for the 
existence of several colouring substanqe^ cORti^^ed in ^ 
many shallow cavities dug in the palejtte. , 
instruments, seven fo number. 8tb. Articles: «belangib|; to 
the toilet, and jewellery, ninetyrsix in nunfoer» . These^for*n> 
without question, the most vdual^e, if iu>.t the; mpst, inte- 
resting part of the collection; and: whilst .they illustrate 



EGYPTIAN MUSEUM. 


313 


the habits of life and fashions of the Egyptian ladies, they 
bear witness td the luxury of their dress, being mostly 
composed of precious metals and precious stones. No- 
thing that modern ladies have invented to set oft* their 
persons, appears to have been unknown to the ancients ; 
there are splendid combs and head-pins^ tresses of hair, 
necklaces of the utmost beauty, and in the purest taste, 
including pearls, lapis lazuli, enamels, gold, vermilion, 
cornelian ear-rings of all forms, some of them of exqui- 
site beauty, bracelets, armlets, rjngs, cameos, engraved 
onyxes, cornelian, hematites, mirrors, vases with cosmetics, 
siiine of which contain the black dye that served to 
tinge the eyebrows. 9th. Various vases and cups (13). 
lOth. Four buckets. 11th. Two different weights. 12th. 
Implements of play, such as dice, and a stiift'ed leather 
ball. 13th. Instruments appertaining to the mechanical 
arts (45). 14th. Coffers, boxes, cases, tljree in number. 
15th. Different objects. 16th. Coins. 

The third class or division of the Museum, relating to 
sepulchral monuments and ceremonies, embraces a series 
of objects of the highest importance, which may be con- 
sidered as unique in their kind, and amount to one hun- 
.dred and ninety-six in number. Among these there are 
no fewer than ten mummies, three of which are of children, 
and therefore rare. There is also a most beautiful hand 
with part "of the acrra of a young female, on which a great 
number of omatfteiits and trinkets were foiittd. This hand 
is of a wa^y ^hite boldur, without a wrinkle, and prepared 
with soiii^ pl^a^nt afoiha, by a process different from those 
in more gei&eral use^ but the' basis of which is still the same 
as that which 1 discovfered and published in my Essay on 
Egyptiart'Muimtd^' ' 

The fotiifth Arisfon bf the Museum is entirely miscella- 
neous, and ccWtkiiis about forty different objects. 

The^je varicAs colldelfbhs arb oii lidth sides of 

a very long gallery, imd displayed with much taste and 



314 


SIGNOR PASSALACQUA. 


skill on lofty tables and shelves; many^ of the more pre. 
Clous articles being endosed in glass-cases^ Signor Passalac- 
qua explained them to us with great fluency and erudition, 
and in that easy and p^picacious style which belongs to 
one who is completely master of his subject* By following 
the arrangement he has adopted^ we traced the ancient 
Egyptian in his private charact«r^ through every stage and 
situation of life, from his birth to his death, learning, in 
the most practical and interesting manner, by means of 
visible objects, how he was treated during his infancy-*- 
what were his customs, his manners, occupation and indi. 
nations, during his adult and advanced age— l>y what reli- 
gious ceremonies, in public as well as in private life, he 
was bound— and lastly, what were the circumstances that 
. attended and followed his dissolution. 

The part, however, of Signor Passalacqua’s discoveries 
which does him most credit, and the results of which are 
likewise placed in the Royal Egyptian Museum of Berlin, 
arranged as they were found, is that which refers to a 
Sepulchral Chamber opened by himself in the Necropo- 
lis of Thebes, and found in the highest state of preser- 
vation. Equally fortunate with his countryman Belzoni 
in directing his researches to a spot where the hand of the^ 
military invader, or the Arab wanderer, had not committed 
those ravages, the effects of which are visible in so many 
parts of the sepulchral town of Thebes, Passalocqua dis- 
covered on the fourth of December 1823, the sepulchral 
chamber in question, containing a great variety of obj^ts* 
which he successively removed, after taking notes of thew 
relative situatiem. The witnesses to this iat^ting dis- 
covery, were Mr. John Maddox, then at Thebes) and an 
Agent of Mr. Salt; the English Cofliul--geileri^ <The 
description given to us by Passalacqun^ of the 

in which the discovery wax made, and of ^theiieemtents 

of the chamber, waM highly anitMed, displayed in 
every part of it that intense enihu^asm, which alond seemr 



SIGNOR PASSALACQUA. 


315 


calculated to produce important results, in a country where 
researches, flucbi as . he had undertaken, are beset with 
difficulties of every descripUonr 

Signor Passalacqua was bom at Trieste, and at a very 
early age went to Egypt, with the view of examining the 
abodes in which the ancient inhabitants of that country 
deposited their dead. To effect this, he had no other 
resources titan his own private fcfftune, which, in the course 
of six years passed in Egypt, was considerably diminished. 
His health too, although robust, suffered in a great degree ; 
and the dangers he incurred, the fatigue he underwent, 
during the period of his residence, and his repeated ex- 
cursions into different parts of that region, were only 
equalled by those of his contemporary and countryman 
already mentioned. The results of his researches and 
labours, however, must be as highly gratifying to him, as 
they have already proved advantageous to Science. 

This collection had been exposed to public view for 
some time in Paris, and became the subject of general 
admiration. The various branches of which it ctnisists were 
with great liberality submitted to the inspection and exa^ 
mination of scientific men most capable of appreciating their 
value. Reports were published, highly commendatory of 
their contents, by those individuals, as well as by several 
public scientific bodies in France, and die Royal Ac^ 
demy of Sciences elected Signor. Passalacqua one of their 
foreign associates. His origin and family, his education 
and gendemanly manners, together with his enlarged infer*- 
mation on subjects connected with Egyptian antiquities, 
all seemed to point him out as worthy of that distinction. 
In the meanwhile, anxious that France should become 
possessed of' a- collection, to which the character of the 
Egyptian Miioseunt already existing in Paris seemed to give 
’ her a pieferible claim, Passalacqua offwed it to the Go- 
vernmeot oil vfery modnate terms. ■ The proposition was 
* acceded to ; but the execution of the contract being linac- 



316 UARON ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT. 

countably delayed by futile excuses ^d forms of officv, 
Passalacqua determined on Jispsing of his valuable collcc. 
tion to His Majesty the King of Prussia, in whose name 
and behalf Baron Alexander von Humbold^ then resident 
in Paris, offered the sum of one hundred thou^d francs. 
His Majesty had already ordered the smaller collection 
of Baron Minutoli to be purchased, and with the two, 
it was Baron Humboldfs opinion that a Museum of 
Egyptian Antiquities might be formed worthy of the 
other great establishments of Berlin, and equal in iin{)or- 
tance to similar galleries formed in other capitals of Eu- 
rope. No one can doubt, after visiting the Museum of 
Monbijou, that Humboldt's expectation has been most 
fully realized. 

To the indefatigable industry and zeal for sciena* of 
the last-mentioned illustrious individual— to his extensive 
knowledge of natural history,' chemistry, mathematics,, 
and other branches of science, the Prussians have been, 
and arc still likely to be, greatly indebted. After spend- 
ing many years in the French Capital, which he seemed 
to have considered almost as his own country, Baron 
Humboldt has at last returned to Berlin and established 
his pcrmon^jit residence in that city, where I had great 
satisfaction in renewing an acquaintance foriu^ many 
years since, ancl conversing with him on many of his favou- 
rite pursuits. Although without any ostensib^ official 
character at the court of his sovereign, this accompliAed 
traveller is known to be in the full enjoyment of Jiw cowli- 
dcncc, and invariably consulted on all subjects copii^ted 
with scientific! as well as literary institutioim* B.is 
ty’s iritercourse with the Baron is constant ah unreserved ; 
a hom^ to merit, which proclaims at (Mice the liber^^y 
of sentiment of the sovereijp who pays it, and jiisrifies the 
great popularity enjoyed by' the highjiy-^ft!^ jn^viaual 
upon whom it is bestowed, Baron Humboldt has been 
elected Professor emeritus of the University— and at the 



THK ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 31^ 

time of my visiting that establishment, preparations were 
made on a g^and scale for a the*jretical and experimental 
course of Physical Geography, which he intended to deliver 
gratuitou^y, and at wliich it was expected that the Koyal 
Family, as well as all the great Officers of State, would 
attend. Applications for admission from every quarter were 
incessantly mac(i to Professor Lichtenstein, (then Rector of 
the University, and, at the same time, the King’s Commis- 
sary in that Institution,) onelialf of which it was injpossible 
to cromply with for wont of space, although two lecture- 
rooms had been thrown into one, and were then pre- 
paring for the purpose. I was myself present, when ge- 
neral officers in the army, and individuals high in society 
and among the clergy, came to Lichtenstein to supjdicate 
for tickets of admission, which it grieved that gentleman to 
bo obliged to refuse ; and I could easily comprehend the 
mortification and disapjmii^tment that must have been felt 
at being excluded from one of the greatest intellectual 
treah which science can offer, even in these days, so prolific 
of men celebrated for talents and information. 

Baron Humboldt’s brother, the well-known statesman, 
leads a retired life, devoting himself to literal urc and ab- 
stract philosophy, and spends the best part of his time at 
his country residence, near Tegel, in the neighbourhood of 
the capital, and near a lake formed by the Havel, where he 
gave a grand entertainment to the royal family during our 
stay at Berlin. 

It may be supposed that a city possessing such men and 
such institutions cannot be destitute of scientific ^societies. 
Berlin has, in fact, a Royal Academy of Science, modelled 
much on the plan of that of Paris ; a plan which has, in- 
deed, been a^opt^ by most Continental capitals, and which 
is far better ^culat^ to promote science, and give it that 
>iportan(»\ih of the public which it requires, than 

that of bur ^yid Society. , 

, The ftoy^ Ac^emy' of Sciences is composed of four 



318 THB ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 


classes:— the physical, the mathematical, the philosopHi. 
cal, and the historico^philological. The ordinwy mem- 
bers are thirty-six in* number; and these have A pension 
from the State. Each class of ordinary members has a 
veteran^ or president, and a perpetual secretary. Walter 
is the veteran of the physical class, and Empm the secre. 
tary. The foreign members are only se|enteen. Sir H. 
Davy is the only Englishman amongst them. Cuvier, 
Goethe, Berzelius, Volta, Scarpa, Blumenbach, Soem- 
mering, and others belong also to it. There are likewise 
seventeen honorary members ; amongst whom, 1 read the 
names of W. R. Hamiltmi, late English Envoy at Na- 
plea, and of Colonel Leake, the well-known traveller in 
Greece, distinguished both as an antiquary and geogra- 
pher. The list of corresponding members is much more 
numerous; but Robert Brown, the eminent botanist, is the 
only English name to be found jn it. 

The apartments of the Royal Academy are in one' 
of tlie King’s palaces, commonly colled the King’s Mews. 
They form the principal story of the building towards 
the Unter den Linden Walk, and are in immediate 
communijiption with the Observatory at the back, and 
the University on the left* The rooms, like those of 
most of the public buildings in Berlin, arc spacious and 
imposing. There is in the centre window of thfe apart- 
ment a transparent clock of superior workmanship,, made 
by Mbllinger, and a solar quadrant, plac^ below, whidi 
serve to regulate all the clocks and timepieces in JBcrliD* 
in oon8e(|uence of a suggestion of Professor Bode, .which 
has been found productive oi much convenience from the 
uniformity , it has established in the infesure of time* 

* It was the Great Frederick who, when applied to the leading 
members of the Academy for a snitable Hlnise, gave ordw that the 
Royal Mews should have a first story added to them fioighe use of ^he. 
Academicians. This circumstance gave rise to the feUomafi 
which some wag affixed in front of the build|og whoni.f?<)mplel®d.^ 
Musis&Mulis. * 



MBPICO-CHIRURGICAL SOCIETY. 


319 

The Royal Academy of Sciences has an extensive botanic 
garden at the outside of the Potsdam gate, rich in exotic 
and medicinal plante, and open to tlie public all the year 
round This scientific and learned body celebrate, by a 
general meeting, the anniversary of the birth of Leibnitz, 
of whom they are so justly proud. They publish their 
memoirs from time to time, several volumes of whic^ have 
been well received by the mvam of all nations. The vo- 
lume for 18!24 contains twenty memoirs of great interest, 
among which, eight are on subjects of natural science. , In 
January 1895, they manifested their veneration for the me- 
mory of Frederick II. by an extraordinary meeting, in 
which a report of M. Alexander Von Humboldt was read, 
detailing the proceedings of Ehrenberg and Hemprich, 
who had just returned from their travels through Egypt, 
Dongola,. Syria, Arabia, and part of Abyssinia, in the 
pursuit of objects of natuifjal history. 

The Society next in importance, of which I was aWe to 
obtain information, is the Medico-Chirurgicol Society, at 
the head of which is Hiifeland. Most of the physicians 
and surgeons resident in Berlin, who stand high for cha- 
racter and learning, are members of this society, which 
holds its meetings at the house of the president every fort- 
night, throughout the year. The Journal of Medicine, edit- 
ed by Hiifeland, gives an account of its sittings, and of the 
papers read, and discussions which take place in the course 
of them. The, meetings begin five and end at seven 
o'clock in the afternoon. This practice of early hours for 
business as well as amusement, * seems strongly - prevalent 
throughout that part of Germany which I have visited. 
Not a shop to be -seen open after seven o’clock in 
the evening in the winter ; the theatres are all clospd by 
nine or a Uttte after^ and at ten tlie streets are as silent 
; and deseoted as they are at .two o’clock in the morning 
in London. I received a formal invitation to assist at one 
, of the ordinary meetings on the day before our departure ; 



320 


ROYAL LIBRARY OF BERLIN. 


but my other engagements prevented; my availing myself 
of so excellent an opportunity of seeing, assembled toge< 
ther, the most eminent, as well as the most respectable 
members of the profession in Berlin^ The Society at pre- 
sent consists of ninety-four members^ among whom they 
have done me the honour of admitting me since my visit 
to that capital. 

By the side of the Opera-house is the Royal library, to 
which I paid but a cursory visit. Dr. Spiker, who travelled 
in England, and published an account of his journey, is the 
principal librarian. The establishment is highly creditable 
to tlic country. It is not only open daily to every one, but 
students and scientific foreigners, well recommended, arc 
even allowed to take books away for the greater conveni- 
ence of study. The librtyry consists of about 200,000 vo- 
lumes, and contains some interesting MSS. and specimens of 
early printing. The works illustrative of the Reformation 
are numerous, particularly those which have reference to 
the immediate history of Luther ; of this number is an ori- 
ginal translation of the Psalms by that great theologian, 
which has been adopted almost entirely by the Lutheran 
churches throughout Germany. Upon what authority rests 
the authenticity of a Bible, said to have been that which 
the martyr Charles the First held in his hands on the scaf* 
fold, I could not learn ; but such a Bible is shown to stran- 
gers in this library, particularly to those in any way con- 
nected with England ; and is. calculated ^ to excite a lively 
degree of interest. A few weeks after pur visit to this esta- 
blishment, I learned, that, ever anxious to promote the 
cau^ of science, the King had assigned a sum of i^teen 
thousand rixthalers for the purpose of filling up several 
/ocuRtf which existed among thediffecent collections of books; 
and that he had also added a sum (A three hundred rix- 
thalers to the already existing wnual revenue of the 
Royal Library, and had increased the salaries of .the 
librarians. 



ROYAL GALLKRY OF IMCTURKS. 3:>1 

Dining one day witlv Monsieur D'Alopeus, the RusHian 
ainbassadofj T "sat by the side of the minister of the King 
of Saxony, Whose conversation, principally on subjects con- 
nected with the fine arts, gave me some notion of the state 
of painting iii' Prussia, and of the different collections of 
pictures in the capital. The only one which I visited, and 
which in point of importance may be consideretl as the 
Hrst, is that iii the Royal Palace. • This may be said to con- 
tain the best and only specimens of I talian masters to be 
found in Berlin ; but amongst them there arc some of in- 
ferijjr execution and doubtful origin. Although the Gius- 
tiriiani Gallery from Rome was added to the Berlin col- 
lection some years ago, the Potsdam Gallery is said to lx? 
considerably richer in that respect. It was more easy for 
J Viissian money, and Prussian ccfmmisseurs to procure ge- 
m'linc productions from the pencil of Rubens, Vandyke, and 
Rembrandt; and in this they may be said to have succeed- 
(‘(i. In the Royal Gallery, and adjoining rooms, several 
exquisite portraits, by the two latter artists, are to be found, 
iiiid a few good specimens of Rubens and his scliotd ; but 
in general, the collection cannot be looked upon as deserv- 
ing to rank amongst the well-known public galleries of the 
Continent. I have mentioned in a preceding chapter, Mr. 
HiL)!! y’s collection of pictures which is to be placed in the 
Museum. This will certainly add to the value of the in- 
tended Royal Gallery. Specimens of considerable merit of 
Italian masters of the s^ond order, and of a comparatively 
modern date; are to be seen also at the Berlin college. Some 
of these by Amiconi, Ndgari, ZucCarelli, and Antonio Be- 
lotti, of undoubt^ originality^ are very plearing pictures. 
It would be well if ifiodera pdnters could excel even thus 
far in their art. Paintihg' is hot ih a flourisl^^^ state in 
this part of Germany^ although every facility is given by 
.Rie King to native artisits, of studying from the be.st mas-i 
ters contained in the Royal Gallery ; and I believe that 
Students are maintained at Rome at his expense, h)r the 

VOL. 1. Y 



922 ARTS AND MANUFACTURES OF PRUSSIA. 

purpose of fonrnng thdr taste, and affording them the best 
means of improving their style, and of learning to draw con 
jrectly, a quality by no means common to the best and most 
popular painters of our days. Looking at the productions 
of the modem German . school of paintings DQe is forced 
to admit that it is inferior even to the Frehch,i. dthough, 
in regard to colouring, the superiority may lie on the side 
of the former. The public exhibitions of modem pictures at 
Berlin, do not tend to raise the character of its school very 
high ; but every effort is laudable, and should pecuniary 
encouragement be given to historical and composition pic- 
tures, a visible improvement may take place in the course 
of a few years ; for the German is patient, has a correct 
eye, an excellent idea of tints, and can copy accurately. 
The spirit and imagination arc, perhaps, wanting, and some 
say genius also ; but in tliat respect I cannot agree, since 
they have shown enough of it in a variety of instances. 

Ill the useful arts, and in some of their ro^ufacturcs, 
no one will deny great merit to the Prussians. I attended 
at one of the exhibitions of the products of arts and ma^ 
nufactures, which was fortunately open at the time of our 
stay in Berlin, and the impression 1 received was highly 
creditable to tiie industry of the arti^oerS, The exhibition 
takes place in a large building close to the University, aild 
the different articles are displayed in a suite of rooms 
which are crowded with the best company. A very small 
sum^ amounting to five groschen, is paid for admissioii, aad 
a catalogue, which is given to the visitors, enables^them to 
form a full and correct notion of each of the objects they 
int^ to eximine. The admissioii iees this year had pn)- 
duced a sum of 2760 rix, whidi sqp \m bm; appropriated 
to the support of the School of Industry in those pmyinces, 
from whence the laigest proportion of manufactured articles 
had beep sent to the exhibition. 1 had the good fortune 
of "being introduced by the son of Mons, D -Afepeus, the 
Russian ambassador, who seemed so thoroughly au 



PRUSSIAN PORCELAIN. 


of every thing we saw in the several apartments, that he 
did more, in making me acquainted with the state of ma- 
nufactures in Berlin in the short space of an liour, than 
I could myself have effected after many days of inquiry. 
Three things struck me as being particularly deserving of 
admiration. The first was an imitation of gold, which 
has now stood the test of experience for some years, and 
which for colour, lustre, weight, and compactness, leaves 
nothing to be desired. The dinner-services made of this 
composition, called Airain Caldanque^ which 1 saw, ap- 
peared to me superior even to the dessert knives and forks 
of silver gilt which have been in so much use of late years, 
'rhe second is the fabric of cast-iron trinkets and female 
ornaments, some of which are of exquisite workmanship. 
Ill tins article of manufacture the Berlinois stand un- 
rivalled. The best shop for these articles, specimens of 
which we saw at the exhibition, is that of C. E. Rosenberg 
on the Schloss-platz, at the comer of Breite Strasse. Every 
objix:t of light ornament for a lady, that one can wish for, 
from the most complicated down to the most simple in its 
form, is to be found here. The beauty of the workmanship 
of these cast iron ornaments can only be equalled by that 
of the Chinese silver filigree, or of the Venetian and Mal- 
fese chains. Their price is not extravagant. For the 
sum of twenty-one rixthalers, or three pounds sterling, a 
lady may furnish herself with two handsome chains and 
crosses, a pair of bracelets, ear-rings, and a brooch, all of 
fine work ! The third was the display of Porcelain from 
the Royal Manufactory, which I have already had occa.- 
sion to mention; as well as fnsm one or two |^vate manu- 
factories. In poiht ^ flowers painted on China, the 
I’russians excel the artists both of Paris and Dresden ; but 
they are inferior to those of Worccstersliire in landscape 
■printings. The paste is sonorous, but the colour indif- 
ferent. The net produce of the Royal Manufactory ' of 
•China is said to amount annually to 200,000 rixthalers. 

Y 2 



324 


M. RAUCH. 


A magnificent service manufactured in this place, was 
presented by the King to the Duke of Wellington, esti- 
mated to be worth WjOOO rixthalers, equal to jPn,444 
sterling. 

There is also a branch of industry connected with 
science in which the Berlin manufacturers excel, and the 
products of which 1 had an opportunity of examining. I 
allude to the construction of geographical maps in has- 
relief, made of Papier mache^ executed with the utmost 
accuracy and neatness, and sold for a very moderate prici% 
by the inventor Carl W. Kummer, in Dorotheen Strasse. 
The principal mountains, all the most important ranges 
and chains of hills, the elevation of roads and other objects 
generally marked in maps, arc here raised above the sur- 
face ; as are also the divisions of countries, banks of rivers, 
&c. The effect is altogether pleasing. For the represen- 
tation of terrestrial globes in particular, this invention 
seems to have been adoptal with coin])letc success. 

To judge by the specimens which I had an opportunity 
of seeing in different parts of Berlin, and in the studios of 
the principal artists, 1 am justified in assuming that sculp- 
ture has made great and rapid advances in Prussia. The 
principal sculptor is Bauch, whose productions will j)cr- 
petuate the memory of his name as long as good taste anJl 
sound judgment hold their sway in Europe. Raucli is 
as superior to some who have been styled great sculptors 
in other capitals, for his modesty, unassuming behaviour, 
and affability of manners, as he is in regard to bold- 
ness of conception, powerful imagination, correct draw- 
ing, and finished execution. His are indeed works for 
posterity, and not for contemporary adulators to praise to 
the skies in order to serve some nadonal-or individual pur- 
pose. Since Canoya’s death, I know of no other scul^or 
equal to him except Daneker, Thorwaldsen, and a young 
Swedish artist, whose name is Gdthe, and whose early 
productions give promise of most brilliant talent. West-, 



TOMB OP QUEEN LOUISA OF PRUSSIA. 325 

iiiacott is, perhaps, the only sculptor in England who 
approaches the Berlin artist in softness and finish ; but 
without disparagement to the great talent which exists in 
this country in this interesting art, it must be acknow- 
ledged that Rauch ^ands far aloof in the higher class of 
nKxlern sculptors. This artist was originally in the service 
of the late Queen as a page, and was observed on one oc- 
casion by her Majesty, in the act of modelling a head in 
wax. An explanation ensued, which gave rise to some in- 
(jiiiries; and the result of these was that Rauch was sent 
to Rome at Her Majesty’s expense, where his natural 
taliMits were ripened by experience, and "where he acquired 
that superior excellency in his art, which he w'as soon to 
l)c called upon to put in practice for the purpose of trans- 
mitting to future ages the memory of his Royal Mistress. 

'riie inotiument of that most interesting Princess, erecttnl 
hv His Majesty in a secluded and romantic s|M)t in the 
Park of Cliarlottenburg, is one of the best productions of 
Kaucirs chisel. In treating such a hallowed subject, the 
artist had not to torture his imagination in search of com- 
memorative symbols, and adulatory attributes. His was 
a much more affecting task, and the coin}K)sition having 
been dictated to him by tbc afflicted Royal Consort, he 
had only to allow his gratitude as an artist, and his venera- 
tion as a Prussian toward the illustrious deceased, to work 
upon his genjus, to be certain that the result would tell at 
once, in most eloquent language, the sad talc of his Royal 
Mistress’s fate, and the success of bis talents as a sculp- 
tor. Precisely under^ such circumstances, was the monu- 
•nent of Louisa of Prussia conceived and executed; and 
the feelings of the widowed sovereign who commanded, as 
Well as those of the eminent artist who completed it, arc 
fully perceived in every part of that magnificent, though 
inelaiicholy production. 

The Mausoleum, erected by the King to receive the 
* Jishcs of the most interesting, as well as the most unfort u- 



QUKBN LOUISA OP PRUSSIA. 


iiate Princess of her day, whose virtues and misfortunes 
are deeply engraven in the h^rts of her subjects, justly 
becomes one of the principal objects which claim the notice 
of the stranger who visits Berlin. On entering the Park 
of Charlotteuburg, oiifr'-liteps are difected through a som. 
bre alley of pines, which terminates in a small grove sur. 
rounded by sable pines, cypresses, and willows of Baby- 
lon, where also bloom the Hly and the white rose. A 
simple portico of four fluted Grecian Doric columns pre- 
sents itself at one end of the grove, supporting an entabla- 
ture and a pediment bereft of every kind of ornament. 
The ascent to the entrance under the portico is by eight 
steps of granite, terminated by lateral dies, on each of 
which is placed a colossal vase of flowers. The interior 
of the, building is in the form of a parallelogram, divided, 
by steps, into two parts of difierent elevation. Two lateral 
flights of eight steps of marble lead to the farthest part of 
the Mausoleum. Between these a descent of nine marble 
steps conducts to a massive unornamented mahogany doon 
which opens into the chamber of death, where repose the 
ashes of the beloved Queen, in a leaden coflin, bearing this 
inscription : — 

** Louisa Augusta Wilhelmiiia Amelia, 

Queen of Prussia, 

Princess of Mecklenbuig Strelitz, 

Died at Hohenzieritz, the 19th July, 1 8, lip.’’ 

That part of the Mausoleum which is immediately above 
the tomb, and which is raised higher than the anteribr part, 
is separated from the latter by four colilmns of ^fphyritic 
marble with Doric capitals, and resting on dies of white 
marble. The upper part of this interior apartment, the 
walls of which are incrusted with white marUe^ is lighted 
from the top, and a Grecian bronze lamp, sutpended from 
the ceiling, serves at night to throw a melancholy glarbbver 
the surrounding objects. In the centre of this elevatrfi 



QUEEN LOUISA OF PRUSSIA. 


327 

floor stands a handsome marble sarcophagus, on which is 
lying a full-length figure of the late Queen, in white mar- 
ble, the work, as 1 have already observed, of Hauch's 
chisel. Her handsome countenance has the expression, and 
even the smiling animation of mnocence buried in a tran- 
quil sleep, and dreaming a dream of happiness. This, and 
the air of perfect repose which pervades the entire attitude 
of the figure, seem to inspire the observer with some feeble 
consolation for the irreparable and premature loss of so 
much worth and loyeliness. The whole form is slirouded 
in an ample drapery, the folds of which are skilfully and 
gracefully managed; The countenance and part of the 
neck are alone uncovered, and the former is said to pre- 
sent a perfect likeness of the departed Queen. The King, 
cherishing the memory of his sainted consort with as much 
feeling as if the^ loss were of yesterday, frequently repairs 
. to this sepulchral chamber, to wliich he annually brings 
his children on the anniversary of her death, and assists 
at the celebration of a solenm service, in commemoration 
of her virtues. 

None but the most depraved among the lawless soldiery 
of Napoleon ever dared to raise the shadow of suspicion 
on the spotless integrity of her character. It was reserved 
for a Parisian espritt to attempt to dieck the general voice 
of praise, which had for so many years sounded in favour 
of that too ^nsitive Princess, and to throw out insinuar- 
tions,. to wliich the voice of millions gave the lie. None can 
envy the fiendish pleasure of such a man. But his coun- 
trymen have since d(me her memory full justice, m^d 
among them it gives me pleasure to quote the sentiments 
of one, who in speaking of her in a recent publication, 
expresses himself as follows>-» 

“ Cette jeuoe Princesae, si bonne aux jours de la^gran- 
' dcur, si iiqposante' aux jours de Fadversite, dou4e iTune 
amc forte, die s’indigna du joug qui pesait sur TEu- 
• rope ; les triomphes du grand Frederic tourmentaient sa 



328 


QUHKN LOUISA OP PRUSSIA. 


pensee; revant de hautcs destinees pour son epoux et 
pour sa patrie, elle appela la victoire ; le malbeur lui re. 
pondit, et son '‘courage seul lui resta fiddle. . Les niaux 
sans nombre que sa g^n^reuse mais fatale instance avait 
attires dans 8a|)atrie retomb^rcnt sur. son coeur. 8e cun. 
damnant aux plus rudes privations, elle exigea sa part des 
souHrances qui assi^aient son people; couverte A^ vHemens 
ohscurs^ n'acceptant que les alimetis les plus grossiers, elle 
s'accusait de Tindigence dc ses sujets, et voulait, du moins, 
la partager. Ce peupk dont elle avait desire la gloirc et 
cause les infortunesy donna des larmes sinc^res a sa niort, 
et une doiilcur religieuse honore encore sa memoire.*”* 

The assertions contained in this sentimental eulogy, 
which I have marked in Italics, are introduced by the 
writer merely for the sake of tlieatrical effect, aiid are not 
more correct than the description, which the same author 
gives, immediately before, of the attitude of the figure of . 
the Princess as she reclines on the sarcophagus, and in 
which he remarks, Tabandon de ce beau bras qui tonil)e 
mollemcnt ii son cote, tandis que Fautre soutient une tete 
cnchanteresse.*’' In reality, the hands are modestly folded 
upon her breast ! 

The many examples of devotion given by the Prus- 
sians and the inhabitants of the capital to their King, 
during the late conflicts, which mark the history of the 
last thirty years, sufficiently speak for his great popu- 
larity. No sovereign in Europe is more b^oved by his 
subjects than Frederick William. Goodness of . heart, up- 
rightness of judgment, a desire to promote the utility of 
public institutions, an anxiety to see men of tdents fill 
the most important offices oflhe state, a; watchful jealousy 
over the interests of his country, and over the honours, and 
powejr of his army, so necessary for their preservation, a 
readiness in affording support^^and adding splendour to ' 

* Ancclot. Six Mois en llussie, p* 28. 



KING FREDERICK WILLIAM. 3^9 

public amusements, a strict observance* of the religion of 
his ancestors, an unassuming demeanour in puldic, an 
amiable deportment in the relations of domestic life, an 
unbounded attachment to his children ; these are the 
features in the character of Frederick William, which I 
have been able to cull from the many eulogies bestowed on 
his Majesty by the several classes of people, from the 
highest to the lowest, with whom I mixed during my short 
stay in Berlin, as well as in the course of my journey 
through Prussia. What nation would not rather l)e go- 
verned by such a monarch, than by some renowned con- 
<picror, or prince endowed with the most brilliant talents, 
without any of the qualities of the heart here enumerated .? 

Mis Majesty, with an annual income of one million of 
rixthalcrs, which, in Prussia, would be sufficient to pur- 
chase pleasure and luxuries in profusion, prefers living in 
. a simple and unostentatious manner; reserving his pe- 
cuniary resources for acts of benevolence, many of which 
have been related to me ; and for the acquisition of such 
collections, as will not only add lustre to his capital, but 
promote knowledge and the improvement of his pc^f>le. 
It is by frugalities, so creditable to liis heart, that the 
^King has been enabled to procure for Berlin the advantage 
of an Egyptian Museum, which, as I before observed, 
rivals those of Paris and Turin, and is sujxirior to any 
thing of the kind to be found in London; and to increase 
the splendour (tf the Museum of pictures and objects of 
curiosity, just erected by his command. His Majesty 
spends a great port of the year at Charlottenburg, from 
whence he rides into town every morning before eight 
o'clock, and begins immediately to transact the business of 
the state with his ministers. Wien in Berlin, he does not 
reside in the Royal Palace, but prefers living in a amall 
' house of the. most unostentatious exterior possible, situated 
nearer to the fashionable walk, so often mentioned, and in 
• the immediate vicinity of the statue of Bliichcr. In this 



330 


PRINCESS DB LEI6N1TZ. 


simple abode, his bdoved Queen shared with him those 
years of misfortunes, the repoUection of which, with the 
irreparable loss of her to whom his heart “ was more fond- 
ly and firmly riveted than to his crown,” has stamped on a 
countenance, naturally serious, an air of melancholy and 
reserve which peculiarly characterises the features of this 
sovereign. 

At a ball given by the Echanson du Rd, I had an op. 
portunity of seeing the Countess d'Harracb, whom the 
King, by a solemn document, dated Berlin, the 9th of No- 
veml)er, 1824, created Princess of Leignitz and Countess 
of HohenzeUem, on account of her amiable and estimable 
qualities,” such being the expressions used by bis Majesty, 
and which, every one seemed to agree, were fully de- 
served by the Countess i she is united to the King by what 
is termed un Manage Morganatique. By the same docu- 
ment it is emphatically provided, that in case Heavpn should . 
grant the Royal Consort any children, they and their de- 
scendants ore to bear the title, and inherit the property 
of the mother, but be for ever excluded from all suc- 
cession to the royal title, rank, honour, and estates there- 
unto belonging. The Princess de Leignitz is one of 
those persons who need not the pageantry of state to show 
that they are distinguished among their sex, and that the 
station which they occupy in society is one of importafice. 
Her carriage, and her dignified yet unaffected manners, 
sufficiently pointed her out in the crowd of the ladies of 
rank by whom she was surrounded; her features, without 
being strikmgly handsome, are pleasing, and counte- 
nance equally free from solemnity, or too much animation, 
has a character of liveliness, which bespeaks good temper 
and kindness df heart. She took part in the ami:i|einent 
of the evening, and by the affability and condescension of 
her maimers to those with whom she had occasion 'to con- ' 
verse, removed all restraint on the hilarity of the acene^ 

At this ball^ the whole world of fashion attended; th^ : 



SOCIETY AT BERLIN. 


331 


King^s ministers, the foreign ambassadors, officers high in 
the military service, strangers of rank, and most of the 
ladies of ton and their daughters, all equally anxious to 

partake of the hospitality of Count — . Amongst the 

most active dancers of the evening, every one noticed the 
gay and buoyant Prince Henry Albert, the youngest son 
of the King, a very good-looking person, aWt eighteen 
years of age, with very light hair, and an animated counte- 
nance. It is on such occasions as these that an attentive 
traveller may, at once, acquire some accurate notion of the 
state of society, and of the manners of the upper classes. 
It would be in vain to expect any very great degree of 
splendour among the Prussian aristocracy. The pomp 
and show generally met with amongst the Gorman nobility, 
does not seem to distinguish the great in Beriin, or those 
who by their situation are in perpetual contact with the 
sovereign. These appeared to me gay without hauteur^ 
hospitable without ostentation. Education did not show 
itself here in the mere garb of etiquette, nor did effrontery 
assume the appearance of fashionable nomhahnee, 1 
should not say that the majority of the individuals of both 
sexes, thus collected together from almost every family of 
.consequence, in the town, had sacrificed largely to the 
graces, or paid an undue degree of attention to the em- 
bellishment of their persons ; but it is equally certain that 
they presented nothing in their conduct to the superficial 
observer which was not marked with the utmost propriety. 
Through the liveliness of a gentleman whom 1 met at this 
soirk^ and who had long enjoyed opportunities of mixing 
with the higher ranks, and of becoming intimately ac- 
quainted with most of them, 1 soon learned the private 
history of the greater number of the persomtages marquam 
of l)oth sexes in the room. This gentleman, who was him- 
self a foreigner^ bore honourable testimony to their excel- 
lent behaviour, and the improvement which had taken place 
in their domestic manners ; and he seemed to think that 



SOCIETY AT BERLIN. 


few capitals could boast of privileged classes so little liable 
to the inflictions of public scandal. Doubtless, the ex. 
ample of their King and that of flieir lamented Queen must 
have had a great share in forming and giving vogue to 
this character of Prussian society. 

It does not appear that the influx of foreigners, which is 
said to be very considerable in Berlin, has had the effect of 
altering, masking, or in any way disfiguring the genuine- 
ness of the national manners. Frederick the Great encou- 
raged foreigners, particularly the French, to settle in his 
capital as well as at Potsdam, and a great number of tite 
latter remain stiH in Berlin, and constitute a separate 
colony, which, until lately, was governed by its own laws. 
The entire population of Berlin, in 1826, amounted t(» 
about 221,013 inhabitants; of which number, those pro- 
fessing the Catholic religion are as one to twenty. The 
number of Jews is very inconsiderable. 

I had heard it observed by some excellent travellers, 
that Berlin had more the appearance of a military garrison, 
or a large barrack, than of a capital. Doubtless the ob- 
servation is founded on exaggeration ; but one cannot help 
being struck at the military aspect which the city wears in 
all quarters, not only on account of the numerous and ex-, 
tensive barracks to be seen in different parts, but also in con- 
sequence of the many sentinels placed at almost every prin- 
cipal building; at the perpetual drumming and parading, 
and encountering of piquets and files of soldiers ; the pre- 
dominance of military officers over other individuals 
in society ; and finally, the endless display of uniforms of 
all sorts, in all public places, particularly at the theatres. 
Nor does the appearance of the civil servants of Go- 
vernment arid officers of state, dressed in blue coats with 
red collars, tend to neutralize, by the display of a certain 
mimber of plainly-dressed civilians, this martial aspecit of 
the Prussian capital. 

But martial or not, when the time for our departure ? 



CUSTRIN. 


m 

from Berlin arrived, I left it with regret, and with an 
impression that the man must be of a very discontented 
and intractable disposition, fastidious and sour-tenipered, 
who could not live in it cheerfully, happily, and advan- 
tageously. We quitted the Prussian capital late in the 
afternoon of the 13th of October, three weeks after leaving 
London, and we looked upon Berlin as the half-way house 
of our journey. 

Our way lay over a paved road, which, although in 
good repair, was rather a disappointment to travellers, 
who had been spoiled by the long continuance of chaus- 
sksy like bowling-greens. Daylight broke upon us as we 
.sto])ped to change horses outside the town of Custrin, a 
strongly fortifieil place, at the confluence of the Warthe 
and the Oder. The country around is low and marshy ; 
both rivers have been turned and twisted-- into Jmees and 
ditches, forming a triple aquatic circumvallation to some 
of the stoutest as well as loftiest bastions I ever beheld. 
The approach to such a fortified town must be matter of 
no small difficulty, and I .thought there would be no end 
to the drawbridges over which our carriages rolled with a 
deafening noise. Our object was to have ifeached Laiuls- 
herg fju-ly in the morning, with the intention of breakfast- 
*ing at a very excellent inn, which had been recommended 
to us by Lord and Lady Belgrave, who very kindly fur- 
nished Count Woronzow with their list of the post sta- 
tions, through wliich they had just been travelling on their 
return from Moscow ; and their personal observations on 
the respective inns, at which they , had stopped, either to 
take refreshment or to pass the night. Lapdsberg is not 
^|uite eighteen German miles from Berlin; but owing to 
the slow pace we had travelled at daring the night, we 
did not reach it till twelve o’clock ; that is, we had been 
’ }H)stjug at the rate of five miles an hour. Aware that 
such would be the case, when we got to Baltz by nine 
, hi the morning, we made the best of a bad bargain, and 



m 


LANDSBBRG. 


accepted a cup of coffee and some black bread, wliicb 
were offered to us in the post-house with great good 
nature by a very civil set of people. Extensive forests of 
pines surround Landsberg in every direction; many are 
recent plantations, the old ones having been felled or burnt 
during the war. These are some of the Prussian forests 
which supply the ship-timber imported from the port of 
Stettin, to which place they are floated in rafts over the 
Warthe and the Oder. 

The road, from the time of leaving Custrin, is macadam- 
ized, and of recent construction. The stones employed are 
very small fragments of granite rocks, in all varieties, 
mixed with graverand rolled pebbles brought from the bed 
of the Oder. At the approach of every village or small 
town, the system of stone pavement is resumed, and again 
abandoned a short distance from it. The road insensibly 
rises before reaching Landsberg, and presents parallel 
ranges of chalk hillocks, like truncated cones, on our left, 
in the direction of N. E. by E. A regular system of 
marking distances, is again observable on this road, con- 
sisting of large and small white stone obelisks, on the 
former of which the whole distance from Berlin is marked, 
and on the latter the quarterly divisions of each mile. On 
the opposite side of the road, the whole distance of each 
mile is subdivided by 100 small cubic stones. By ob^r- 
ving these duly, an experiment which 1 have had already 
occasion to mention, 1 ascertained that in spite of all our 
exhortations and bribes, our phlegmatic postilions i^ould 
not move a step beyond five and a half miles an hour upon 
an excdlent road. Yet the fellows are well-equipped, the 
horses not bad, and the system of posting, as far as 1 
could ascertain, on a respectable footing; We ^ the 
road, a great number of char-i^bancSf which are the com- 
mon carriages of the country, on four wheels, aAd without 
springs. They were transporting the merry population) 



FRBIDSBURG. 


335 

in their holiday clothes, from one village to another, thus 
celebrating, with innocent amusement, the Sabbatli day. 

The small town of Landsberg is seen to advantage at a 
short distance, from the picturesque appearmice of its gate, 
surmounted by towers, and the spire rising over the 
town-hall. In the suburbs tliere are a few tolerable 
streets, rftid some neat buildings 5 but the most attractive 
objects are the extensive stacks of firewood, piled on 
both banks of the Warthe, ready to be embarked either 
for Posen or Frankfort on the Oder, and from thence by 
a canal, into the Spree, and to Berlin. 

The country, in this part, is a dead flat, principally 
divided into corn-fields, and well wooded. The peasants 
wear a look of comfort, and appear healthy. Groups of 
villagemes, in their best apparel, and remarkably clean, 
saunter about the road, in the immediate neighbourhood 
of their home; while the men, clad in their best, and with 
newly shaven faces, and large slouched hats, stand in rows 
outside of the house, or lean against the parapet of a bridge, 
enveloped in smoke, and as we passed, would doff their 
hats in token of civility, and drawl out, with a wliiff, a 
“ gluchliche Reise, mein Herr.^ 

At Landsberg the road crosses the Warthe river, and 
T^resents nothing interesting until you reach the small town 
of Freideberg, situated near two lakes, and inhabited prin- 
cipally by a Jewish population, as the vast cemetery with- 
out the town filled with Hebrew inscriptions sufficiently 
indicates. The road has been lately completed through- 
out this part of the country; and such is the precision 
with which it was made, that wherever the slightest rising 
appeared in the ground, it has been cut through and le- 
velled ; and instep of leaving the cut surfaces barren, these 
liave been arranged into steps, and turf laid down, giving 
a very pleasing appearance to the sides of the road. The 
gates, or barriiresy $l 90 are embellislied by very neat 



3^ IMPRpV^Bp 

.which cp^^prjt^ Pt^jle.fhaye bmi 

.;.Ki.'.; Ji r:-*-, fi-*v.- ■. .. . 

A nulp pr, twb %jl)er,, .%e c^try aiy)UBdj Afiwimes a 
most cfi^rful ,4p^extpj]|^ 

of fir and piaes, staudipg.Qn ^ un^u^ed g^oui^d,, appears 
in the nearest horizon, :ap4 itS: various 

mazes, two qr thjroe lakcs» remin^g.ns of those of ; Switzer- 
land fropi theif situation, apppeuned in view, and succeeded 
each other, — the road passing between them, and, for a.little 
whilf?, following Uieir well-rwopded banks. .'Vyip.had not seen 
so pretty and so picturesque a road since we left the; Thu- 
ringian Forest, nor had we travelled over a better one even 
in England. The construction of this road 1 had the 
means of observing in the course of this stage of opr jour- 
ney, where a portion was in progress, to unite two hills of 
easy ascent, with a view to avoid the circuitous route of the 
old road. The sand, which is the previiiling soil throughout 
this part of the country, is first dug out to the depth of two 
feet of the intended width of the road, with the exception 
of four feet on each side. Granite aqd other stones, broken 
into fragments, which weigh almut two pounds, are strewed 
over to cover tliis new sandy bed, and the original soil is 
replaced at the top of them. When this foundation is be- 
come fully consolidated, the 'usual process of placing very* 
small granite fragments on the plan of Macadam is 
followed, and these are mixed with a large proportion of 
loose gravel. A ditch is . dug on each ; side, the. 
which are cut sharp, and ar® very ^compjwt,, and a ^ 

poplar trees is planted, at diort distance, on each d 

the ditph^' No rbacl.in Euio^ is harder,. m(^e,p 
or smooths than tbis. .. Happy. ^ 
have found it completed thpugbqut^ obr^^ 
but A® thing was, iat pther^^^^ for^^^^ 

Gern^'n foCr pfcntiiful apd^ ■ 

HodVzeit, we had. a mpst.te^o^ 

miles, through deep smids as far as^!peutscb^.& 


lodges^ i,n 
attends 1 



IMPROVED MAGADAMIZATION. *^^1 

here we halted for the night, and where we funnel gcxxl 
;coininodation and civil and obliging people. 

The patience of our travelling party was fairly put to 
le test during the next day's posting. Although prepa. 
itions for a hard chatissk are making from the Krone to 
^onitz, no trace of road is now visible, and the postilions 
)uk whatever directing they pleased through the desert 
aste and deep sand which accompanied us through 
iie day. 

It is principally in this tract of country that 1 first 
(jticed those gigantic remains of a former world ; those 
hapdess and enormous masses detached from the primitive 
(jcks of Scandinavia; scattered in all directions, and partly 
luried in the sands over which we travelled, but which 
lad been once covered by one wide sea, now contracted 
nto the narrower channel of the Baltic, that separates the 
lountry of the Goths from that of the Scandinavians and 
he Norwegians. These insulated rocks occur throughout 
IWerania, Pomerellia, Courland, Lithuania, and along the 
diore of the Finland Gulf, to the very gates of St. Peters- 
lurgh, in all of which districts I failed not to observe them ; 
examining. them minutely, whenever the slow progress of 
jur vehicles allowed us >to go on foot. These Boulder- 
stones are identical with the rocks found in Sweden and 
Norway, some of the mountains of which countries |»e- 
even now, a great number of those singular blocks 
on their very summits. In looking at the numerous 
heaps of broken fragments of Boulder-stones found in the 
l^russian fields, which the workmen had piled up along- 
side of the road, I was surprised at the great variety of 
specimens which (hey exhibited. Mica-slate rock was very 
prevalent in all its variety of arrangement. Hornblende, 
gneiss, gr^te with white quartz, ^d small specks of 
hlack mica; and the srae rock with larger crystals of feld- 
spar,— like those described by Pini in the rocks of the 
lesser Alps,— imbedded in a matrix of red quartz, foliated 
VOL. I. Z 



BOU LDBR-8TO)9 SS.— -CONITZ. 


in some of iti fractures, and reflcotihg a dassding 
as it lay glittering in the suil;. i The. substructure of the 
sandy soil on which thesei messes Imve been- deposited, 1 
had the means of viewing at a spot wheife R veiy steep hill 
had beenr cut down several feet below the general surface 
around it, and presented red sandstone and limc-stone 
containing organic rehiains. Thei Wter was the case more 
particularly in the vicinity of Labtau, on the road to 
Tilsit, where the Boulder-stones occur in such numbers, 
and of such variety of dimenrions and species, that a geo- 
logist might study, for days together, in this collection of 
gigantic specimens spread for many miles before him, the 
structure of those singular chains of the northern Alps 
of Europe, which von Buch and other eminent naturalists 
have so ably described. 

The Prussian and Russian Governments have availed 
themselves of the presence of these most excellent mate^ 
rials for road-making, to begin a line of communication 
between the two countries, which has been effected in port, 
and which, there is no doubt, will be completed in the' 
course of the next few years, so as to present a system of 
roads equal in solidity and durability to the best roads in 
centrid Europe. 

Conitz is a small walled town, situated in the centre of 
a sandy '^waste. Our civil and talkative landlord at the 
post-house where we stopped for refreshment, on hearing 
that we had recently .left England, inquired intOv the state 
of public opinion in that country respeedng Ihei iherits^^ , 
Mr; Canning, whose death he bewailed most .tpitoously ; 
assuring us that it had struct with disnay the mliD^us 
landholders and oomfactors in thenri^boufhto^^ bgstw^^ 
his great talents were most justly appreciatbdLif ;:^v 
honest Boniface^ ^with equal disinteiiestadfitaM^j^ 
must suppose, a .sindere. aregiurd fQie:^otur peMOSid i tiafrityj 
strove to detain up' 'the nig^t.iliy thellndidyiBcri^ 
he gave us of the road; over wldoh iWS^ ^shoidd haT^ 



' MILITARY ASPROT OF PRUSSIA. 


travel. Hif entreaties, however, had no effect. The di- 
rection of the old road to Elbing, whither we were proceed- 
ing, and wldch passed through Kossabude and Kuyschau, 
had been c;hflnged fbr that of Czersk, Franckenfelde, and 
Stargardt. The distance to the first of these three latter 
places is four German miles and a quarter, to perform 
whidi we employed nearly the whole night The difii. 
culties which this tract of the road presents to macadami- 
zation, have hitherto been considered as insurmountable ; 
but beyond Czersk, that system has been adopted with 
success. We were now traversing that part of Poland 
which Prussia obtained at the memorable tripartite divi- 
sion of that kingdom ; and we found the people speaking 
the ancient language of that country, in preference to Ger- 
man. Every thing and every body wears a military aspect 
in this part of Prussia. A large board at the entrance of 
every village bears inscribed on it the number of the regi- 
ment or detachment of JMndwehr^ to which all the 
male inhabitants capable of bearing arms are temis to 
belong. Soldiers and by no means trouble- 

some or insolent, are seen in every small town. The 
meanest mployi wears a kind of uniSform. The postilions 
have a uniform, and a cockade in their glazed hats; so 
have those who g^ard the forests, and those who super- 
’inteiid the macadamization of the road. In a country 
like Prussia, exposed to the attacks of three powerful 
neighbours, and in the. pr^nt state of what has been 
styled the ^’bolanoe of power, who can ridicule or find 
inult with [a system int^ed to maintain a military spirit 
among the p6pulation^ and to - prepare them to form 
an army 'capable 'of defending theix country in case of 
aggressi<miJ-^v>>^ -'n; 

Immediate^ alter mossmg4he>crifibrated called 
Sehwarti(waa8er,i which ^ fitna one 'the numei^ a lakes 
tbat are>iBet%lth in t^s>pqrt of Pomerania, falls into the 
yistula-^a'f.traveQing'^oaniage halted- in front of in 



UiRSCHAV.’-ROAD ,T0, MAEIBNBURG. 


m 


which- Count Woronzov wognizcd one of his old com- 
panions in axmsy the hercnc^.defei^d^-of Culm, General 
Count OstermanUj who, on account of ill health from the 
numerous wounds he ha4 received in the late war, was 
compelled to leave, the inclement region of the North, and 
direct : his. steps to a more genial climate. This rencontre, 
after days and nighta of tedious travellings served to throw 
some degree of interest on our monotonous, journey,; and 
we' hailed the appearance of this carriage, as the mariner 
hails the first friendly sail in the course of a long voyage. 

Dirschau at last, and the Vistula gliding past it, appeared 
in view. Quitting with delight our sandy road across 
fields, in which groups of children were heard singing the 
hunting-chorus of the Frdschiitz, we trotted through the 
town, having previously changed horses, and reached die 
water’s edge over a most detestable pavement. Here the 
carriages were placed on a flat boat or flying-^bridge, and. 
landed with the party on a sandy island, which divides the 
Vistula from the Nogat river, and is itself intersected by a 
smaller branch of the former stream. As we walked across 
this island ’to the banks of the Nogat, numerous parties of 


country-people met and saluted us with a low reverence 
and aiiionA countak in the patois dialect of the counUy* 

' The remainder of the road to Marienburg is hard, straight,^ 
and quite new. The country around is enlivened hy vil- 
lages, 1 farm-houses, and clusters of ^ttages, wUch V 
speak, < by their appearance, theieasy eircumst^f^ pf thc 
inhabitants* Inde^, the improvem^t.in the |[0jp^t;of the 
country and the state of the road is striking and>m!^t gra- 
tifying all the way to Kbnigsberg* 
of ground, woods of stately; pines, amppga^ ^ 

which we poceived groupe ^ thoee 
have bePn ^readyi described ; 
a high state of caltivarioiii nuv^ 
dressed femafesvand diW 
otheip riding on light, cAar-d^fcs.andi 



CASTLE. 341 

carrying the ^rodtibe' of their farms to the nearest markets 
of ManenWg, or Konigsberg;* excellent post- 

horses; didVbrs, active and good-tempered; civil land- 
lords and. Meifable haltitig-plaiibe^, are^he distinguishing 
features of the between Marienburg and Kbnigsberg, 
so different from that over which we had travelled l)etwcen 
Berlin and the Vistula. The fertility bf this little Delta of 
the Visiula, near and about Dirschau and Marienburg, is 
said to be very great. The corn-harvest returns from 
twenty to thirty per cent. Along the left bank the soil is a 
rich black mould, cultivated for corn and grass, and entirely 
free from wood. The low lands and marshes have been 
gradually drained since the settlement of Swiss, French, 
and Alsacian emigrants in and about this part of Prussia. 
On the right bank, as far as 1 have been able to see during 
our journey, the country abounds in lakes, and the deep 
clayey ^il is covered with immense forests. From a re- 
port published a few years ago, iti appears that there are 
no fewer than three millions of acres of woods in Eastern 
Prussia. ^ 

To the north-east of the town of Marienburg, and on 
the summit of a small hill, fifty feet above the level of the 
•Nogat, 6r right brtoch of the Vistula, and an equal num- 
ber of feet from the bank of the river, stand the riiins 
of the Teutonic Castle, which is so often mentioned in 
the history of chivalrous times. • The whole mass is at 
oiice iinlifedli^ and picturesque, bespeaking the grandeur 
of its fbiriner bdcupaiits, and the purposes to which it was 
deputed; 

in which this castle was built is not 

As k siibple citadelr it waS;in existence 
as faf tiib clOSfe of the thirteenth century. Ife was 

then ^ffl^-ftsiayn* tif bhe bf tho bffibow tha religious 
Ofdei** bf attV&y *om its being coniposed 

ft was gteady cnlwged, 
h the dddiridh'of ‘ that twtt wdiich was afterwards known 



KNIGHTS dir tHK ORDER. 

uiid^ the n^e of the {ihbieht castltl. The Gratid-ma^ter of 
the Order, Godfrey de Hoh^dhe, havihg Prussia, 
and fblthd the knights hi that country in a flourishing 
coqditibn, transferred the seat of the Grand-hlaster from 
Yenice to' the castle of Marienburg, ithich he at the same 
thne caused to be considerably enlarged: This tratisloca- 
tion of the Principal hnd Grand ^joumer was approved of 
and confirhied by an encampment of the knights' held at 
Elbing, on which occasion many of the propositions of the 
Grand-master being opposed, he resigned his ’ high bfUce, 
and retired in disgust from Marienburg. 'His sucbessor 
built the middle and lower castle, as he found the existing 
edidce insufficient for the accommodation of the Splendid 
and numerous retinue of himself and others. Stu^eeding 
Grand-masters built the church of N6tre“i)airie in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the castle, which is still in existence, 
and forms a very prominent feature in the romantic land- ' 
scape of these ruins. After half a century of repose, in the 
year 1410, Marienburg was surrounded and vigorously 
attacked by. Jagellon, King of Poland, at the head of a 
considerable army; and it was during this siege that a 
plan ^as formed by some Bohemian brethren of the Order, 
living in the castle, for the total destruction of the knights^ 
These traitors, corrupted by the gold of the Polish King, 
promised to give a signal whenever the whole ch&pter 
should be assembled in the grand hall of the council, in 
order that the Polish artillery-^men might fire a cannon 
in the direction of the centre of that hidl^ ih l^^s-idutt the 
single pillar, which supports the many ribb^ '^hea^^f 
its vaulted roof, might be carried away, and thus'i^ii^Uili at 
one blb^ Ae whole ebrtfi^^ 'The 

by showing d red eSp but of blie bf ' the uppikf' c^^ 
of the? bnildifig fkeing the Peliidi lartty; ThO-'rftef 'W . 
firedj but passed ■ by ‘ thopifhtr at b ahbilr distance 
and lodged In the upper part of fbefi«i*thlesf'Wahj*w^ 
is to be seen tb this iAiy. The^c^trflhni'W^^^ * 



TJU« KNIGHT-MONKS. 343 

US, toiffk cars. ^o. pqipt out tp our attentiou this memorahk 
shot, wdjfe oanrating the-preced^ that 

the safety iof the .Order oa that occasion, was attributed to 
the intervention of a miraculous image of the Blessed Mary, 
which was at that time in a chapel belonging to the castle. 
The besieging army soon after broke up their camp and 
retired, feaving the knights in the full enjoyment of their 
lordly domain for tlie space of thirty years more ; during 
which .time they were guilty of every species of tyranny 
and yexatioiiv respecting neither the personal liberty nor 
the property. of the neighbouring people; and trampling 
equally under foot the laws of justice and decorum. Galled 
and disgusted at the abominations of the knight-monks, 
the neighbouring burghers entered at last into a coalition 
against them ; brought mercenary troops to combat them ; 
and having claimed the assistance of Casimir, King of 
Poland, in 1457, the latter took possession of Marienburg, 
and drove the Grand-master from the castle. That officer 
retired to Dirschau, on the left bank of the Vistula, and 
left behind him the relics and sacred paraphernalia of the 
Order. The treaty of Thom concluded in 1466, confirmed 
the possession of this fortified place to the crown of Poland, 

which U continued to belong for upwards of tliree cen- 
turies. ^nce that time it was, once and again, taken by 
the Swedes, re-taken by the Poles, and ultimately made an 
iiitcgrd -part of the Prussian dominions under the Great 
Frederick. , In the year 1644, that portion which was 
called the .Old , Castle became a prey to the flames, and 
was leyelled.itp. the ground, even to the subterranean 
chambers,.:;,!; 

The interior, .of iirhat remains standing, has lately been 
put in comply the immediate 

superintendeince, and, 1 believe, et the expense, of Prmce 
Willfem Prusfiayjyirb^ kudafale zeal for anti- 

quities,, and greats jKcspect for . the relics of former times of 
glory exbtipgin hkJkyal, Father's dominions, has of late 



m 


THE HALL ArriTtlE CHAPTER. 


i|iicl«rtAkm.oto se8to»fa&d-jkeepru()>i^ ^most. cele. 

the fw^at) ihitftoiee, dw PtinbeV tiste'a&d rjudgment «ie 
Alike C(m8piciiOU & -.'l .?■.■:! . ;:■ V/ . 

We ekamined every part < of this esitendvd >■ Imildin^, 
preceded i ;by the casteltoy 

masdve ; keys, < under; the aodcm of which, pc^s, ^ seciet 
paxlnehi, and trajMiocHS, suddenly gave* way to>adBiit us 
through lengdiened corridors, lined with the cells, of the 
knight-monks, into their hallsj their doumtodesj end re- 
fectory, and down into the subterranean^ caverns^ ) where 
we remarked parts of the building resembling tombs, 
deep wells, and. dungeons. Filled with the reflections 
which sudi scenes were calculated to excite, we returned, 
with minds but ill-disposed, to view with admiration some 
of the relics and sacred vases belonging, to the Order, 
now preserved in the chapel, into which we were also 
introduced. 

The hall of the chapter, which is by far the most inte 
resting part of the building, is a square of forty-five feet, 
and thirty feet high. An octagond pillar placed in the 
centre, suppprts the vault, most injgettibusly framed. 
The shaft of this pillar is made of one piece of reddish 
dark granite ; the capital and pedestal are of a ealcareous 
stoi^. There are twenty windows, in ttm' roqm^vplaced 
in dctpble rowsi and there are still: visible onid^ walls, 
the repiesentaiions of -the knights in,, 
blupMColpurs«i> The celebrated and bistarical?buU^;<fii^ 
front, the t^ppsite bank of the .riyerysdSt^ijtberl^ 
Tannenhergr is seen imbedded in tbe.walh nbqttm Aet 
from the>gi^Q4,andn 
ITie inscription, which wae 



tins place. 


ErWirfljsif A® 

casements^ mik)lha>giest- ' 



ert p«rt of whicH?ar? re^fesented the arms of the Bucccjwive 
Grandkm«»te»»of In contemplating 

these semlams of th^ now blotted ftom the 

memory of those who live nearest to the ruins, and scarcely 
reoolleeted by others- fis; a;ileetmg traditiou'^in looking on 
thew castdJatcfd warks-f^these turrets and Iwttlements— 
the gloomy doisters, and secret porch which covers the en- 
trance into the sunken hollow cells, where many of those 
adventurers, who returned full of glory from the Holy 
Wars, hadi^passed the last days of their lives, or in which 
the victims of lust and revenge had ended a miserable ex- 
istence ; it is impossible not to recollect Congreve’s beauti- 
ful lines^ constituting, according to Dr. Johnson’s opinion, 
the most poetical description in the English language. 

all is hush’d and stiU as death I ’tis dreadfiil 1 
How reverend is the face of this tall pile, 

Wlio.se ancient pillars rear their marble heads 
To bear aloft its arch’d and pond’rous roof, 

Looking tranquillity ! It strikes an awe 
And terror on my aching sight ; the tombs 
i^d monumentid caves of Death look cold. 

And shoot a chillness to my trembling heart.” 

Motirn^ Bridey 

The Weichsd, or Vistula, at Dirschau, is not so- pic- 
turesque as higher up in Poland. Its stream is narrow 
and ra|]^di > Latge flat-bottomed boats convey the produce 
of thei^eouBtriee^ through which it passes, to the port of 
Dantxig^! iuid^'W thus placed iii direct commuhi- 

cation with the* Baltic ; while, by means of the navigation 
of the Nugiat^ which Me into the Frische-Haff, the cblonial 
produce, ii^^MlinioKdni^beig finds a re^y access to 
Poland/^MbratiUi’aHd'HUftg^ ' ' ' 

Elbing is the guardian port of the entanuicC into the Tis- 
tuku^ ‘ ^ ijpeakingj A iseB^barboUt-, being 

now pliieed|i t4| ^sh^^i^taMce the^Baltie,Vnce the re- 
treat of 'fheAvaimofthe-lktdrfi:^ the Pomeranian shores. 



PRAUENBEKfiu^QFfiRNICUS. 


The towR hear a very neat, and favourable a^searance^ with 
a bustling population and active Gommerdal people, It 
communicates by canals, and the several mhoudmm of 
the Nogat, with the Frisdi&Haff, from which there ig no 
outlet but by the port of FOlau. This intricate navigation 
is injurious to Elbing as a maiitime town; nor would it be 
frequented by foreign traders, but for the privilege granted 
to it by the King of Prussia since its annexaticm to that 
country, of an exclusive commerce^ in two or thriee> articles 
of agricultural produce, from the countries bordering on 
the Vistula. 

Not far from Elbing, where we had passed the nighty oh 
ascending the hill of Truntz, after crossing the most lovely 
and fertile country imaginable, the dark blue waters of 
the Frische-HofF suddenly appeared before us, with the 
small but picturesque town of Frauenburg standing on their 
margin, sheltered under a sandy ridge, which stretches pa- ' 
rallel with the Bay. On part of the rising ground is seen 
the Catholic church, or Duomo, of a tudesque structure, in 
which tile illustrious Copernicus officiated as one of the 
canons, and where his a^es are now deposited It was 
on the very day of his death, in May 1543, at the ad- 
vanced age of seventy years, that this eminent astronomer, 
received from the printer the first perfect copy of that 
celebrated system, which being afterwardl} adopted and 
defended by Galileo, drew on the devoted head of the il^ 
lustrious Italian the most fanatical persecution* ; In one 
of the angles of the wall, by which the cathedral* > su^ 
roundedy rises the obseiratory, in whicb die origiiu^^ i^ 
tions of the Pythagorean philosopEu, PMcdimsy tespe^ 
ing the solar ai^ {danetary systemsi were icnag end Jed* 
duously examined, put to ^e^tmverest 
servations, and iddmately icoafirmed % the^ . 

yet the most modest astfoomer aad'^i^ 
the age. A plaki tablet^ 
grav^ upon it, marks the place when bis Imnaus 



KdNlOSBBRG. 


347 

within the temple. A eommemorative monument of Co.. 
pernicuB is HLao seen in the cathedral at Thorn, the place 
of his birth. 

We were apprized of our approach to Kdnigsberg by the 
distant view of its harbour at Pillau, placed at the north- 
eastern extremity of the Frishe-Haff. The town itself 
came soon after in sight, impressing us with an idea of its 
magnitude, venerable antiquity, and great importance, as 
being ^till" the second city in Pnissia, of which it was 
once the capital. All these {leasing anticipations, how- 
ever, vanished on entering the town, and being driven 
through long, narrow, dirty, ill-paved, and very offensive 
Streets, lined % lofty old-fashioned houses, the basement 
stories of which project far out in the shape of terraces, with 
their flights of steps guarded by antiquated brass railings, 
and are not only very inconvenient to the passage of car- 
riages, hut render that of pedestrians a work of real dan- 
ger. Kbnigsherg is, probably, the only town of its size, 
which, with a population of about one hundred thousand 
inhabitants, has been little enlarged and embellished since 
the return of peace. Every thing is as old-fashioned as if 
the Court of the old Dukes of Brandenburg were still 
held here. Nor are the private and public buildings the 
only antiquated objects in Kdnigsberg ; for the inhabitants 
themselves, in dress and appearance, seem as far removed 
from the present age as their habitations. In one port 
only of the town did I percrive symptoms of gay or mo- 
dern architecture. On crossing over a bridge, shortly after 
having traversed this part of the dty, we first observed a 
range of boats, ctitters/ and galliots, in a sort of canal or 
i>nsin, and fiivther out on the left, Pillau appeared in view, 
^ith a^ew masted vessels of heavy burthen. Another gate, 
the third we had idfeddy gone through^ admitted us into a 
third loiig iiajrjKiWjsti^ dirty 'and chwk, with houses fan- 
tasticidly' spires. The system 

of large and elevated terraces above the street, and in 



34^ KONIGSBERG. 

frout of ea^h house, preyaflihej^ m ei^E^Wh^; ^d whbte a 
number pf shops or warehou^sare ntiiatea,^ the iiiierchants 
or tradc^uieo, ^vith a view of attriuiting the notice of tho 
passenger, to their articles, (necessarily placed, by the ele- 
vated situa,tion of the shops, completely but' of fflglit,) ex- 
pose in front of the terrace a wide paiiit^ board, oh which 
are represented the different commodities to be found in 
their houses. Thus in one part we observed, that th^ linen 
and woollen draper had exhibited, as models of his mer- 
chandize, wooden blocks representing bales of tdoth and 
pieces of linen ; while in another, a bookseller and stationer 
had placed before the eyes of the pedestriaiisj shelves of 
hooks well carved in wood, and painted with full titles on 
their hack, and wooden reams of paper in abundahce, and 
curious imitations of bunches of quills. Our progress 
through the town was beginning to be sadly irksome to ns 
from its slowness and duration ; when, after having ascend- 
ed a very steep and narrow street, we were at last deposited 
at the Oeutschen Haus, in a quiet and retired part of the 
town, and in a house which, from its appearance, must 
have been the residence of some Prussian grand^ bf old. 
Of the Tupre modem part of the town we saw nothing. 
Among the numerous churches which forirtierly existed, 
of them remain now worthy of attention. But the travell^ 
whom commercial business does not bnng to Kdiii^berg, 
and who is merely passing through it, however mixibuls he 
may feel to quit it as soon as possible, shbifld hof dihit to 
pay a visit to the cathedral— a building in; evety Wy re- 
markable, on account of its organ, the ’ tdihhs df old 
pukes of the House of prandienbuijg,’ 

Prussieh monarchy ; wd the monument 

spot where are deposited the tndi^" 

author of Agt angular sy^e^i Sf 

had mgK pi^uc^ ^ tKe coh^lTsiOh^W'thb^fi^ 

popular commotionth ^eihun/y.^^' 

in 1804. 



349 


PHILOSOPHY OF KANT. 


The air of mysticism which prevails in the system of the 
Konigsberg jphiloiwpheE.-- the novel phraseology, adopted 
Mfith a view to make it intelligible— the happy art of ren- 
dering t^t which is dear, abstruse — and the almost im- 
penetrable darkness of tbe dedhitions which the system 
contains, instead of proving fatal to the whole fantastic con- 
ception>. se^ed only to stimulate the German literati to ex- 
ertion in .ei^eavouring to comprehend it. They began by 
admiring the system before they understood it, and their 
entire approbation soon followed, though oil no better foun- 
dation. Having found it impossible to dccypher its mean- 
ing, they proclaimed it a sublime production, lest they 
should be laughed at for the premature eulogiums they 
had bestowed upon it. A system founded on such princi- 
ples, and upheld by such blind veneration, stood on the 
same quicksand on which two of Kant's countrymen have 
since erected a pretended physiological, instead of a me- 
taphysical structure. No wonder that it should soon fall 
into oblivion, froni which it cannot be recalled by any 
human ingenuity of power. The philosophy of Kant has 
not unaptly been compared by a modem writer to a dark 
kntern> 


The iwtronomical observations and papers published by 
Professor have long given to the Observatory of 

Kdnigsterip ^ high degree of celebrity among the scientific 
men of lotions. This gentleman was elected a foreign 
bmeiuer.of the Royal Society of London two or three years 
ago. Itj ^as a piece > of justice, rendered to his great merits 
by thei who was never slow in paying that 

honi9ge ^iipj^e^n, ^^ts, which, really 

paid has published a var- 

riety of ^ astronomy, and h^ de- 


well is forei^ Mtiononiers. Professor fessefs cbn- 



350 


TH»v STRAND. 


stant communications to the sei^tific world on the most 
inteiestii^g points of practical^ and thioreCioal astronomy, 
are every where spoken of in ^ terms of h%h commen. 
dation. - • : ; , . 

On out arrival at Kdnigsberg, a sort of council was 
held, with two or three expetienbed pec^le and the land- 
lord of the inn, on the most prudent course to be adapted 
in regard to our road to Memel, discussing thcf number of 
horses required for tlm three carriages, the great weight of 
two of them, the advanced season of the year, . and the 
boisterous weather which had been lately prevailing on 
the coast. Half an hour given to the consideration of that 
point was not deemed thrown away ; and I would reoom- 
mend to travellers placed under similar circumstances 
to our own, to follow the same proceeding. Two post- 
roads lead from Kbnigsberg to Memel. The one runs 
along a narrow strip of land, which is in the form of a bow, , 
with its convexity towards the main-land, and separates 
the Currische-IIaff from the sea. This is called the 
Strand. *The other follows a circuitous route, and passes 
throligh Tilsit. The first requires, on an average^ twenty 
hours" constant driving (for it is not prudent to Imter 
at a post-house when once on the Stfand) to accomplish 
the distance. Tlie second is one^half as long again, and* 
cannot be got through in less than thirty hours. The 
carriag&'WheelB on the first road arc often up to their axle 
in sand, or plunging through waves. During stormy 
weather, which may supervene at any moment in these 
boisteitdus latitudes^ the situation of a traveller «oti this 
road' is not very comforiaUe : aiid it becomes^ 
embarcesring towards the termination nf. the lipad^ ’fas he 
is obliged to yrui at one or stationer ^piWCd 
times to real danger in a dark nigid^ for 
be sent for from very distabt pbtt^honsca • leiadj^Vbe w$ * 
experience an additioiud inccC^^ 
arrival at the extreme point of the Stiniidi' tD m , 



ROADS TO MEMRL. 


351 

liii carnage in . a boat, for the purpose of being trans^ 
ported to Memel. s The melancholy accidents, though few 
in number, that have occurred on this road, (one or two 
of which were related to us,) combined, with the several 
considerations above detailed, to induce Count Woronzow 
to select the second road^ with an intention of sleeping at 
Tilsit the first night, so as to arrive at Memel about the 
afternoon of the following day. 

We departed early in the morning from the ancient 
capital of Prussia, and plunged boldly through the deep 
hdes and deep sands of the roads to Labiau, with waste 
and desolate land on each side of us, where none but large 
l)locks, profusely scattered in every direction, of granite, 
gneiss, schist, griinstein, and greiwake ; and huge wooden 
granaries, filled to the very roof with sacks of com ; small 
and misei'abledooldng villages, barefooted paymims^ and 
now and then a ludicrously shaped ‘‘accelerated post- 
waggon,*" broke the monotony of our journey. Frpm 
Labiau to Mehlauken, a distance of four German miles, 1 
preferred walking through the antediluvian fields^ examin- 
ing tlie character and positions of the straggling rocks, so 
profusely deposited in this part of Prussia. The slow 
progress iA the carriages, and the precaution of starting 
lialf an hour before them, enabled me to accomplish my 
promenade without much inconvenience. One is really 
glad of any excuse to kill time in this dreary and unin- 
teresting ren^n.; 

The intesesjt which a modern traveller necessarily attaches 
to the town, of Tilsit, was not at all necessary to induce us 
t<^t^oice ^at our airiral in that placte, after the most te- 
dious day'ajommey wee had ever hadisince we left England. 

he towa consisting of; a long and wide street, with 
a few gohdJaokhigt h0Ute|!» too insignificant to detain 
any one be^md a events of 

the. last tirehtsrdyeiragbia die .place a degpree of impofteoce 
^hicli does not intiinsifelly : belong to it. Tilsit is situated 



352 


TIUSIT. 


on the two hanks of the Niement not far fiom the Cur< 
rische-Haff, and midway between. K^gsberg and Memel 
The river is wide, and the stream rapid, but shallow. Nu- 
merous flat-l)ottomed barges descend it annually with Rus. 
sian produce, and return loaded with forrign merehandbi. 
The navigation of the Niemen,.. however,, is by no means 
free from difficulties, owing tO: the shallows and falls. . 
the cutting of the canal at Oginsky, and by means of 
this river, a free communication will be estaUished between 
the Black Sea and the Baltic.. A great number of smaller 
rivers pour their tributary streams into the Niemen, wjhich 
in modern times has witnessed perhaps as many military 
achievements as the Rhine. 

The meeting of Alexander the First, the King of Prussia 
with his Queen, and .Napoleon, in this town, after the 
campaign of I 8 O 7 , has given to Tilsit its present celebrity. 
It was in front of this town, on a raft moored a few yards . 
from the bridge, and in the middle of the river, that the 
interview between the Emperors of Russia and France, for 
the settlement of Prussian affairs, took place on the 14th 
of June of that year. That interview led to . successive 
conferences, and these terminated at last in the welL-known 
treaty of pea^ which bears the name of the town where it 
was concluded. The house in which the confer«mces vert? 
held, and the residence of the crowned hewls whp were 
parties to that treaty, which was; destin^ to be eo soon 
violated, were pointed out to us by the inhabitaptey 
seem to cherish the memory of tW, event as the most re- 
markable m the aimals of thev native pl^ - v! V 

Having satisfied our curiosity m these 
Tilsit, crossing the Niemen pyer a. v^oo^ 
centre part of which is built on 
order to alloiv of the occasicmal passage^! 
removal. ; We pursued pmway 
road in Europe, and reached Meip^^ 



whesre Wfe put iip at a'tolerably doscont inn, ime of the host 
in the town, cidled the 

I was no edbiiei* ^ttifortaMy settled in my room, than 
iriy ears were atsail^d by a volley of « Hip, hip, hip ! Imr- 
ridi! AgaiUi again, again ! hurrah T and a loud knocking 
of glasses a table. The short silence which suc- 

ceeded to this surprising impromptu, was followed by a 
stentorian Vmce, bawling out the first line of Cease, rude 
Boreas,’* so outrageously out of tune, that I had no diffi- 
culty in recognizing, both from that circumstance and the 
noisy acclamations which had preceded it, that a party of 
Knglish seamen were beguiling a few dull hours of the 
evening in this dullest of all the seorports in Europe. Had 
I entertained any doubt on the subject, I shotild soon have 
been satisfied of the correctness of my conjecture by the 
boisterous farewell compliments of the night, hiccui)ed forth 
by two or three voices on the stairs shortly after, and 
certain common-place observations made in loud tone, 
and hi English, by the same parties, in a room adjoining to 
mine. Silence being at last restored, I took advantage of 
the calm to commit my tired carcase to the wooden crib as- 
signed to me for the night, and soon forgot my recollections 
of England suggest^ by this revel, and the English sailors 
at Memel. Ill the morning I learned from the servant, 
that the carousers of the preceding night, and my neigh- 
bours, were a party of ^masters and mates 6f Some Eng- 
lish timber-vessels, trading to Memel, where they had 
hoen detain^ some weeks ; that they fi^uented the 
Itosjji Hotel, where they were very well known as jolly 
(^in]|^ionS' ejEcelleiit pay-masters. 

One c(f' Ae flE^ o^ of ah occasional traveller at 

Memel, Is ' “to' ^ of his Prussian money 

chattgejd The Iom Sustained on 

spirit an obeiia«ta fe'v% and I wbuld, there- 

I'w, whatever country tliey may 

l^appen to be, always to calculate their pecuniary resources 

VOL. I. 2 a 



PRUSSIAN FRONTIER. 


354 

in such a manner, that either they shall have but little 
left of the money of the country whicli they are about to 
leave on reaching the frontiers^ or that they may keep wluit 
remains for their return. On a sum of 980 l^ussian rix- 
thalers, which were changed by a broker on the present oc- 
casion into silver and paper roubles, the currency of Rus. 
sia, a loss was sustained eqiiid to 826 flinics. This may 
appear an unimportant subject to some of my readers; 
butr the effect of such repeated exchanges is such, that a 
person starting from England, with the whole sum of 
money necessary to carry him through all the principal 
countries in Europe, and choosing to possess whatever sum 
he may chance to have left, in the cuirent coin of each 
now state, will find, at the conclusion of his perc^gnnar 
tions, that one-half of his original sum has actually passed 
into the hands of money-changers. 1 am sorry also to be 
compelled to state, that the disposition to cheat on the 
part of landlord, servants, brokers, and shopkeepers, with 
whom 1 hod to deal in this place, and most of whom he- 
longcd to the tribes of Israel, was such as completely to 
discourage me from having more intercourse with them 
than was strictly necessary. Verbum saty to those who may 
be indined to visit Memel. 

The road from Memel to the frontier follows the seak 
shore, imd is consequently none of the easiest. It is io 
faet a desert of deep sand, through whidi it is possible 
to wade without an additional number 
mersAtt, the last Prussian post-house, 
the horses were changing, and proceeded 
frontier harntre. After exhibiting got >iespiset^A^^ 
ports to the Prussian officer on duty, a bar^^paMediwiiit^ 
and black in serpentine stripes^: wbick ky acei^^. 
was raised at a signal, and thecttriu^l^ tdh^ 
leaving Prussia behind, and entisring on theineiUniIgBQUBd) 
or sea of sand, ^hich w^ratea^thidt 
vanced ftontier-lide of ^ the Russiaa .empircK' > 



BMOUSH ANU RUSSIAN DOUANES. SDS 

On proceeding towards the terrt^e of Russia we hud a 
full view of the* Baltic, and an immense forest of pines 
stretching from; the sea-shore U) a great distance on our 
rightj.the roadvappearing to pierce through it. Our pass- 
ports were now, once more, exhibited to a subaltern officer 
Cossacks ; and the red and white painted bar being 
raised, we enteredrthe mighty empire of Russia exactly one 
calendar month, after quitting London. The Count, who 
had all along tray^ed in .fdam clothes, had, on approach- 
ing his native country, assumed the undress unifonu be- 
longing to his rank, and was received at the barrier with 
military honours. A Cossack soldier, immediately after, 
mounted his fleet horse, took up his lance, and escorted us 
toPolangen. 

The great business, of travellers, who enter Russia at 
Polangen, is with the Custom-house-officers, who,itiniiKtbe 
acknowledged, perform their duties strictly and to the very 
letter. To such travellers two words of advice will not 
be useless. Declare at once every article in your baggage 
liable to pay duty, or it will be confiscated ; and be civil. 
The carriages were driven into the yard of the Custom- 
house; to whiohtare annexed several spacious magazines, 
serving as dep 6 ts for merchandize introduced in Russia 
through this fiiontiier. The servants were left to attend to 
the necessary ceremony of visiting every part of die bag- 
gage, wliieh dccupii^ about two hours, while we proceeded 
to the poathouker^ the village^ kept by a Jew, the place 
lieing mosQyf jiitobited by people of that nation. There, 
% thp first itime^lwe experience the luxury of a travelling 
Fi^'ch ctmbiiiid batlerie de cuisinei Vfhkh until now had 
keen uselean ipipeAdiiges to our equipage. That most use- 
persbnage hads pceceded ua^ this occasiDn, and pre- 
pared a dehghtfuljiMiaH^^ which was improved by. 

die excclkm^ whe^eu br^ l^found in the fdaice. 

in front ^f^^:po8tf4l(lU0O is erected a high and square 
•pillar, bearing on each df three of its sides one of the fol- 
2 a2 



356 CUSTOM-HOUSE RlfVl6JU]^S Ar t’OLANGEN. 

lowing inscriptions/ imtten in this'G^ and Russian lan- 
guages : ‘^32(1 post statioh fr6ih St.Pbtersburgh, 836 j versts; 
from Mittau versts ; &otn Mbscow 1343J versts.’" 

After dinner I attended at the Cuktona-hbuse in Order fo 
facilitate the expedition of our bagga^. The officers had 
most minutely rummaged the whole, ahd iflode out a listof 
articles for which duty was to be paid, aihoiihting to about 
four hundred roubles. This bring dotie, ' we sbOh' 
ourselves at liberty to proceed. It has often been as- 
serted by English travellers, that the douane on this frontier 
is vexatious and unusually strict, and that every thing in 
turned out, handled, and examined. To judge from iny 
own experience, 1 should say that the system is as like that 
followed by the officers at Dover as any two systems can be. 
There also, as I know to my cost, every article was turned 
out, handled, and examined with perfect civility, on my 
return to England*; and with baggage consisting of a 
couple of imperials only, after experiencing a delay of 
nearly two hours, 1 found myself taxed to the amount of 
nineteen pounds, althougli I had not a single article of mer- 
chandize. At Polangen, on the contrary, with the same 
quantity of baggage, and a great many medical books, 1 
had not a single kopeeck to pay, even after the severest 
scrutiny of the contents of my imperials. The charge ot 
four hundred roubles was borne by the General for Eng- 
lish articles contained in that part of the luggage whicli 
brionged to his lady ; which articles, having never been 
used, "were necessarily liable to the existing duties. Now, 
at both the Dover and London Custom-house, I havc^n 
compelled to pay, within the last few months, for fmSgn 
linen, which had positively and hon& Jide be«i used. On 
which side, therefore, is the difference for die worse, if a 
difference exists between the two systems ? Soyom de 
home foL I am no admirer of custoiiirhbuses. I think’ 
them the pest of society, and smuggling ' its antidote. 
But AS such evils, it seems, must exist, and as England 



CUSTOM-HOUSB REVENUBS AT POLANGEN. 33J 

has thfsm in. as full force, as any nation in Kiiropc, let us 
he just) and not grujnble against foreigners for following 
a similar System. ^ incredible how rapidly the amount 
of revenue derived frona the Polangen Custom-house has 
been increasing in the last six years. In 182 ii it was less 
than three thousand roubles; in it was little short 
of one million of the same money. How will political 
economists explain this phenomenon ? 



CHAPTER X. 


ILUSSIA. 

Tlie Jews of Polangen. — Amber and amber trinkets.— Russian Posting. 

— Podoroshna. — Kurlandia. — Forests. — Statistics. — Roads. — To- 
pography. — Mittau. — French Ancien Regime. — Princess Michael 
G— — . — Hie Governor Baron de II——. — New Roads arid Canals. 

— Corn->harvest. — Smuggling on the Coast.— Great public works in 
progress in the province of Kurlandia. — Palace of the ancient Dukes ' 
of Kurlandia. — Precipitous descent over the Aa. — Riga. — View of 
the Dwina. — The Bridge. — Picturesque distribution of the Town.— 
Marquess Paulucci. — General Cobley. — Passports. — Police regula- 
tions respecting foreigners. — Interior of Riga. — Public buildings.— 
The oldest house. —The new Suburbs. — Liberality of the present Em- 
peror.— Nm of the Capture of Erivan.— Commerce.— Inns,— Sav- 
ing of bed-room bells. — The Post Road,— VoLMAR. — DonpAT.-,, 
The University.— Professors Struve and Ledebuhr. — The Livonian 
Noblesse. —Specimen of modern Academical education in Russia. — 
The Lake Peipus.— Monsieur Joukowsky.— Wandering Jew Minstrel. 

— A new wonder for a season in London^Fortifications of Ivangorod. 

—View of the Gulf of Finland. — Macadamized Roads.— New Post- 
houses^NARVA.— Kupeu.-4-Germau Colony j-rPaper hj^ufactory. 
— Imperial Palace.— S trrln a. — N oblemen’s yillas.^^trwce into 
St. PRTSRSRUROn. ■ ’ 

As we halt^ at Polang^ on a Satui^day; iif«e #toe«aved 
from the attacks of the Je’w h'ad^s in Ahite are 
numerous in this village, and who 6n^a»y bdit^ in the - 
week seldom fail to surround the tt^VeBertf Mih 
of trinkets made of that material. ' Strdi^ ata* is generally , 



POLANGKN. 


supposed to be the desire of making money, wliich actuates 
tliat nation, it is creditable to tliem, as observers of their 
religious tenets, that on no account will they infringe the 
solemnity of their Sabbath-day by commercial transactions 
of any kind. On this occasion, when there would have 
been a fair opportunity of turning their industry and in- 
genuity in the manufacture of articles of amber to a good 
account, neither spontaneously, nor after some solicitation, 
could one individual of that nation be prevailed upon to 
show a single specimen of their manufacture. W e had, 
however, procured some at Kbnigsberg and Memel, in both 
which places the trade in amber is pretty brisk ; ami ul 
Polangen we were contented with contrasting the difference, 
between the despised Israelite and many of the Christians, 
in tlie observance of the precept of “ keeping holy the 
Sabbath-day,” so much in favour of the former. 

Of a population of 1400 inhabitants in Polangen, no 
fewer than 600 are of the Jewish persuasion. We ob- 
served them perambulating the ilifferent streets right and 
left of the wide road which traverses the village, in their 
gala dress. The men were uniformly clothed in a long 
l(M)sc garment of an ash colour, reaching to the ground, 
and fastened round the waist with a broad belt, wearing a 
•very broad brimmed round hat, and a beard which reaches 
helow the chest. The v^omen, clad in the costume of their 
nation, in gaudy colours, ^d glittering with gold, par- 
ticularly in their head-dress, reminding us of the fair 
Rachels painted by the great Italian masters, and of the 
appearance of the lovely Rebecca so beautifully pourtrayed 
hy Scott in Ivanhoe. 

During our stay at Polangen, I employed my time in 
a very , ji>H t . canv^sation with the post-miteter, an 
inteUigent the subject of aipber. It a[)- 

• ]Xiarsthat /»jbj^tynce is found by the inhabitants on 
the coast hetwi^en Pjllau, either hwsely on 

the shc^e, ;on At h^ been thrown by the stroi^ north 



360 AMUKR, AND AMBER TRINKETS. 

and westerly winds, or in small hillocks of sand near 
the sea, where it is found in regular strata. The quantity 
found yearly in this manner, and on this* small extent of 
coast, besides what little is sometimes discovered in beds 
of pit coal in the interior of the country, is said to^amoimt 
from 150 to 200 tons, yielding a revenue to the Govern^ 
ment of Prussia, of about 100,000 franes. As amber 
is much less in vogue in Western Europe than in former 
times, the best pieces, which are very transparent j and 
frequently weigh as much as three ounces, are sent to 
Turkey and Persia, for the heads of their expensive pipes 
and liookahs. Very few trinkets are now sold for ornaments 
to ladies' dresses, and the great bulk of amber annually 
found is converted into a species of scented spirits and 
oil, which are much esteemed for the composition of deli- 
cate varnish. In the rough state, amber is sold by tlie 
tun, and forms an object of export trade from Memel and , 
Kbuigsberg. 

The starting from the first Russian post-station, with 
post-horses, calls for a trifling operation on the part of 
both native and foreign travellers. Both require a special 
permission for the hiring of post-horses, without which no 
post-master is authorised to supply horses— but foreigners 
must, in addition to such a permission, procure a written 
cloration from the superintending oflicers of Government, 
that having presented themselves to his office in due form, 
and furnished with the necessary passport, they are al- 
lowed to proceed. Being anxious to comply with every 
existing regulation of the country I was about to -enter, 
I dispatched ray own personal passport < to the proper 
authority, with that of the nobleman with whom J «ttovelled ; 
although it is probable that 1 might have been considered 
as part of his suite, and as such, su|Pered< to prooeed uw^ 
tested. The passport was returned 'to md? with' a written 

declaration, purporting that the bearer^ - mention 
name, from' Xiondon, had presented himself ai 'ike frontier 



RUSSIAN PASSPORT. 361 

of Busflia; had undergone, with his luggage, a proper and 
strict examination, and was allowed to proceed to St. 
Petersburgh, after having presented himself at the Polizei 
Bureau, to receive aU necessary instructions as to his jour- 
ney. These instructions = are a mere matter of form. On 
this subject again, muchilliberitl animadversion, savouringof 
partiality, has beeii bestowed by English travellers. W he- 
ther such a syistein of inquiry into the name and condition 
of foreigners about to enter a country is just or |x)litical, 
or the reverse, it is not ray province to determine; but 
that a system in toto similar to the one just described, 
exists at the frontier town of England, Dover, is so noto- 
mm, that the travellers to w^mld allude, must have been 
aware that the force of their animoilversions fell equally on 
the institution of their own country, as on that which more 
[)articu]arly called for their displeasure. A foreigner who 
arrives at Dover, even at this time of profound peace, is 
bound, besides going through the different ceremonies and 
rumniagcs of the Cu8tom-hou.se, to exhibit his passport ; de- 
clare the purport of his visit to England, his trade, pro- 
fession, or other personal character and occupation ; give 
in the name of two well-reputed housekeepers in London, 
to whom he is known-^-and lastly, leave in the posses- 
^ sioii of the officer or clerk his passport, receiving in ex- 
change a printed permission to proceed to London. This 
striking parallel might he pursued farther; but such a 
course is not to the present purpose of my observations, 
which go simply to prove that what an Englishman com- 
plains of in Russia^ is precisely that of which a Russian or 
any other foreigner would have as much right or cause 
to compllun of in England. Again, I say, Sojfom de bonne 

The pennisinon respecting posthenrses, which I liefore 
' mentionedy and ‘WhiCh both Russian and foreign travellers 
must take' out before they'cati proceed, is called a Pod*)- 
roshnai -This It a mow order for horses clmrgeahle with 



362 GOVBRNMfiNT OP OOUHLAND. 

a tax, aildressed to post-niasUrs, perfectly dUtiact from a 
passport^ and granted by the Govenoc-general of the pro. 
vince or government, in the name of the Emperor. The 
produce which thk source of revenue yidda to Government 
serves to keep up, in part, the posting establishments. The 
charge fmr horses is so low, tliat without some extra resource 
and assistance, post-masters could, not . exist*. . The charge 
paid on the delivery of the Podoroshna is calculated on the 
number of horses which it is intended to take on. the jour* 
ney, and on the whole distance in versts. 

The Government of Courland (I^urlandia)^ through 
which wc travelled after leaving Polangen, extends over a 
surface of four hundredpand seventy-three Square miles, 
its extreme length being fifty-four miles, and the extreme 
breadth thirty miles. The country in gmieral is flat and 
sandy ; and the only really fertile soil to be found, is an 
extent of little more tlian sixty miles, near the frontier of 
Lithuania. Two-fifths of the surface of the country are 
covered with woods, through one of wliich we passed before 
evening. In penetrating these northern forests, as the pos- 
tilion, quitting the deep sandy joad,. followed the various 
and tortuous tracts through cme of them which laid on our 
left, and ran over a soil maide hard and smooth by succeasive 
deposits of fallen leaves, the impression received was grand ^ 
in the extreme. Here the fir, the Scotch pine^ the spruce, 
and the silver-leaved fir, and the Imrch, mingled together, 
form those vast magazines which supply Europe with 
masts, deals, jntch and tar. The ulmm emptstruy too, or 
elm ; the tilia ^ lime, the iimer bark of which 

serves for so many useful purposes in Russia and aflfiinls 
materials for their mats ; ^ birch, the 4der,; syca.* 
more, the mountain ash; tH'e beech, aiid poplar; rOnd oocor 
sionally a stately oak, are seen, either in groups or large 
masses, or occur only as solitary tr^s, in variou^- parts of • 
these forests. 

From the statistical accounts published in 182^, in a , 



STATISTICS OP COUKIiAND. 363 

per caDed Feuille des Provinces dela Baltique^hy the Rev. 
JS. Watsbn, the materials of which were collected in the 
course of a residence of twenty-nine years in that country, it 
appears that twenty ^threei square miles of the whole surface 
of Gourland are occupied by marshes, upwards of three 
hundred lakes, and one hundred and eighteen rivulets, of 
which forty-four enter the river Aa^ thirty-five the Vindau, 
six the Dwina^ and thirty-three fall into the sea. At the 
last census, the number of inhabitants through the goveni- 
ment amounted to 384, 7B9,* of whom 361,162 profess 
the Lutheran religion, with one hundred and forty-one 
churches, and 23,627 other persuasions, with nineteen 
churches. With the exception of 30,000 people whoinhar 
bit the towns, boroughs, and hamlets, the whole of the 
above population live in farms or other country habitations. 
Of six hundred and ninety-two farms in Gourland, one 
liundred and seventy-two belong to the Crown. Assuming 
the total extent of surface of this Government to be only 
that which is not covered by woods and riversj the number 
of souls to each square mile is 1500. There ore in the whole 
government or province 22,839 houses, consequently each 
house lias from thirteen to fourteen inmates. 

The roads are very sandy; their great width particularly 

* struck me; they are about three times the breadth of the 

German roads ; the soil is loose, and confined on each side 
by basket-work. Beyond the side ditches, a double row 
of trees, genially small and stunted, is planted all along 
the road. The postilions drive at a brisk rate^ and at 
each verst^ or one-third of two English miles, the traveller 
bas the comfort of knowing, by the inspections of the lofty 
stakes oa toe road,^ ' not only versts he has run 

»nce he left toe post-house^ but dso the number he 

• * Theuuinjtor/iqo^ by the Journal de St, Petersbourg, 1st ^arch 
^828, amounts only to 383,003 ; there has, therefore, been a fleCTcase in 

population of 1780 inhabitants^ the course of three years, according 
to the two siccouhts. ' ■ ' ’ ’ 



RUSSIAN POSTILIONS^ 


has to perform before reaching the Rext. At each of these 
establishments alsovhe iindfi a pOBt» on die outside, similar 
to that at Polangen ; wliiob bearsi the name of the place 
and the distances from the frontier to the cajdtid— to Mos- 
cow, and to one or two principal towns in the government 
By copying ^ with accuracy the information, thus succes- 
sively obtained, 1 was enabled to draw up a mardi-route 
from Polangen to St Pctersburgh, more exact than those 
1 had found in my guides or foreign postjnaps. This will 
be found in an Appendix at the end of the Second Voliune. 
At every post-house the podoroshna is shown to the post- 
master, who is obliged to register an extract of that docu- 
ment, including the name of the traveller, number of horses 
allowed, and destination. 

The first forest which we entered continued for upwards 
of twenty English miles, and the road through it, selected 
by the postilions, in order to avoid the deep sands of the . 
main road, is at times very uneven, full of holes, and in- 
cumbered with stumps of trees. The jolting is conse- 
quently’* frequent, and almost intolerable. We at last 
emerged from this wood, and after crossing the Lwke and 
Bartau rivers, reached Tadaiken, where we breakfasted at 
the posti-house, in a warm and commodious apartment. 
The villages throu^ which we passed, consist of a row of"‘ 
wooden houses on each side of the road, stKRigly builV and 
at some distance from each other, generally thatched, and 
warrted by stoves made of a species of tetra cotta^ The 
furnitui^ of the post-houses is plain and neat;^ The wooden 
floors ace strewed with sand and small branch of ’fiivtrees, 
which impart to the room the peculiar smell of ithat plant- 
Having taken the precautioh of sending ah aidfeHe or 
nvdnt-cow^er to order the horses, we had tl^ossafttfacti^ 
of not being declined at any the pbst-hbua08.i«'.*Tliisica»' 
cumstance, And the furious hite we?.w«i^ drife«> * 

combing to render our journey less -tedibftg t ha uft lie tAone- 

tony of forest scenery, perpetually rcdurring^/afadisddoin 



ROAD FROM‘<TADAlJtKN TO SCnRUNDKN. 305 

diversified by- Any break or undulation in the landscape,— 
and the, to UBj unintelligible jargon spoken by the people 
with whom we had to deal (a jargon bearing no aifinity to 
Gertnan, Russian, or Polish) j would otherwise have 

Hiadcit-' j 

FroiuTadaikon to Schriinden, the country presents the 
appearance of more careful cttldyatiou^ and the villages and 
farm-houses ^are more numerous. ^ The road between these 
two places aspendaa gentle ridge, which runs in a north 
and south direction. At Schriinden we crossed the Vin> 
dau, oiie of the principal rivers in the Oovernment of Cour- 
laDd,> which > falls into the Baltic, near to a small .town 
bearmg> th€ name of the river, where formerly existed a 
building-yard for merchant-vessels. Wc stopped to dine 
at Frauenburg, where we were quite delighted with the 
entertainment and accommodations afforded us by a most 
civil and well-mannered landlady and her daughters, whom, 
to judge by their dress, demeanour, and easy conversation, 
w<s could hardly have expected to have met with in such a 
places Beyond Frauenburg, the road is very sandy in 
the plain, and rough and uneven over the hills. Forest 
scenery prevails again throughout this district. Night 
overtook us on the border of one of these forests, at a small 
place called Bechof, where the accommodation for our party 
being very scanty, 1 volunteered passing the night in . the 
close carriage, the external temperature being thenat twenty- 
five degrees of Fahrenheit, or seven degrees below the freez- 
ing-point The night was magnificent, and I do not recol- 
lect contemplating A more brilliant starry firmament than 1 
did on that^casion. ! :Qn the;following morning, the 22nd 
of October^ the jSrst snow fdl 'SfJuchhad been seen that sea- 
son. Raving ; changed horses at Doblen, a small village 
situated on :'theThiiiikB ;pf the.^!^eise, we proceeded on our 
way toMittau/! Chathis partof therpad, which is tolerably 
andiOifcwliWi we Were driveii ata fulj gallop, we 
crossed tk*ee . small rivers, the principal of which falls 



LOUIS XVIII: AT MITTAU. 


into the Aa. The country in general & barren. Forests 
are seen at various distanoes^^ and, here and there, somo 
ploughed fields and flax“ plantatidns. - At the end of a 
long and tedious sandy bommon, the to\<m .of Mittau, 
the ancient capital of Courland, presents itself, where we 
arrived at twelve o'clock in the day, and put up at the 
St. Petersburgh Hotd, the best inn in the town, eonnsting 
of a great number of scattered apartments, a Idng billiard 
room, and two or three private sitting rooms near it^ tolera- 
bly clean. The French landlord, a chatty old Mow, be^ 
longing to the anckn repnte^ had been frtaifre d^hbtd to 
Louis XVlll., when that monarch resided at Mittau, du- 
ring {)art of his long exile frdm France. He told us, that 
having left Paris after the storming of the Bastille, he had 
followed the fortunes of the emigrant Bourbon princes; 
fought in many bloody actions by their side, was w’ounded, 
maimed, and rendered incapable of eficetive service, and . 
being rewarded with a situation in the household of 
Count de Lisle, came with his Christian Majesty to this 
place af^ the dose of the last century* When that mo- 
narch quitted Courland for Warsaw, our Parisian host 
took the large house he now occupies, and embarked in 
his present career of landlord, during twenty years of 
which he had reedved under his roof. Emperors, Kings, ** 
and Princes, together with a long list of illustrious cW 
racters, many of wheUn had since made their exit from the 
worldly stage. Although Monsieur Morel (for that was 
his name) had married a woman of Mittau, and had been 
living in Coiu'land upwards of twenty yeans, he had hot 
learned a single word of the language of the countvy;; And 
yet he was fully acquainted with the affairs of everybody 
of consequence who lived in it He Seemed niot Ui have 
forgotten his oWn history, and to have learned at thhiaandl 
time that of every oUe else. ^ We however forj^ve him * 
freely his little impertinences, fof the fsiUMent dinner d /a 



PRINCE AND PRINCESS MICHEL G . 3gy 

Franfaise, with whkh he regaled us. Only imagine a 
dinner d la Fcry, in the sandy desert of Courland ! 

The Prince Michel G— ^and his Princess, who is a 
niece of the Count, and an intimate acquaintance of the 
Countess, called on them on hearing of their arrival. 
Hesides her own personal attractions to recommend her to 
respectful notice, this lady has the advantage of being the 
daughter of the late Prince SouvarofF, who bore so dis- 
tinguished a part in the military achievements of the last 
fifty years of the past century. The Princess had just 
returned from Italy and Dresden, to both which places 
she had gone for the recovery of her health, and was now 
imfMitient to return to St. Petersburgh. The opinion of 
her physician, however, being decidedly against such a 
plan, she preferred remaining at Mittau, on the very 
threshold of her native country, rather than again lead a 
wandering life as an invalid, subject to the fancies and 
schemes of French, Italian, and* German doctors, by 
whom she had been attended. 

Baron de H— -, the Governor of the Provittce, also 
visited the Count, and informed him that the Emperor 
was expected to leave the capital in a few days, on a visit 
of inspection to some important military stations in the 
governments of Pscow, Vitepsk, Wilna, Kurlandia, and 
Jjivonia, with other views of interest, which were highly 
welcome to a party of traveliers who had been, as it were, 
secluded from the busy world for the s{)a€e of nine days 
after quitting the capital of Prussia. 

. We learh^ on this occasion, that indifferent as the roads 
had appeared to us, they were considerably worse, par- 
ticularly in the iinmet^te neighbourhood of Mittau, 
when the Baron took possession Of his government. On 
the side! of Riga the toad consists chiefly of an arti- 
ficial soilj^ Taised and contained by basket-work on each 
^de, and streo^ened^ by trunks of trees with their 



368 RUSSIAN jRQADS, CANALS, &C. 

branches laid crossways, and. a qiiantity pf sand thrown 
over them. It appears Uiat some xmtip^ the 

Russian and ^ Prussian Opvernments uniting to make a 
macadamized or hard rpiid, from Riga toJECdnigsherg, in 
a direct line, and through Tilsit, avoiding Polangen, Me. 
me], and the Strand, or sea-rpad ; thus rendering the 
entrance into their respective States worthy . of the two 
Sovereigns. Should this piu^ect,. which as yet remains 
m petto, be carried into exertion, travellers going to or 
coming from Russia on this side, will have reason to bless 
the memory of the monarchs by whose orders so desii-able 
an improvement will have been effected: for tlie crossing 
of the Alps, the asc€^ing of tlie Pyrenees, or the travers. 
ing of the Sierra Morena, are comparatively more easy, 
although more hazardous journeys, than that which we 
performed from Kbnigsherg to Riga. The new or prt)- 
jeeted road will also have the great merit of being shorter . 
than the present one,* if it be made to pass by Boloky, 
Koltiniany, ^^arny, Berschany, across the Blandangcrsche 
Berg, a low range of hills .running in a north-west and 
south.«asteTn direction, nearly through Courlond, at. 
Schawly, whence there is a high road, (although bad and to 
he re-made of course,) in a straight line to Mittau and 
Riga. By the present road,, the distance from: Riga to 
Polangen is 272J versts, and 22 German roiles^ from the 
latter place to Konigsberg, taking the road by the sea- 
shore, but ten miles farther if die circuitous road through 
Tilsit be preferred. But should the new road be accom- 
plidied, the distances would be reduced to eight aad ahalf 
German miles from Konigsberg to Tilsit, (this roadix) be 
made good,) and 190 versts &gm the latter placi&tQ Riga* 
Several new^ canals Ire about ta be 
this part of the Russian empire, diready so. eddi^ted 
for i(;|5 int&mal navigation. Bacrfem ala^ 

it is thus intended to affind to^A^ 
tunity of sending their com down to the si^side^ which» 



CORN ANd GONTRARAND IN COURLAND. 3G9 

being ffln^ked on the Aa^ will thence, by a canal, pass 
into the river ViiMiau, and be Corive^^^ by a second 
canal to Liebnu, a seaport on thfe coast between Polan- 
gen and Vini^*. At present %he country people ire 
compelled’ to send the pVoduce of their lami in carts, 
over sandy and difficult roads, to that port. The navi’ 
gation and commerce of Liebau have lirnde great pro- 
gress in the course of last The number of vessels 

which sailed.fnmi that port, were, in 1826, 180 onlj, and 
they*had increased to 284 in 1827. The value of gixids ex- 
|)orted in theitome year amounted to 3,428,493 roubles ; 
that of the goods imported, to 450,886 roubles. This 
proves the importance of having a i^ct water-communi- 
cation to that seaport ^ and furnishes also one other ex- 
ample, out of many, of the active trade carried on by 
Russia, which receives in foreign goods little more than 
one-seventh of the \alue of her own goods exported. An- 
other projected line of canal communication will join the 
Dwina to the Aa and the Memel, so that a free inland 
communication will exist between Riga, Mittau, and 
Memel. The difficulties arising from the want of proper 
means of conveyance in the disposal of the abundant crops 
of Courland, in this and several of the preceding years, 
which had' filled their granaries to a degree almost un- 
jirecedented, Were increased by the existing prohilntory 
laws respecting < the introduction of foreign manufactures 
m part payment and in return for the corn to be sold, 
i hese cireumstancecb 1 had heard it asserted afterwards 
l^y other intdligent mdividuals, had caused a great depres- 
sion of the agrieulturid interest^'' afi^ several 

farmeiv tof^tlmW'Up their fkrms; whilst, the same pro- 
iubitctty-liiwabttd given rise to a tnfist extensive and daring 
contraband,' whirii/tras' carried on along the coasts of that 
pitmnc^ ;>;It was irepor that the gfeat rigi- 

iance of the in put- 
ting down this ilUdlt traffic. t 

VOL. 1. 2 b 



i MITTAU. 


370 

Other public works of importance are now carrying on 
in Courland as well as ui the neighbpuring Government 
of Xivonia. Among these may be mentioned a vast under, 
taking, which was begem as far back aa the year 1810, 
and is now carrying on with activity, for the pur}x)se of 
discovering the salt mines, supposed, from tradition, to 
have existed in those two governments. Messrs. Ghnan 
and Liachnicki, a rich landholder in Lithuania, witli 
two persons belonging to mining corps, have been 
authorized by the Minister of Finance to- begin every 
requisite operation for so desirable an object : and the 
report of the last-mentioned gentleman, who relies on the 
known existence of some saline springs in the country for 
the discovery of more extensive salt mines, seems to lead 
people to hope that an article so essentially necessary to 
life may be found in Courland. At present salt is iin. 
ported into that country from abroad, and its great cou- 
sumption causes a heavy loss of capital, tends to keep up 
its price, and frequently to cause a distressing scarcity of 
the article itself. It does not, however, appear that any 
vqry decided success has crowned the efforts of these gcu- 
legists. 

We left the St. Petersburgh Hotel in the afbmoon, be- 
coming naturally more impatient to conclude our juameV 
as we approached nearer to the capital. As; we drove 
through the streets, we had suiBcient opportunity of ob- 
serving that the town is smalh ill-built, and worse paved. 
My second visit to it, on my return Aom St Petersburgh, 
confirmed these observations. . The. hDuseB\ai«))chiefly built 
of wood, painted either green, a dark sieima or browu, with 
the architraves'of the windows white. The^ grotesque Ap- 
pearance which these pictorial decosationm .sq; generally 
adopted, give to the streets is very 8t^pg< bsii^fioaiit 
as the town may appear in general, to ilia who had; 
so many days in deserts of sand 
was quite cheering to behold its bulhlings, and 



FLOATING BRIDGK OVKR THE A A. 


a7i 

ami bustling population, which amounts to about 10,000, 
and is composed of Litonians, Russians, Prussians, French, 
Poles, and Jews, besides the Courlandians. The nobility 
and gentry of Courland assemble at Mittau at stated times 
for the dispatch of business connected with the provincial 
administration, such as the levying of taxes for municipal 
purposes, the making and keeping the roads in repair, the 
maintaining the troops station^ in the country, and other 
matters; and they also reside in it during the winter, 
when Mittau is said to become the scene of mirth and 
gaiety equal to that of any other city in Europe. 

After leaving the town, we passed in front of the Palace 
of the ancient Dukes of Courland, rebuilt by the last Duke 
Biron out of the ruins of the old castle. It stands on a 
broad elbow of land formed by the river Aa. It is a 
large pile of building of a daiizling whiteness, and of an ir- 
regular form, yet altogether pleasing to the eye, were it 
not for the red tiles, or some other outrageously red cover- 
ing on its roof. In this chateau, which even so late 
as a few years back was surrounded by bastions and a 
moat, now no longer existing^ the exiled Count de Lille 
was permitted by the Sovereign of Russia to hold his 
court for some time ; and the illustrious daughter of Louis 
XVl. gave her hand to the Duke of AngoulC^inc. 

Proceeding a little farther wc crossed the Aa twice, 
(>n a floating bridge, consisting of loose and thick planks 
of timber, connected together at each extremity, and d 
/car (Teau, N^ar the first bridge is the port, where we 
observed a number of large barges and single-masted ves- 
sels, moored on each side. The second bridge lies 
over a narrower fai'anch of the river, and offers a curious 
descent upon it- from the road, which is overlaid with tim- 
Iht, and nearly perpendicular, and from which the car- 
nages are' literally precipitated, rushing in that manner 
upon the loose plants* of the bridge with a tremendous 
/rash, the water sp&hing in all dii^tiabs, and the posti- 



^ KOAb TO RIGA. 

lion driving ail the while at a furious rate ^wii' the pro- 
dpice,’and over the brid^, to wVe the' hoii^ from bring 
overpower^ by the weight of the can%e. As 1 had a 
full opportvinity of first witnessing the passing in this man- 
lier of Count Woronzow’s (ravelling chariot; which to me 
appeared to have been actually pirempitated from the l)ank 
into the river, 1 did not quite admire the UecMsity 1 was 
of following it, until at last I percrived it safe on 
the other side ohhe river. 

The Aa, at Mittju, must not be confounded with another 
river of the sarnie name distingiushedby the prefix Boulder, 
which, taking its origin in the district of Vender, near 
P^bfdch, in Livonii^ passes under the towns' of Woliiiar 
and Vender, and falls into the Gulf of Riga. The Aa, 
which passes through Mittau, enters the same gulf, hut 
so near to the mouth of the Dwina that it mingles its 
waters with that river before it loses itself in the sea. Tht- 
free sovereignty of 'Courland ceased to exist in 1785, 
when Catherine II. annexed it to the Russian Empire. 

The road to Riga, passing through Olai, is much of the 
same character as the rest of the journey from the frontier. 
The jolting is intolerable where the road is hard, and 
the tadium vita excessive, where it is soft, that is to say, 
so ^dy that there is no going through it beyond a foot- 
pace. This road is much frequented, the intercourM he- 
tw^ Riga and Mittau being incessant. A diligenct 
starts from the latter place for Riga twice a-^jc; and re 
turns. ' We met one of these vehicles, and' it ipj*ar« 
to iis to be an huprbvement oil some'of ' the i^Wnch® 
li^ces. On reaching, late in the evening, AA stoM^ 

a hid beyond a small viDa^' ; ^fed Rciri^hqf, ‘h 

border of (he Tyhil Morosf, a ma» ofliglrt b#( sud 

denly on (he dark horizon jf^Uting ® 

Ri^ the captai of idvohia.' Th'd hiindir^ of ^ 
which we distinguished is We appromd ti^, 
a great way rigllt and left, riiiowed the|;reat extidt of t 



BRIDGE ON THE DWINA. 


373 

town. , Haying descended to the margin of tlic wide 
Pwina, we folloyred for a short time the left bank of that 
river, entered a small fauxbourg situated upon it, and 
found ourselves on the floating bridge, which being lighted 
by lamps hung across it, and flanketl on each side, at the 
extremity nearest tq the town, by the sterns of several two 
and three-maated vessels of heavy burthem, and illuminated, 
by the lights seen through the cabin windows, presented 
a novel and pleasing sight. We drove through a fortified 
gateway between , two lofty ramparts, and following the 
diri-ction of the principal street from tlierice, reached the 
Hotel dc J^QtidreSf wliare apartments had been prepared 
for our reception. This inn requires only the luxury of a 
carpet to be as good, in every respect, as some of the best 
hotels we have seen on our journey. Its situation, in a 
narrow' and noisy street, is a great objection in general ; 
but to me, who . felt already tired of the monotony of our 
late excursion, even the noise of a bustling town was wd- 
coine music. 

On the following morning I rose with the dawn, and 
proceeded to reconnoitre the situation of the town, and 
cast a look at the noble river Dwina. The popula&n 
was already abroad and busy. Crowds of people were 
.seen directing their steps to the port, outside the gates, 
where a large market is held. Hundreds of small slight 
country carts, loaded with vegetables, poultry,, and live 
cattle, kept pouring in over the bridge, and the whole scene 
soon became very aniniatcd. I paced twice the whole 
length of. i^e^ibtridge, which was thronged with sailors, and 
masters of yessds from every part of the world, and I 
found it, meaapre 7^0 paces, which give a length equal 
to 1600 feei ttie breadth is forty feet. The bridge con- 
fists pf ^ number of stout timbers, placed near tq es^h 
•other, pa,ri^el^ with the. course pf the stream, lashed toge- 
fl»er at their ektren^ty, floating bn the water, and main- 
tained in tWir position by piles driven, aj^ regular distances, 



37^1 RIGA.— -MARQUESS PAULUGCI. 

into the bed of the river, and rising considerably above the 
level of the water, to whieh the bridge is fastened by 
chains. Over the cross' timbers are placed two carriage, 
ways, made of planks, even, and of proper breadth. Some 
parts of the bridge are so contrived that they may readily 
be removed, in order to admit vessris passing up and down 
the stream to take their positions on either side of the 
bridge, to which they are moored by the stem, or for the 
general purpose of navigation. The Dwina, seen in this 
part of its course, is a magnificent river. Below the bridge 
its width is such that it might easily be mistaken for a 
large sea-port ; while far above, its windings are really im- 
posing. The sea is about five miles from the town. 

The view of Riga from the right bank is pleasing, and 
lias a picturesque effect. The manner in which the build- 
ingsare grouped, and the distribution of the town over an 
extensive ground, surrounded by bastions, give the place, 
an impressive character. The principal mass of the town 
is placed at the foot and a little to the left of the bridge. 
Four or five towers and steeples are seen to rise in this 
quarter, one of which attracts more attention from its Ori- 
ental structure, three stories high, covered by a dome placed 
over a light and open colonnade, and terminated by a point- 
ed spire. This tower belongs to the Church of St. Peter. 

Riga is the residence of the Governor-General Mar- 
quess Pauludci, who was absent on the present occasion. 
This nobleman is a native of Venice, and bri)ther to the 
admiral who commands the Austrian naval forces in the 
Archipela^. He began his career as an ofBeer in tk 
Russian army, against the Turkil, and having distin^ished 
himself in some general actions, rose suocessivdy to the 
rank of General and Governor of Pw^vincCsJ' u^^^ 
reached his present dignity and power. His gov^tiwnt 
comprehends Esthonia, IdVoftia, Ccmrlahdv P 
He married the daughter of General Cbbley, ain Eftglwh- 
man, who, after having served in the Russian h***. 



GBNliRAL COBLKY. 3^5 

retired to hia estates in the neighbourhood of Odessa, 
where, Cindnnatus4.like, he employs his time in agricultural 
pursuits, and the breeding of Merino sheep, of which 1 am 
told he has a flock of seven or eight thousand, tlie best on 
the Steppes. This gentleman, who, from a long residence 
abroad, speaks his .native languoge with nearly the same 
difficulty with which he speaks either Russian or French, 
seems not to have lost that frank and blunt style of man- 
ners and address which is said to have characterised an 
English soldier in the times of the Marlboroughs and 
Elliots. He had just arrived at Riga on a visit to his 
daughter, ^having at his advanced age traversed a great 
part of Russia for that purpose. He called on Count 
VVorunzow, and gave a flattering account of the present 
state and progress of Odessa, which, from on insignificant 
town, had been changed into a place of importance by the 
late Due de Richelieu, and has since been raised, by the 
(exertions of the nobleman, whom 1 accompanied, and who 
is Govcnior-General of the Crimea, to a rank eiiual to that 
of the principal commercial ports in the Mediterreanean. 
He spoke highly also of his friend and countryman the 
veteran Admiral Greigh, and of the high state of discipline 
of the Russian fleet under his command in the Black Sea. 

Having, on our arrival at Riga, sent my passport to the 
police, 1 wf» requested to attend at the office, for the pur- 
|)osc of enabling them to write my dgmUmnty or personal 
description, on, a fresh passport, which was written in Ger- 
man, and. was delivered to me on payment of one silver 
rouble, or three shillix^ My own passport from the fo- 
reign office in Xoadon waa detained and afterwards for- 
warded to ;the Government at St Petersburgh. This is an 
indispensable, fmmaality with foreigners who arrive at Riga, 
rithe^ by ,8ea^ land, and vho are desirous of proceeding 
' In the capi^„ ,The oxily/ trouble 1 had on the occasion, 
wasa walk from police-office, accompanictl 

^ by a , ' V . 



376 ^ ^ * RIGA. ’ 

The interior of Riga imiiided^me Very ftjieibly of ^me 
of the txmns ia die Netlierlaadi and bn the Rhine. The 
streets are generally veiy narrow, seldom straight, clumsily 
paved, and have a nairow foot-pavement on both sides, 
made of bricks laid edgeways. The stream of dirty ivater 
in the middle gutter, and the spinnings from' the pipes 
attached to the outside of the houses, and edmiAg down to 
the level of tlie passengers' ankles, are worthy even of 
Paris. Most of the houses are high and terminated with 
pointed gable-ends, like those at Aix-la^Chapdle or Bru- 
ges. The squares are irregularly-shaped open^ places, with 
the exception of two, in one of which ia the residence of 
the Governor-General, having somewhat of a castellatd 
form, and a lofty pillar, bearing a bronze statue of Vic- 
tory, erected in 1817) at the expense of the merchants, to 
commemorate the iglorious part which their town had 
taken in the war of 1812. The other is surrounded by a 
double plantation of trees, within which the military exer- 
cises and parades take place. The house of Mr. Cum- 
mings, the English Consul, resident in Riga, a gentleman 
of much urbanity of manners, is one of the most conspicu- 
ous in tliis square. 

There are few public buildings of importance in RigSj 
or remarkable for their structure, except a singular-looking ^ 
house opposite to the Rathhaus, in front of which are 
several niches filled with grotesque statues. This is said 
to be the first bouse that was built when Riga was founded, 
and the only one of the same date now standing, bmng 
six hundred and thirty years old. The historical^ records 
of the country statei that 'the Capital of JUivcnmi. wss 
founded in 1201.: : , y j 

The Rathhaus, or Town Hallf is of \a anurinnoie mo- 
dem datO,' anduhas some ptetenttons ta stylo la^{|tk|p!h^ 
tecture.^ I ’ The Exchange is* another mbden »bBuiidmgf of * 
some ijn|xn^ce.! T moah^remarkBbfo stmwtbiwy^^^ 
ever, in Riga/ ^ iiumofe ^ respects’! than cme^ ‘kilhai which 



S1B6K OF RIGA. 


377 

bdongji toia confraternity called the Schvxtriztn Ilaapter, 
or Black-hefwiU, and is likewise the Imperial residence. All 
these : ho^ae8, as well as. the greater part of the private 
dwellings) are built of stoncr-a few are of brick, covered 
with piaster^ 

From the top of the tower of, the Church of St. Peter, 
the view cf the . town, and the small territory around it, 
l)ounded.by ext^8ive and impenetrable dark forests of firs 
and pineS) is imposing. The eye wanders as far as the 
Baltic, and plainly distinguishes the Bay, where are seen 
riding at anchor several large vessels, many of them bear- 
ing tlie English colours. 

Riga, though exposed to imminent danger during the 
,'ulvance of the French and Prussian troops to the Dwina, 
in 1812, resisted successfully the invaders ; and in order 
to place the town in a fit condition to stand a siege, the 
inhabitants agreed to destroy by fire some of the sub- 
urbs which were the most exposed to the attacks of the 
enemy. By this measure a large quantity of naval stores 
and building timber was destroyed, which might otherwise 
have fallen into thb hands of the enemy. In Septemlier 
of that year, the Governor of the town, having formed 
a plan for surprising ' the corps of General d^Y'orck, 
sallied forth> and compelled that officer to fall back upon 
Mittau.- ■■ • 

The suburbs, destroyed on that memorable occasion, 
were gradually: rebuilt in a more modem style of ar- 
chitecture^ t after 'the year 1816; the late Emperor Alex- 
ander having ^grant^ a loan to the inhabitants of one 
million and a hak;(^ rqubilwfor that purpose. During his 
visit to Riga in October 1827, (a few days after we had 
left that iiiityv) preMt Imperial Majesty having 

lean^ tiiait ^ose whobad had the bendit of that loan were 
‘ not imeiiima condition tocepay .' the captal, and that some of 
the new bouses 'hid bean and sold jn consequence, 

with the greatest^ liberality ordered that the tibiefor the 



( 30 MMERGB OF RIGA. 


378 

final repayment of the loan sbmild be prolonged to 1844, 
•and that theibouses seized, should be restored to the pro. 
prietors, on their engaging to repay their respective sums 
within that period. , 

It was on the same occasion that the Emperor Nicholas, 
having received through the capital the news of the 
capture dl Erivan, in Persia, by his army, addressed to 
the Governor-General, the Marquess Paulucci, the Mow- 
ing rescript : 

'M.. 

“ Marquess Philip Ossipovitch. My first visit to Kiga, 
since my accession to the throne, has been signalized by 
the receipt of the glorious news of the capture of Erivan 
by our troops. 

“ Wishing to leave to my dear and faithful city of 
Riga, a remembrance of so happy an event, I give to il 
the arms which belonged to the chief of the Persian . 
troops, Hassan Khan, made prisoner in the town of 
Erivan, of which he was the commandant. In sending 
you these arms, namely, a lance and a poniard, I desire 
you to see them deposited in the HcAel de Ville, where 
they are to ’be preserved, and to inform the inhabitants of 
Riga of this my disposition. 

I am your affectionate, 

“ Riga, 26th October, O.S.”. (Signed) NICHOLAS.'’ 

The commerce of Riga is very considerable ; the number 
of foreign vessels, which arrive in this port in the course of 
the navigable season, amounts frequeBdy .to.l20D.? ’The 
indigenous produce, which is exported hence toJSnglaiid, 
Holland, France, Spain, and the aortherb.|RHi8crf(^^ 
many, is flax, tallow, potash^ iron, con^v 
la the year^ 1826, the total wqKwtatimi adwumtot ^ 
49,041,637 roubles, of irhjeh sura, 84,177,484 foUliWs had 
h^ for good# shipped to Bbglimd. .ilft* the year: 1887» 
the numbir of vessels which m^ered Ri^ up' tov ihe day 



COMMBRUK OP RIGA. ;jyjj 

on which the Iwidge was removed, and the Dwina froze 
amounted 'to U4Q; of these, 1423 sailed again fnm Riga,’ 
loaded, 1368 which had cargoes of Russian produce 
Wc were informed, that within the last two or three years 
tratle had greatly revived in this place; and, indeed, the 
official returns of the amount of custom-house duties, paid 
in the course of the last six years, sufficiently prove this ; 
as will be seen from the following report. 


Years. 


Kopeeks. 

182^ . 

. . 4,231,770 

„ 14i 

1823 . 

. . 5,073,689 

» 588 

1824 . . 

. 6,801,941 

„ 99 

1825 . . 

. 8,053,561 

„ 18 

1826 . . 

. 7,253,318 

» 63 

1827 ■ • 

. 8,216,400 

„ 41J 


The population of this town amounted, at the enil of 
1827, to 47,949 inhabitants. 

Besides the H6tel de Londres, there is the H6tel de 
St. Petersburgh at Riga, which I found very comfortable on 
a second visit. It! situation is preferable to that of the 
London Hotel ; but the latter haying been lately modern- 
ized, and newly furnished, is the most desirable of the two. 
Hie rooms are airy and commodious ; they are heated by 
means of Russian stoves, and they have beds in tliem after 
the exact fashion of those in Germany. A singular ar- 
rangement oag|^ in these inns in regard to Uiat most ne- 
cessary appenli^ to a bed-chamber or sitting-room, name- 
. ly, a bell, which seems intended to economize their number, 
at the risk of inoomiDoding the guests. In truth, 1 have 
had occasion before now to remark, that throughout Ger- 
many: there seems to exist a degree of antipathy against 
such a useful {»ece of furniture ; |or it is rare indeed t|^at 
you find one iii your room, and that you are not obliged to 

outside, eithelrUo call: fiir;a servant or to pull ist a b^l, 
the rope of wliich hangs ^ the open space of^he souaire 



380 


BEDROOM BELLE. 


Staircase, &e tQp tto th^rbotto^i and 

serves for the general usie pf,rthci lodgers, on every flour. 

lu the lattercaoe^ after pulling, the, belhypu.^e compelled 

to stand watching for tlie . servant»^in order that you may 
direct him where to go^ran opcupatioJi by no means pleas- 
ing at any hour, much less at night j;when, getting put of a 
snug and warm bed, you stand, shivering en hnij^t de mit 
on tlio landing-place. Now the arrangement, 1 allude to, 
and which 1 noticed at the. Hotel do LondreSf does, away 
the necessity of the latter part of the ceyempny. A large 
square board is fixed on the landing-place of each foor, 
having several horizontal narrow slides in it, pl^d one 
above the other, each of which is marked at one of its ex- 
tremities with the number of each of the rooms or apart- 
ments on that floor. In these slides a square piece of. wood 
is fitted, which admits of being easily puslicd from one eiu! 
of the slide to the other. When a lodger has had his tug 
at the pro bom publico bell outside his room, he need not 
wait for the servant, but, after pushing the square piece of 
wood right against the number marked at the end of the 
slide which corresponds with the numbk of his room, he 
may retire, certain that the servant will wait upon him* This 
contrivance, no doubt, shows some ingenuity, and for tliat 
reason, 1 take the trouble of describing it, idthough it will 
appear perhaps to my readers, too trifling a object to be 
introduced in this place ; but it elm shows (wd that is the 
important feature of the anecdote) either p ^want of. .inge- 
nuity in adopting, or a thorough indifference to, the more 
refin^ oonveniences of life, wd ip Imth ; cases a .ce^ 
degr^pf backwardnessin the useful* arts, of 
ciety. This defidency of ropm-beUs I poticedpV)f|^,ip.}^ 
Berlin hotels. It in fact, a general 
Germany; and Riga mpst be considered as a 
iq that and many marefespects. V;; ; ..n f* }}„* > 

(The necesswy. arrangeip«n&, 
being comideted, our party stprted frw 



ROAD TO VOLMAR. 


381 


afternoon,^ the carriage having four horses abreast, and 
being driven by b^ded ptjstilions seated in front, who 
beguiled away their time by talking aloud to their horses 
without once ceasing. }Ve had received very discouraging 
accounts of the state of the roads, owing to some rain 
which had fallm ; and we determined on getting over them 
as fast as we could by travelling all night. I thought 
the road from the first post-house after we left Riga as 
bad as it could well be — worse even than the stage after 
Conitz, in Prussia; but the road from Hilckensfehr to 
Roop, including the third and fourth stages, surpassed 
them all in difficulties and badness. We had hills, sand, 
bmken ground, a perpendicular descent unto a floating 
bridge, like the one over the Aa, with the horses, tackle, 
and postilions as bad as possible, and a pitch-dark and 
rainy night withal to mend the matter. 

At last iTUMriiing came, and after a short drive over a 
lietter sort of a road, and thrr^ugh a country diversified by 
wood, cultivated fields, tindulations in the ground, and 
neat villages, we reached Lenzenhof, where w'e breakfasted 
ill a most comfortable house, neat, clean, well-furnished, 
and affording every sort of accommodation. After such 
a night's tossing, to fall into such a place as this was a 
piece of good fortune which those only can appreciate who 
have travelled the same road. 

The coimtry before teaching Volmar offers a tolerable 
spe^eiihen of the state of agriculture in this part of Livonia. 
Forbsts, bdth old and new, in considerable number, are met 
with here And therej succeeded by corn-fields already sown ; 
barren hekthir, on which are seen scattered in all directions 
the j»tne bf "^riinltive blocks of stone so frequently no- 
ticed iti this jottrney'; farm-houses, consisting of one or two 
woodtm btriiflingSj' and A in tolerable good oonditibli ; 
small horses and diminutive homed cattle ; no indbsii^, 

w pmteethig the f^ intmsioh; extensive 



388 VULMAR. 

buildings, serving as granaries to hold the crops. These 
arc the most prominent agricultural features of the 
country. The Livonians* have the reputation of being 
good farmers. On the road we observed a great part 
of the crops of the present year, particularly of barley, 
still in the fidds, in large stacks, and thatched, to stand 
the winter out, as the granaries were already quite full. 
Occasionally we met a party of carriers with light telegas, 
frequently amoqnting to twenty and thirty in number, 
loaded with tlie produce of the country, bales of goods, or 
barrels of brandy ; but none of that bustle of land-carriage 
which occurs on the main roads leading to a great 
capital. For the convenience of these parties of carriers 
and their cattle, there are, at the distance of forty and 
fifty versts, very large hangards or caravanserais, with 
their longest side ])laccd parallel to the road, and a large 
gate at each end, in wliich from one to two hundred head 
of cattle may find shelter at night or during heavy falls of 
snow. A house of refreshment for the drivers is generally 
at hand ; although the number of public-houses for the 
inferior classes throughout this road, seemed not so con- 
siderable as on any of the high-roads in England. 

The small town of Volmar, situated on the river Aa, 
the second of that name to which 1 have alluded in my 
account of Mittau, consists of about a hundred houses, 
painted yellow and green, with one church, and a post- 
house, whichf from its exterior, is not calculated to give the 
traveller a favourable opinion of the accommodations he is 
likely to find within. The town takes its name from «. 
place not far distant from it, in which Valdemar, one of 
the Danish kings, defeated the Livonians iii i'820 1 it was 
not till thirty years after that Volmar was founded.' The 
rood passes along the outskirts of the town through e sandy 
soil, and soon eaters a most magnificent forest, skirting iit 
the same time the Aa, whose steep and brokeii banke# arid 
tortuous course serve to vary the gteat samenelil^ of the 



nORPAT.— PEOPKSSOR STRUVIi. 

^nc around. The road in this part is at least two 
hundred feet wide. 

After changing horses five Afferent times, we reached 
Dorpat, or, as it is frequently written, Dorpt. Between 
GiiJne and Teilitz we crossed a low range of hills, which 
runs first in a north>west, then in a north, and again in a 
north-western direction, as far as the shore at the entrance of 
the Gulf of Finland, dividing, nearly into equal parts, east 
and west, both Livonia and Esthonia. As we stopped on 
the road at Kuikatz, I had an opportunity of observing 
that however neatly decorated and neatly furnished you 
find most of the post-houses, their accommodations for 
sleeping are generally inferior. If tlie party be numerous, 
a great proportion of them must make up their mind, as 
1 did on tlie present occasion, to sleep on a hard sofa 
without taking their clothes off. 

Dorpat is the seat of an University, which was founded 
in 1(532 by Gustavus Adolphus, re-established in 1802 by 
the Emperor Alexander, and has since received much eii- 
courageiuent from the Russian Government. It is not 
however much frequented, the average number of students 
being seldom more than four hundred. I’he great reputa- 
tion which this University enjoys at this moment, among 
the scientific men of Europe, is due to its Professor of 
Astronomy, Monsieur Struve, who has, in the space of 
the last three years, received a golden medal from the 
Royal Society, as well as from the Astronomical Society 
of London, of which he is an associate, These awards 
were made to him for his valuable and numerous observa- 
tions on double stars^ those curious binary systems in the 
planetary world, in which two stars perform to each other 
the office of Sun and planet. M. Struve, with but indif- 
ferent instruments, until the late Emperor presented the 
’ Observatory with one of Fraunhofer’s colossal telcsfeopes, 
which, with, rmany other new astronomical instrurtieftts 
sent on the lyam ** occasion, is now to be seen in the Obser- 



384 


PROFESSOR LBDBUOHR. 


vatory, had, as late as the year 1825, succeeded in dis< 
covering one thousand double stars belonging to the first 
four classes, among which^ght hundred are new, and of 
these three hundred belong to tlie first class. Two more 
years' indefatigable labour have since enabled him to 
ascertain that of more than 120,000 stars, 3060 belong to 
the first four classes. The University, therefore, has 
publislied a most splendid volume, containing a new cata- 
logue of double stars, together with a well-eskccutd 
chart of the heavens, and a report detailing the dis- 
coveries, which has been presented to, and is now in the 
possession of the Royal Society in London. In that re- 
port there are some preliminary and general observations 
on the nature of the fixed stars, and the motion of 
those celestial bodies, which all astronomers, at no very 
distant period, considered as immovable. Professor 
Struve is a patient and industrious astronomer. His . 
observations published from time to time, are said to offer 
a most remarkable coincidence in most of the measurements, 
with those of the late Sir W. Herschel ; although made 
with different instruments, and a different micrometer. 
The Professor appears not to have ‘been aw^e that the 
same subject w^as ehga^ng, at the same time, the atten- 
tion of two eminent astronomers in this country, and the 
coincidence in their results tends to confirm the general ac- 
curacy of the observations. Using the language of the 
urbane and distinguished President of the Astroiipinical 
Society of London, when speaking of M. Struve, cy 'jky loved 
of astronomy will agree that his services to science) and 
the progress of his discoveries, ^ve placed the name of the 
Professor of Dorpat among the most celebrated pf niodern 
astronomers." The Emperor Of Russia has lati^y bestbwer 
on M. Struve the cross of the Order of St. Ann bf the 
Second Class, as a mark of approbation of l^s zeal , in the 
discharge of his duties. 

Professor I^debuhr is another ornament to the Univer- 
sity of Dorpat. His journey over the chain of the Altajf 



UNIVEKSITy OP DbRPAT. 


385 


Mountains, which separate China from Siberia, underta. 
ken in 1826, with a view of studying the natural productions 
of that country ; and the result of his research^, which 
together with that of his travelling companions Doctors 
Meyer and Bunge, which has been communicated to the 
Council of the University since September last, place this 
gentleman among the most able and zealous naturalists of 
Russia. Botany appears to have been their principal 
object ; but Zoology and Mineralogy, as well as the Geo- 
graphy and Statistics of that immense, and hitherto little 
known tract of country, have not been neglected. The 
number of species of plants found in the course of their 
travels amounts to 1600, of which fi*om four to five 
hundred were totally unknown before ; while the existing 
information respecting the nature and locality of the 
greater part of the remainder was found to have hitherto 
been generally iiiaccuratp. The Professor has therefore 
expressed his intention of publishing a F/ora AUaica^ 
which there is no doubt will be received with gratitude 
by the botanists of every nation. The collections made 
by Professor Ledebuhr and his companions, in the course 
of their travels, consist — 1. Of an Herbarium, containing 
1600 species. 2. Of 241 living plants. 3. Of 1341 spe- 
cies of seed. 4. Of 700 species of animals. 5. Of fine 
specimens of emerald, and other mineralogical substances. 
Lastly, of some remains of antiquity found in the tumuli 
of the Tchoud nation. 

An excellent spirit seems to prevail among the students 
at this University ; and the reciprocal regard which exists 
between them and the professors, serves most materially 
to promote the welfare and utility of that institution. On 
a very recent occasion, some of the gentlemen who had 
heon educated at Dorpat, and who reside in St. Peters- 
burgh, having learned that one of their former fellow- 
students, whose talents and good conduct had commanded 
.• their respect, had, from inevitable family misfortunes, been 
deprived of the means of continuing his studies at that 

VOL. I. ■ 2 c 



LIVONIAN NOBLESSE. 


University, met together, and came to the resolution of suh. 
scribing the necessary sum to enable him to complete his 
education — a resolution which was immediately carried 
into effect Would not such a trait of liberality have 
been blazoned forth in ev^ newspaper in some other 
country in Europe ? 

The principal college of the University is a large build, 
ing, upwards of two hundred feet in length; with an 
unpretending and unadorned elevation, having a Doric 
portico in front. It is built of brick plastered over, and 
its roof is covered with sheets of iron. This college was 
erected a few years after the restoration of the University. 
The interior structure and arrangement of the lecture- 
rooms, and the decorations of the Academical or Examina- 
tion Hall, are worthy of the best establishments of this 
description in Europe. The library of the University is 
placed in a part of an old church, which, from its elevated' 
situation on the old ramparts, forms a conspicuous object, 
near to which is the Anatomical Theatre^ 

The town of Dorpat is situated on the Embackh river, 
called by the Livonians, Emma-Jogui, which orosscs the 
road to St. Petersburgh. The river unites a small lake 
on the left of our road called Vourtz, or Vourtz-4r6, with 
the great lake Peipus, seen from the fortifications and sub- 
urb on the hill, which command an extensive view of the 
country : thus the town appears placed in a hollow. The 
old fortifications around it, together with some of the 
ditches, have lately been converted into omamcmtal gar- 
dens, shrubberies, and public walks. The appearance of 
the interior .of Dorpat is highly favourable. Most of the 
houses are modern, and several new streets add to the 
gaiety of the place. On my return from St. Petersburgh, 

1 had more leisure, to notice this place, which, as a seat of 
learning, is certainly deserving die attention of travellers. 

Dorpat is the resort of the Livonian noikm^ who, for 
education and manners, are said to be equal to the best , 
classes of the same rank in Germany. Out of a popula- 



RKVENUB of LIVONIA AND OOURLAND. 38? 

tion which in 1827 amounted to 644,701 in Livonia, 
about 3892 belong to the nobility- They have a number 
of seats and villas in the neighbourhood, many of which 
are most romantically situated, and command a view of 
the river and the distant lakes. A large proportion of 
the Livonian nobles enter the army and the public service, 
and have distinguished themselves greatly in whatever 
department they have been placed. I have had the good 
fortune of forming an acquaintance with several of them, 
l)oth in and out of Russia, and 1 have invariably found 
them well informed, of agreeable manners, and well 
educated. The* Livonian mblem have at all times en- 
joyed a certain number of privileges, and a degree of 
political independence, which the successive conquerors 
of their country have more or less respected. Even under 
tlio government of Russia, the town of Dorpat enjoys the 
advantage of having a magistracy and municipal adminis- 
tration of their own. I observed, while at St. Peters- 
burgh, that a great number of the medical officers of the 
army were natives of Livonia. 

I have quoted’ the population of this entire ^vemment 
at 6441,701. It is remarkable, that of this number 
289,266 only are males, leaving an unusual and unaccount- 
able exoew 66469 females. ITie city of Dorpat hsd 
only 88*1 inhabitimta in TKe revenue which the 

crown derives ftomi this government and that of Courlan , 
during the first eleven months of last year, amounted to^ 
(in silver, 168,890 R. 62 K. 

( in paper, 10,117»870 • 7i 
(in silver, 70>W 

I in paper, 7,797.582 - 

(in silver, 65,416 

\in paper, 2,670,754 — 

^ , ( ki Silver, 11,818 — 

■ Custom-house, 988,652 - 

Making a total of 22,790,663 current roubles^ or about 
»ne million sterling. 


Livonia taxes, &c. 

■ Custom-house, 

^ourland taxes,' &c. 


2 C 2 



RUSSIAN EDUCATION AT MOSCOW. 


The means of attending religious worship in these two 
essentially Lutheran countries, with an aggregate popu- 
lation of 1,027,704 inhabitants, would appear, from the 
number of churches quoted in the Gazette of the Baltic 
Provinces, to be very inadequate ; for it amounted in 1827 
to only fifty-seven churches built of stone, and twenty-one 
built of wood. 

Shortly after leaving Dorpat, our travelling party was 
increased by the addition of one of the Count's private 
secretaries, who had left St. Petersburgh two days before 
to join him, and brought him large packets of letters and 
the latest news from that capital. He had travelled the 
whole of the night in one of the open fislegas, or post-carts 
of the country, without apparently feeling any ill effects 
from it, although snow had fallen tlie whole time, and the 
temperature of the atmosphere had been as low as six 
degrees below the freezing point, lllis gentleman is u‘ 
native of Moscow, and connected with some distinguished 
families in that city, of the University of which he is also 
an eUve. I availed myself of the knowledge of this last 
circumstance, to inquire into the system of education 
followed in that school, decidedly the first in magnitude 
of the Russian Empire ; and as he occupied a seat in the 
same carriage with me, and we had therefore full leisure 
for conversation, the information 1 thus obtained was most 
complete as well as interesting. By considering his acquire- 
ments, the result of a Russian education at Moscow might 
in a great measure be ascertained. Although not yet two- 
and-twenty years of age, and never having travelled out of 
Russia, he not only spoke both French and English with 
fluency, and the appropriate idioms peculiar to the genius 
of those languages, but seemed well versed in the know- 
ledge of the principal authors of both nations, many of 
whom he quoted with ready facility. In the progress of 
our acquaintance, I found him equally well-informed in 
the German and classic languages, which are taught with 



POST-HOUSE AT TORMA. 


much assiduity at the University of Moscow; and I was 
much surprised to hear him, at the same time, speak of 
the nature and history of most of the modem discoveries 
in science, particularly those which originated in England. 
It may well be supposed that the society of such a tror- 
veiling companion must have mitigated the inconveniences 
of our journey, and served to make us pass our time 
more agreeably. But in addition to this, the difficulties 
which had Mtherto attended our progress, were beginning 
to subside; and even the road, with the exception of 
one or two short stages, began visibly to improve. It is 
not often that « traveller meets with such accommodation 
as we had at Tornili, where we stopped to dine, in a very 
comfortable, well arranged, and very well furnished suite 
of rooms at the post-house, and had an excellent enter- 
tainment. If thi^stablisliment deserves commendation on 
account of the adikfunodation it affords, it is not less enti- 
tled to credit for its very moderate charges. For our din- 
ner, consisting of a variety of dishes, and including two bot- 
tles of wine, one of whic^h was excellent Bourdeaux; and 
the dinner for four servants, the price charged amounted 
only to ten paper roubles, or little more than nine shillings. 
Count Woronzow imagined the landlord had made a mistake 
in his demand, and insisted that the charge was too little 
to be correct. Upon this, the landlord, who had not made 
out a regular bill, but had asked the above sum off-hand, 
observed, that he might perhaps ligve omitted to bring the 
bottle of Bourdeaux into Ids calculation, and begged there- 
fore to add two franks more for that to the reckoning. 
Fancy now, gentle reader,, a nobleman and his lady, with 
their suite, preceded by an avofit-courter^ and followed by 
four servaints, arriving in three carriages at an inn any where 
on the road to London, and being there entertained as sump- 
tuously as we were at Torma, in one of the forests of Li- 
vonia, and three hundred versts from the capital ; and think, 
think with dismay at the long slip of paper headed “ The 



3S0 LARK PEIPUS.— M. JOUKOWSKY. ^ 

King’s Arms,” or “ The Rose,” which would be presented 
by honest Bonifiewe with his best bow^ and in which the 
charge of one item alone, the solitary bottle of claret, would 
be found to equal the whole reckoning of our repast in 
Livonia ! 

The distant roaring of agitated waters announced our 
approach to the great lake Peipus, called by the natives 
Tchoudsko6-Ozero. The road runs along the coast of this 
inland sea, which is fifty-three miles long aiid forty miles 
wide. The sight of this fine expanse of water suddenly 
bursting upon us, in. a country generally flat and distant 
from any considerable range of hills, causes both pleasure 
and surprise. It is not a very ordinary feature in physical 
geography, to find a lake of such extent at such a distance 
from any important mountainous district. There are several 
islands in this lake, the principal of which is well cultivated 
and wooded, and contains some villag^P^ Storms are very • 
prevalent during the autumn and winter season, and cause 
great damage to the numerous barges which navigate the 
lake. The fishery is said to be very productive. Of the 
several varieties of fish caught in this lake, those most es- 
teemed are, carp, perch, pike, gudgeons, merlan, and bar- 
bet ; a great quantity of which are sent in a frozen state to 
the capital during the winter. 

An accident detained us the greater part of the next day 
at a place called Rarina Pungem, situated at the heaxl of 
the great lake in the government of Esthonia. This cir- 
cumstance afforded me the satisfaction of being introduced 
to Mons. Joukowsky, who stopped at Ranna to change 
horses, on his way to St. Petersburgh. This gentleman 
remained with the Count and Countess Woronzow but , a 
short time, being anxious to arrive in the capital before the 
Emperor’s departure. He is instructor to the hereditary 
Orand-Duke, and, as a literary character and a poet, enjoys 
very considerable reputation in Russia. His manners are 



WOOD-HARMONICON. 39I 

very affable ; he is cheerful and pleasant in conversation, 
and his person^. Appearance is prepossessing. 

Mons. Joukowsky had scarcely left us, when a travelling 
minstrel, whose raiments bespoke him of Israel's tribe, en- 
tered our dining-room, offering to entertain us with his 
pertbrmwce on a new musical instrument, which he called 
a wood ^rmomcon. The party were at first inclined to 
dispense widi his services ; but as the instrument which he 
carried his arm appeared unknown to us, and singular 
in its form, he was at last permitted to exhibit his skill 
upon it. This he did in so able a manner as actually to 
surprise, as well as please us, by his accurate performances 
of the overture tc^ the Caliphe de Bagdad^ followed by a 
Tyrolese and a Russian air, and lastly by a set of French 
quadrilles. 

The instrument consists of tliree ranges of pieces of 
wood, all of thesame diameter, being about one inch in 
thickness, but not of equal length. The longest, which 
is also the first piece, is about one foot and a half long, 
while the last, or the twenty-fourth in order, is only six 
inches long. The intermediate pieces regularly diminish 
in length fro^ first to last. Pine is the wood of which 
they are made. Each of the three rows consists of eight 
pieces, strung together at their extremities by means of a 
cat-gut string passing through the centre of the {dece. 
Each row forms an octave, and the centre octave is so 
strung, that the two extremities of its eight pieces are re- 
ceived between the extremities of the pieces belonging to 
the first and third octave to the extent of an inch and a 
half. These three rows are laid on four cylindrical bundles 
of straw firmly bound with string, and of the size of an 
ordinary walking-stick, and placed on a table. The per- 
former, then holding between the fore and middle finger of 
each hand a slender stick made of a more compact wood, 
and notched so as to fit the forefinger, strikes the different 



392 VILLA OF TUB DUCHESS OF KINGSTON. 

pieces mth a rapidity and adroitness quite surprising, 
preluding in the most agreeable manner, and dicitiog 
sounds which sometimes approach very near to those of a 
glass harmonicoU) and at others resemble more those of a 
soft flageolet 

As the present modification and improvement of this 
species of instrument is of recent invention, having existed 
only about six years ; and as 1 did not recollect hearing of or 
seeing it in London, 1 suggested to the wandering minstrel 
the speculation of proceeding thither the following winter; 
telling him that as London was the place for all new 
wonders, he might stand a chance of taking the place 
of the Tyrolese singers, and turn his trip to as good an 
account. Whether he followed or not this suggestion, 
public report has not informed me ; but if he has, the 
amateurs of novelties of all descriptions will be indebted 
to a broken carriage-spring being repairld at Ranna Pun- 
gem for their new entertainment. 

Two versts beyond the post-house at Jewe we ascend- 
ed a gentle eminence, and beheld the grey waters of the 
Gulf of Finland, and the small marine hamlet of Tchoudley, 
formerly the seat of the celebrated Duchess of Kingston. 
The road following this line of coast, though at some 
distance from it, passes through a barren common, on the 
surface of which the so often mentioned primitive blocks 
or Roulder-stones again made their appearance in great 
number. ; Our course lying due east, the promontory of 
Tiskalowa, and the shore which connects it with Narva, 
are distinctly s^n in the horizon, forming^withiti the larger 
gulf a smaller one, at the extremity of which is situated 
the town of that name. The coast is here very low, and 
marked by sandy hills of considerable extents 

A very striking change and improvement in the road 
was observed from tihis point till we reached. the capital: 
it is macadamized all the way, and we travelled with much 
ease at the rate of thirteen and fourteen versts an hour. At 



NARVA. 


every ppst we found a modem and elegant building, 
erected for .the accommodation d travellers within the last 
few years^ at the texfiense of : the Provincial Governments, 
containing several excellent sitting-rooms, handsomely fur- 
nished ; in some respects, indeed, almost with unnecessary 
luxury. The elevation,*' which is of brick covered with 
plaster, and painted yellow, consists of one story, the centre 
of which,, leading to the entrance hall, is occupied by a 
portico. On. each side is a Corps de Logisy >vith four 
rooms, two in front and two at the back; and beyond the 
Corps de LogU a wing for the accommodation of servants, 
through which there is a large gateway conducting to the 
stables and coach-chouses. There are ten such post-houses 
between Jewe and St. Petersburgh, and all of them nearly 
alike. There are, properly speaking, no beds, but from 
two to three very large square sofas of polished mahogany 
in each room, with squab and cushions of black leather 
stuffed with horse-hair, on which the traveller may either 
lie without any additional trapping, or may have his own 
bed made, or order tlie necessary Unen for making it from 
the landlord. The rooms are heated with stoves, and the 
temperature throughout them, is uniformly, both by day 
and by night, at 65'’ of Fahrenheit, while it freezes out of 
doors, and the snow lies on the ground. 

Narva is a small town pleasantly situated on the left 
bank of the. Namva, which flowing out of the Lake Peipus, 
follows a northfCastem course, for about sixty or. seventy 
versts, forming the . frontier between Esthonia and the 
government St. Petersburgh ; and after passing between 
Narva and its fortified suburb, Ivangorod, enters the 
Gulf of Finland, two or three miles below that city. 
This river has several : falls, one of which is of consi- 
derable height, and causes the conveyance of goods, 
by water, from the interior of Pskoff and Novgorod, by 
the Lake Peipus and the Narova, to the Finland. Gulf, 
to be interrupted, at a distance of two or three versts from 



394 


KUPEN. 


Narova^ where the barges are ttnloaded, and the merchan. 
dize carried over4and to the sea^shcne. The principal 
fall is about 300 feet wide^ and seventeen feet in descent. 
The town is in itself insignificant, but the environs arc 
picturesque. The fortress of Ivangorodj^ placed on an emi- 
nence immediately over the river, and its many towers in 
a ruinous state, with an extendve range of ancient bastions, 
under which we passed, after descending a very steep and 
narrow street, fonn beautiful and prominent objects in the 
groups lying before us, heightened by the picturesque 
W:k-ground of immense forests of dark pines. 

The next place of importance which we reached, after 
quitting Narva, was Kupen. This village lying in one of 
the plains which surround St. Petersburgh, and which arc 
covered with Boulder-stones, cemsists of a number of very 
neatly built and well thatched cottages and their out- 
buildings, standing at some distance from each other. At 
one end there is a chapel, built with much taste. These 
houses belong to German artificers and farmers, whose re- 
spective names, written in gold letters on a blue ground, 
are fixed in front of the building : their structure is par- 
ticularly neat, and with some pretension to elegance. 

There is an entire colony of Germans in this place, many 
of whom are employed in a veny considerable paper-manu- 
factory belonging to the Crown, the largo building be- 
longing to which we observed on our right. There is 
near the viUage of Kupen on Imperial p^ace, now the 
property of the reigning Empress, with extensive gardens, 
a smali river which passes through them, cascades, ex- 
tensive hot-houses, and a celebrated menagerie. These, 
as well as the palace itself, the exterior elevation of 
which is handsome, are perceived from the. road to ad- 
vantage. It was in this palace that the Jhnperor Peter 
the Third died. 

The appearance of Strelna, with an imposing palace on 
our left, belonging to the Gnmd-Duke Constantine ; the 



STRBLNA. 


number of carriages and light carts on the road, the air of 
bustle which prevailed in all the villages through which wc 
passed, with the hundreds of busy people, moving in dif. 
ferent directions, whom we met at every step as we ad- 
vanced, betrayed qur approach to the capital. 

Strelna is a pleasant village, comhian^ng a view of the 
Gulf of Finland, on the border of which it stands, be- 
tween Catherineoff and Peteriioff, and at a distance of 
eighteen versts from St. Petersburgh« It is encircled by a 
sunken mound dr bastion, and a running cheval-4e-frieze. 
A barrier, and a sentinel of lancers, announce the entrance 
into a place liaving an Imperial residence. Here our names 
were asked, and we were suffered to pass without any 
other interruption. Half-way between the barrier and the 
postrhouse, we crossed a bridge of granite over the same 
river, which after quitting the Imperial gardens of Rop- 
sclin, near Kupeti, accompanies the road in a thousand 
tortuous lines, meandering sometimes on our left and 
sometimes on our right, and ultimately mingles its 
narrow stream with the waters of the Gulph of Finland 
below Strelna. 

'i'he road hence to St. Petersburgh is worthy of the 
capital. An uninterrupted line of sumptuous palaces, 
built in every variety of chaste, fanciful^ and imitative 
arcliitecture, flanks the right side of the road ; while on 
our left, lields, with many clumps of trees and brushwood, 
separate us from the Gulf. Most of these country resi- 
dences, belonging to the nobility and gentry of St. Peters- 
hurgh, have gardens and pleasure grounds in front and 
around them ; and some few a piece of artiflcial water, or 
the river ali^ady mentioned, passing through the grounds. 
Many are large, consisting of two and three stories ; a few 
only have one story, and affect the form of an Italian villa. 
The prevailing colour with which the houses painted 
is yellow; the columns, pilasters, and ardiitraves being 



BNVIR0N13 OF ST. PETERSBURGH. 


white, and the roof of a copperas-green. In front of the 
gardens, and immediately <5n the border of the road, a lofty 
post bears, inscribed on: a sm^l square board, the name 
and rank of t|ie proprietor. magnifi^^ house of 
Count Stchereyathieh, with a chuncli annexed to it, and a 
small but rich chapeb open all dly to such as are devoutly 
inclined, much in the*8tyle of the oratories or sanctuaries 
to be found in ;^^c c^ntries; the J^U of the late 
Mons. Naryschkine; the^ace of Prince c9telrbatow, which 
has, however^ the disadvantage of l)eing neai^^he road, 
are dmong those objects which mpst attradhd* my atten- 
tion, and the names of whose proprietors tJearned from 
my travelling companion. * V>/ ^ * < 

This line of villas and chateaus, ilqi which some of the 
most distinguished families, residi^t in the di>pital, come to 
seek a retreat during the heat 6f a shqrt-liyed summer, is 
here and there interrupted by a small viHage liaving the . 
appearance of great neatness, in which. CQUtitry lodgings 
and a temporary residence are sought by .the less wealthy 
and humbler classes of citizens during the £he season. On 
the left of the road, the distance at every verst is marked 
on very high marble obelisks, which setve, at the jsaine time, 
as embellishments to the road." , ‘ 

At length/ the Imperial residence of St. Petersburgh 
appeared in view, marked by a triumphal arch thrown 
across the road. Under this we passed, traversing after- 
wards a very- airy and long suburb, at the end of which a 
barrier pla(^ at the great entrance arrested our progress. 
Umre. our names, and the place where we proposed to re-, 
side, were reqiiired of us by the sjentinel on duty. This 
imposing gate, built of granite, consists of oue lmldafch 
of a noble yet simple style of architecture, supjKirting an 
entablature, on which are raised vases of whita marble. 

Quitting die Imrriire^ we proceeded oyer two handsome 
bridges of fpfanite, decorated with pillars of the i^e mate- 




TRIUMPHAL ARCH ERECTHD NEAR THE RIGA GATE aT ST. PEIERSBIRGH, 
TO COMMEMORATE THE RETURX OF THE RITSSIAX GUARDS FROM P.^RIS. 


/r."- 




ST. PETERSBURGH. 


397 

rial, and passing through several very fine streets, which 
from their extreme cleanliness and great width, as well as 
from the style of buildings by which they were flanked in 
straight lines, particularly attracted my attention: we 
were conducted to the house of Count Michel Woronzow, 
situated in a wide and handsome street called the Mala- 
inorskoy, where we arrived on the 27th of October, 
thirty-five days after we had left London, during which 
time we had travelled seventeen hundred and sixty-five 
£iiglish miles. 




PART THE SECOND. 




PART THE SECOND. 


CHAPTER 1. 

PICTURK OK ST. PETRRSBURGH. 

General Coup d*onl. — Situation, topography, and extent of St. Peters- 
Imrgli. — Comparison between St. Petersbui^h in 1801 and 1827. — 
Improvements and great additions. — Necessity of a modern Descri]»- 
tion for visiting that Capital with advantage. — Plans of the Town. — 
Its divisions. — The Streets. — The Nvva. — Rivers and Canals. — 
Bridges. — Pon/ Isaac. — The Quays. — Advantage of walking in St. 
Petersburgh.— Panoramic promenades. — Shitue of Peter tlie Great.— 
Periscopic bird’.s-eye view of the city. —Ascent to the Tower of the 
Admiralty for that purpose. — Striking and imposing spectacle. — 
General appearance of the Streets, Public buildings, lIou.ses, Churches, 
military Barracks, Manages, Squares, and Gardens. — Model in alto- 
relievo of me City of St. Petersburgh. 

Thk general coup d*(cU which the “ Imperial Resi- 
tlence” of St. Petersburgh presents to the traveller, is one 
of the most magnificent in Europe. It does not, like that 
of Naples and Constantinople, heightened by the magic 
hffect of the surrounding country, convey the idea of 
beautiful nature and picturesque situation ; neither is the 
impression first received on entering the spacious streets 
VOL. I. 2 d 



402 


ST. PETERSBUR6H. 


and extensive squares of St. Petersburgh like that which 
the capitals of London and Paris excite when first beheld, 
imparting at once just notions of the wealtli, splendour, 
,and luxury of their inliabitants. But it surprises more 
than either, from the great number and magnitude of the 
public buildings, from the bold style of architecture which 
pervades every part, and from the nearly total absence of 
those dark and wretched courts and lanes, the abode of the 
lowest classes, which in other cities obtrude themselves on 
the notice of the traveller, in the midst of grandeur and 
stateliness of exterior. 

It was not without some reason that a French traveller 
newly arrived in this city, asked where the people lived ? 

“ Partout je ne rencontre que des palais et d’innomhrahlcs 
edifices,” he observed ; and the remark thus far was correct. 
No capital in Europe can, in this respect, be wnnpared to 
St. Petersburgh ; for nowhere else do we meet with build- 
ings of such striking appearance, nor does any other city 
contain so many private houses which might rival the 
palaces of Rome. St. Petersburgh is, in fact, a city of 
palaces. 

To a sovereign who felt the desire and saw the necessity 
of bringing his people more immediately into contact with 
the maritime nations of Europe, and who by the nature 
of political events was obliged to keep a watchful eye over 
its nearest neighbours, who were also his most inveterate 
enemies ; the situation of this second capital of the Empire 
was not a matter of choice, but one of compdlsion. To 
place a town destined to be the principal seat of govern- 
ment, where St. Petersburgh now stands, has been con- 
sidered a great fault on the part of its founder. It hs» 
been alleged that to select a low and swampy soil, on the 
banks and at the mouth of a river which divides the coun- 
try into a number of islands, was to perpetuate incon-* 
veniences^ which would never be overcome, and to iirent® 
a new population that it might become the prey of a» ^ 



TOPOGRAPHY OF ST. PF.TRRSBORGiI. 40;} 

unhealthy climate. But Peter the Great, convinced of tlie 
important political and commercial advantages of the chosen 
site of his new city, deemed any inconvenience which he 
might have to struggle with, arising from the nature of the 
situation, a matter of secondary consideration. He knew 
mankind in general too well, and the people in particular 
whom he proposed to bring together in this place, not to 
rely upon the efforts of human industry and skill for 
ilucing a gradual and beneficial change, and for deriving 
advantages even from the difficulties in which they were 
placed. He hml the example and success of the first foun- 
ders of Venice on his side: he knew that the great towns 
in Holland had had no other beginning. 

St. Petersburgh, according to the latest observations, 
is situated in latitude 59“ 5 (} 31". This line passes pre- 
cisely tlirough the principal island in the Neva, the ob- 
servatory, and the Imperial Palace, at wliich latter point 
it is intersected by the meridian 48“, east of the Island of 
Ferroc. The most important part of the town is placed 
on the left hank of the Neva, having a western aspect in- 
clined to the North. Oppe^site to this part are two large 
and three lesser islands, formed by the Neva and its 
branches, swarming with population, and crowded with 
jniblic buildings and establishments. On the mainland, 
eastward of the islands, and stretching along the right 
bank of the river, is another division of the town, which is 
becoming every day more worthy of notice. 

All these divisions of St. Petersburgh are grouped at 
the entrance or mouth of the Neva, at the eastern extre- 
mity of the Gulf of Finland, which reaches to the very 
skirts of the capital. The names which they bear, men- 
tioned in the topographical order adopted in the preceding 
description, are, the Admiralty Quarter ; the Island of St. 
Fetersburgh; the Island of Vassilei, or the Vassileiostrow; 

the three lesser Islands of Kamennoi, Yelaghinskoi, and 

^ Krestofskoi ; and Vibourgh. The two greater islands are 
2 D. 2 



404 TOPOGRAPHY OP ST. PBTRRSBURGH. 

subdivided into smaller ones by narrow streams ; and there 
are, besides, no fewer than six still smaller islands connected 
with the principal part of the city. 

It was on the Island of St Petersburgh that Peter the 
First laid the foundation of his great capital in the year 
1703 , and dedicated it to the apostle whose name lie bore. 
Nearly at the same time some buildings were erected on 
the opposite shore, with an establishment for the construe, 
tion of ships, and the Admiralty. And on the day of the 
memorable battle of Pultawa, the Emperor ordered that 
both those parts of the town should be enlarged; and 
subsecpiently traced a plan for making the ^'assileiostrow 
the centre and principal division of the city. Circumstances 
however, over which the sovereign had no control, maile 
of the Admiralty (quarter the most important part of St. 
Petersburgh, and assigned to thel ast-mentioned island a 
secondary character. 

In general, the soil on which St. Petersburgh is 
founded is marshy. Most of the houses are built on 
piles, as in Venice and Holland ; the ground not being 
sufficiently firm for a stone foundation without them. No 
inconvenience, however, seems to arise from this circum- 
stance, either with regard to health or to comforts. The 
surrounding country is flat ; the soil sandy, though not so 
much so as around Berlin ; vegetation is not very lux- 
uriant, except on the smaller islands, and the surface does 
not present that beautiful variety of ground which fonns 
the charm of the situation of most other capitals. But 
with all these difficulties to contend with, industry and the 
hand of man have produced, in little more than a century, 
results, which, in other parts of Europe, have been the 
work of centuries. 

A province of almut 848 square geographical miles sur- 
rounds the coital, forming what is called the C^vernmeirt 
of St. Petersburgh. The great Lake Ladoga is to the east 
of this government, distant twenty^five versts . in a. direct^ 



ST. PETBRSBURGII IN 1801 AND 1827. 405 


line from the capital, and fifty-eight versts following the 
road ; the government of Vybotirg lies to the north of it ; 
that of Esthonia and the Lake Peipus to the west; Pskoff 
and Novgorod to the south and south-east, and Olonetz to 
the north-east. The population of the (iovernnient of St. 
Petersburgh amounts to 844,900 inhabitants, or 994 on 
each square mile; which includes that of the capital, 
amounting in 1827, to 330,000 inhabitants; and in 1828, 
according to the last published account in the St. Peter- 
burgh Gazette, to 422,166, including a garrison of 56,000 
men. 

The city, including the various subdivisions and islands 
already mentioned, occupies an area, the circumference of 
which is e(|ual to twenty-eight versts, or somewhat more 
tlian eighteen English miles. Taking the western ex- 
tremity of the Vassileiostrow, and as far as the suburb 
called Great Okhta, as the transversal diameter of this 
ar(!a, it will be found to measure east and west nine versts 
and a-lialf ; and the same distance is found from north 
to south, that is to say, from the right bank of the great 
Nevka to the City canal. 

A comparison between St. Petersburgh as it was in 1801, 
when Storch’* description of that town was first translated 
into English, and as it now is, shows its rapid increase in 
size and importance in the course of a quarter of a century. 
The diflerence is manifest, not only in the great addition of 
dwelling-houses and public buildings since the former pc- 
md, but in the many improvements and embellishments 
which have from that time become conspicuous features of 
the capital. 

Two new districts have been added in one part of the 
town since that time, and the other parts have been 
considerably enlarged. New streets and new squares have 
been opened ; the former are now nearly double in number. 
A new Imperial Palace in town, and tw'o Imperial residen- 
ces in the country, have been erected. New churches have 



406 ST. PETJSRSBUR6H IN 1801 AND 1827. 

be^ built, as well as new plaees of amusement. Anothci* 
moveable bridge has been added to the two already existing 
on tlieNeva; and several new granite and suspension-bridges 
have been erected across the canals. Two new museums 
are fonhing ; several new literary and medical institutions 
have been founded. Most of the collections of natural 
history and antiquities have been augmented. An extensive 
botanic garden has been opened. The Principal Imperial 
palaces have been embellished, their internal decorations 
and arrangements changed, and new collections of ob- 
jects of the fine arts added to them. A new exchange 
with extensive magazines has since arisen on one of the 
points of Vassileiostrow ; and Rostral columns to carry a 
Pharo light have been placed in front of it. The ex- 
terior of the great edifice of the Admiralty has under- 
gone a complete change, and most of the streets leading 
to it have had trottoin added to them. Other altera-- 
tions also, too numerous to describe, although not less im- 
portant, have taken place in the same period of time for 
the improvement of the city. The necessary conclusion of 
all which is, that a more modem methodical description 
of St. Petersburgh than exists at present, is absolutely 
required for the information of the strangef newly arrived 
in the capital of Russia, anxious to become successively 
acquainted with the various objects of interest existing in 
that city, and to be instructed as to the best manner of 
examining them with advantage. Such an account may be 
deemed a dry subject, yet it is absolutely requisite in St. 
Petersburgh, where so much is to be seen, and where there 
is no “ Guide’’ in any foreign language to direct the in- 
quirer. The want of such a wofk I tnysclf experienced 
during my visit to that city; and but for the unusual 
facilities which were afforded me through the interference 
and friendly offices of the nobleman with whom I bad 
travelled thither, I should not, in the short space of 
seven weeks, have been able to form a correct notion , 



PLANS OF ST. P£T}£RSBURGH. 


407 

of the importance, grandeur, and many valuable institu- 
tions of that capital. It was with some hope of being 
able to supply such a desideratum by the present volumes, 
that 1 collected with assiduity the materials for their com- 
pilation, during my stay in St. Petersburgh ; and as the 
number of English who visit that city, either from curiosity 
or on account ,of business, is yearly increasing, owing to 
the greater facilities of communication now existing be- 
tween the two countries, I trust that my task will afford 
them the means of enjoying as well as profiting by their 
temporary residence in the maritime capital of the Russian 
Empire. 

Although there are not, as I have first observed, any 
“ Guides,” or printed descriptions of St. Petersburgh, of a 
very recent date, engraved plans of the town are not want- 
ing to point out to the stranger the situation of those 
objects which are most deserving of his inquiry. ^J'he plan 
which I have annexed to the present volumes is derived 
from the most authentic sources, and is so aiTaiiged that 
the relative locality of any place described in the body of 
the work will be found by a reference to the different 
squares into which it is divided. This will afford a cor- 
rect notion of the extent of the city, and the disposition 
of its various parts, sufficient to direct a foreigner in his 
perambulations. The date of publication (1827) 
plan, from which the one now presented to my readers has 
been compiled, enables it to present the latest improve- 
ments. As to its accuracy, it is only necessary to state that 
its basis is founded on the result of a trigonometrical sur- 
vey of the capital by General Witzthum, who published in 
1823, a small and exceedingly neat plan of it, at the 
Topographical Military Depot, to wliich establishment he 
belongs, and where he is now engaged in composing ano- 
' ther on a much more extensive scale. If the reader has 
tile means of comparing the plan in question, with one pub- 
lished in 1812 at Paris by Monsieur dc Raymond, in his 



408 QUARTERS OF ST. PETBR8BURGH. 

Tableau de TEmpire de Russie,”— with a second pub- 
lished at St. Petersburgh in the year 181 75 on a scale of 
260 fathoms to an inch, or with the plan given by Storch 
in his Picture of St. Petersburgh at the close of the last 
century, or finally, with a still older one published in 1744, 
with an Atlas of Russia, at that time considered the most 
correct in existence : he will not fail to see, first, that in 
the course of the last sixty years St. Petersburgh has 
nearly doubled in size. 2dly. That the principal altera- 
tions in several parts have taken place within the last 
twenty years ; and 3dly. That the improvements, embel- 
lishments, public buildings, and institutions, which have 
raised St. Petersburgh to the rank of one of the princi])al 
cities in Europe, have either originated, or been put into 
execution during the twenty or thirty years which have 
just elapsed under the three last^ Sovereigns, and are still 
carried on with great vigour under the auspices oi the 
present Emperor, 

St. Petersburgh is divideil into twelve districts or qmr- 
tiers (Tchasty). Four of these are included in that part 
of the town which takes its name from the Admiralty. 
The others are The Litteinoi, (quartier de la Fonderie,) 
The Moscovskoi, (quartier de Moscou,) The Narfskoi, 
(quartier de Narva,) The Rojestvenskoi, The Karetnoi, 
The VasiliefskdiOstrow, The Peterbourgskdi, (quartier de 
Petersbourg,) and the quartier de Vibourg. Each district 
is subdivided into sections (kvartala.) The largest has as 
many as six, the smallest only two sections. The name and 
number of the district and section are marked in large char, 
racters at the corner of every street. A stranger, there- 
fore, may easily find the district in which he resides, or 
any other to which he may be desirous of proceeding, 
without the trouble of much inquiry, if he can but red 
the Russian characters, a knowledge of which is easily 
acquired. This arrangement, which does not exist in 
London or Paris, facilitates very considerably the re- 



STREETS OP ST. PETKRSBURCII. 409 

searches of a stranj^er, who may not wish to be troubled 
either with a cicerone or a hired carriage ; and in my own 
case I found it exceedingly convenient. It is a matter 
of no great difficulty to recollect the relative position of 
each of the twelve districts and their names, when the 
plan of the city has been consulted ; but few will under- 
take the task of bearing in mind the names of all nr most 
of tlie principal streets. 

Another excellent arrangement with regard to the streets, 
is the uniform adoption of the practice, which in Kngland 
is only optional, of inscribing the name of the proprietor 
or tenant of every house on some conspicuous, part of 
it. In St. Petersburgh, this is done by authority and 
cannot be dispensed with ; the names of all such per- 
sons are written on a small square board, and affixetl in 
front of the house, generally on one side of the great 
gateway. The houses are also numbered as in other 
cities. 

Most of the streets of St. Petersburgli are paved with 
small stones, which are apt soon to become loose by the 
succession of frost and thaw, and the pavement is thereby 
maile uncomfortable to pedestrians. A great improvement, 
however, has taken place in favour of this class, by 
the introduction of foot-ways, paved with wide granite 
flags, raised three or four inches above the general level of 
the street. This regulation has been adopted in almost 
every street, and no new street can be opened without 
them. The pedestrians of St. Petersburgh arc indebted 
to the late Emperor for this comfort, the idea of which 
was, it is said, suggested to him by what he had seen 
during his visit in Jjpndon. Having on that occasion 
observed the great accommodation which the troltoir$ 
afforded to the public, and being asked his opinion of 
them, he replied, “ On a tout fait pour le peuple en leur 
donnant les moyens de marcher and forthwith, he or- 
dered, that as soon as possible the inhabitants of his capital 



MO STREJSTS OF ST. PSTERSBURGH. 

should be put in possession of the same convenience. A 
few of the streets, and some of the squares, have been very 
recently macadamized. This system is well calculated for 
a city like St. Petersburgh, where for the space of nearly 
six months in the year scarcely any traffic of carriages on 
wheels takes place. 

St. Petersburgh is one of the few continental cities which 
can boast of common sewers under the streets. These sub- 
terranean watercourses are placed at the depth of two feet 
below the surface, arc arched with brick, and have a gentle 
inclination towards the canals. They were begun in the 
reign of the Empress Catherine. 

The number of streets is not so large as might be ex- 
pected in such a capital ; but this arises from their great 
length, as well as from their not being named differently at 
each intersection by a cross street, as is the case in many 
parts of Ijondon and Paris. These streets are in general , 
wide and regular, running in straight lines, but intersect- 
ing each other at different angles, and thus varying the tire- 
some monotony, wliich the symmetrical arrangement of tlie 
streets of Berlin, and some other continental towns, and 
more particularly of the modern cities in the United States 
of America, is apt to create. There are, however, two or 
three exceptions to this general disposition of the streets in 
the case of the Rojestvenskia and the Ismailofskia ; and 
also in tlie quartier de Moscou^ and the Islands of St. 
Petersburgh and Vassileiostrow, where several streets 
run paraUel to each other, and are intersected by others 
at right angles. These are called lines^ and are num: 
bered instead of having any particular name. Each row 
of houses is a line, consequently^ there are two lines in 
every street of this description. Most of the streets are 
from sixty to one hundred and twenty feet wide; but 
some few are considerably wider ; and many of them are 
of great length. There are six or eight of them which are 
about 6062 feet long — two or three are still longer, particu- 



THE NEVA. 


411 

larly the principal street, called the Nevsk'i Prospckt, and 
another called the Great Perspective in the Vassileiostrow, 
one of which is 14,350 feet, and the other 10,220 feet in 
length. The name of Perspective (prospekt) is given to 
several of the streets in St. Petersburgh ; not because they 
all look towards one great object, the Admiralty, as it is 
stated in some recent English and French publications, (for 
there is more than one street bearing that name which is 
not situated so at to present that great edifice at either of 
its extremities ;) but from their analogy to those extensive 
avemtes which lead to the country residences of noblemen 
in Italy, and each of which is called Vista or Pros- 
pettiva. 

One of the most remarkable and striking features of this 
great metropolis is doubtless the Neva; a river which, 
whether we consider its origin, its rapidity, great depth, 
and the beautiful transparent blue colour of its water, 
or the advantages it affords, stamps the character of the 
capital as one, on that account, unrivalled in Europe. Trar 
vcllcrs accustomed to behold only the muddy strean»s that 
traverse the principal cities of Europe— impressed with the 
recollections of the clay-mixed currents which flow between 
the banks of the Thames, the Seine, the Po, the Amo, the 
Tiber, the Elbe, the Spree, and the Vistular-on approach- 
ing the embankments of the Neva, . as it rushes past the 
palaces of St. Petersburgh, must be struck at once with 
surprise and delight at the novelty of the scene. The 
Neva flows out of the Ladoga, at its south-western extre- 
jnity, where a fort called Schlussenburg has been erected ; 
it takes a semi-circular course between the latter place and 
St. Petersburgh, with itiii convex part to the south, and is in 
extent fifty-eight versts and’ a hdf ; and enters the metro- 
polis between the convent of St. Alexander Nevskoi', and 
the great and small Okhta, the site of the ancient fortress 
of Nienchatz, of which Peter the Great took possession 
before he founded the capital. Having reached the 



412 CANALS INTERSECTING ST. PETERSBURGH. 

Vibourg district, it sends off* in a northerly direction a 
principal branch, which bears the name of the Great 
Nevka, while its main stream, swelling for the space of a mile 
and a half to double its former breadth, afterwards divides 
itself into the great or southern, and the lesser or northern 
Neva, which form, between them, the Vassileiostrow, and 
empty themselves below that island into the Gulf of Fin- 
land. The Great Nevka too, or first northern arm of the 
Neva, after having run an even course of two miles and a 
quarter, separates itself into two branches, about four miles 
before it reaches the gulf, forming, by means of two other 
subdivisions, the three lesser islands already named in the 
above topographical description of the metropolis. 

Independently of the Neva, St. Petersburgh has the 
advantage of being watered by other smaller rivers, which, 
with three handsome canals, serve to fix very distinctly 
the limits of the different districts, wliile they also add to 
the beauty and salubrity of the town, as well as to the ac- 
commodation of the inhabitants ; for in summer most of 
these are navigable, and all of them communicate, in some 
way or other, with the Fluvius Fluviorum, the Great Neva. 
Thus the Moika river, artificially enlarged, surrounds in a 
serpentine line the first Admiralty quarter, or that which 
lies nearest the Neva. The Catherine canal marks the 
division between the second and third Admiralty quarter, 
by a line nearly parallel to the Moika, and the Kriukof 
Canal, running at right angles with l)oth, divides the 
three first quarters from the fourth ; while a second wi^le 
canal, called the Fontanka, surrounding them all in a. 
semi-circular line further south, serves to separate them 
from the three adjoining districts of;«Narfskoi, Moskovskoi, 
and Litheino'i. The latter are themselves bounded by 
what is called the City Canal, which, beginning below or 
to the south of the fine garden of St. Alexander Nevsky, 
terminates in the Gulf of Finland, between the Imperial 
country residence of Cathcrinoff, and the entrance to St. 



THU ISAAC BRIDGK. 


41,3 


Petersburgh. Thus, even the largest and most important 
part of the metropolis, south of the Neva, may, strictly 
speaking, be considered a great island, and forms an ad- 
ditional point of resemblance between the cities of St. 
Petersbiirgh and Venice. 

The other small rivers are the Priachka, in the fourtli 
Admiralty quarter, forming the island called the Matysofs- 
koi ; the Tarakanofskoi, which crosses the city canal near 
the Peterhof road; with two or three others in the Vibourg, 
A^assileiostrowskoi and Karetnoi* districts. 

It may readily be supposed that such an extent of water 
coinmunicatiDn cannot exist in a capital without a great 
number of stationary and moveable bridges to facilitate 
tlie intercourse between the different parts of the town. 
There are, in fact, not fewer than seventy bridges, one 
half of which are of granite, eight or ten of iron, (three 
or four of which are on the principle of suspension,) and 
the rest are built of wood. There is no permanent bridge 
on the Neva. The coming down of the large pieces of 
floating ice from the Ladogo has hitherto prevented the 
establishment of any other than pontoon-bridges on that 
river. Of these there are at present three, a third having 
recently been added to the two already existing, in order 
to facilitate the communication between the Litteinoi and 
Vibourg districts. The principal of these three bridges 
is situated nearly in the centre of the first Admiralty 
quarter, communicating with the Vassileiostrow. It bears 
the name of Isaac Bridge, and connects the two most 
populous districts of the city. The construction of this 
bridge is both solid and handsome. Twenty large and 
lofty pontoons, decked^, and having both extremities point- 
ed, are fastened together by proper means, and held in 
their places by anchors. Over these a thick and solid 
floor of planks is laid with a foot-path on each side. 
The bridge is a thousand and fifty feet long and sixty feet 
wide, and has two drawbridges, which are opened at night 



414 BRIDGUS OP ST. PETBRSBURGH. 

for the purpose of letting ships through. ITie second 
bridge on tlie Neva, which is of a similar construction, is 
placed to the eastward of the fortress, between the Island 
of St. Petersburgh and the eastern side of the Winter 
Palace, at the end of the first Admiralty quarter. It is 
called the Troitskoi bridge, and measures 2456 feet in 
length. The situation of the third bridge on the Neva I 
have already mentioned. It bears the name of Yoskresen- 
skoi, and is 1260 feet long. It is between the first and 
second bridge, or in other words, between the Great Nevka 
and that part of the Neva which divides itself into two 
branches, on the side of the St. Petersburgh district, and 
where the Neva measures 3500 feet in breadth, that the 
fortress is situated on a small island connected by two 
short permanent bridges to the mainland, on which there 
is a corresponding line of fortifications. 

It is greatly to be lamented that difficulties, hitherto 
deemed insurmountable, should deprive the city of St. 
Petersburgh of the advantage of a permanent bridge, to 
keep uninterrupted the communication between its north 
and southern districts. As it is natural to suppose, pro- 
jects without number have been submitted to the Govern- 
ment for that purpose ; but hitherto, the means proposed 
have been deemed ineligible or impracticable. Among 
other eminent engineers who have been consulted on the 
subject, I have heard mentioned the names of the late 
Mr. Rennie and of Mr. Brunei. Two circumstances in 
particular seem to oppose themselves to the erection of 
either a stone or a suspension-bridge : first the greiit depth 
of the river in the place where a bridge is most needed, 
which seems to preclude the possibility of erecting piers 
for canying the arclies of such strength and magnitude as 
shall resist the action of the floating masses of ice; 
secondly, the general flatness of the ground near the 
river, and the little elevation of its banks,— two great 
obstacles to the establishment of a suspensiem-bridge. It 



MODfifi OP A WOODEN BRIDGE. 


415 


iias been proposed to tlirow fusross the Neva an iron 
bridge with one bold arch, sufficiently raised above the 
level of the water, so that the masses of ice shall not affect 
it; but, independently ofthe extreme difficulty of projecting 
an arch of such dimensions, its elevation, rendered necx's- 
sary for the transit of ships, would inevitably be too con- 
siderable to allow the crossing over it by vehicles of any 
description. A model of a wooden bridge of peculiar con- 
struction, with a single arch, is shown in St. Petersburgh ; 
the invention of a man who, I believe, was self-taiiglit in 
mechanics, named Kouliben; he was a real genius, a boor 
by birth, and a meal-chandler by profession. Without in- 
struction, or any previous acquirement of mechanical know- 
ledge, he unfolded talents that surprised every iKuly. The 
(irst Avork by which he attracted notice, was a curious piece 
of clock-work. This was presented to Catherine, who res- 
cued the author from his obscure condition, and placed him 
in a situation in which his talents could be matured, and 
become serviceable to the state. She honoured him likewise 
witli a golden medal of merit to wear round his neck, and 
lie became at last mechanical assistant and demonstrator at 
tile Academy of Arts. It was in that situation that he con- 
ceived the design of constructing a bridge of timber across 
the Neva ; for which purpose he set about preparing a pro- 
per model, which, upon repeated trials, was found capable 
of bearing a weight of 1275440 pounds. 

According to this model, the bridge was to have consisted 
of several thousand square pieces of wood, all alike in sisse, 
and most ingeniously connected, so as to be light as well as 
durable. The arch would have measured eighty-four feet in 
height, and the expense was calculated at considerably less 
than half a million of roubles. In order to comprehend 
fully the difficulties here alluded to, in regard to the estab- 
lishment of a permanent bridge, it is necessary to state, that 
near the Isaac Hridge, I have heard the depth of the Neva 
quoted at fifty-two feet, and of its rapidity a good idea 



416 THK QUAY8 OF ST. PKTSRSBUROH. 

may be formed from Colonel Henry\s recent experiments, 
from which it appears that tliis river gives 116,300 cubic 
feet of water in a second. 

Of the live new bridges which the Duke Alexander of 
Wiirtemberg was ordered by the late Emperor to see con- 
structed over the interior rivers and canals of the city, two 
deserve particular notice for their elegance^ and the inge- 
nious method by which they are suspended. One of these 
is situated on the Fontanka, not far from the New Palace 
of the Grand-Duke Michael, and is called tlie Panteleiinon 
Bridge. The other is on the Moika, and is destined only 
for foot passengers; For the manlier in which the chains 
of tile former arc disposed, and the ornamental design of 
the whole, great merit is due to Colonel Traitteur of the 
engineer corps, under whose direction and after whose plans 
the bridge was built ; nor is it less creditable to him that 
the expenses of such a bridge, which is 124 feet long mid . 
thirty-five feet wide, amount only to the sum of 161,200 
roubles, or little more than <£^7000 sterling. 

The Quays of the Neva and canals are among the ob- 
jects worthy of admiration in St. Petersburgh. Most of 
them are built of granite. The quay wliich extends from 
the foundcry eastward, to within a short distance of the 
mouth of the river, and along its left bank, is four versts 
in length, and interrupted only by the Admiralty wharfs. 
The bank is raised on piles ten feet above the level of the 
river, and lined with solid granite. , It has a foot-pave- 
ment of the same stone, seven feet wide, with a parapet 
two feet and a half high,^ and more than a foot m thick^ 
ness. At certain distances are placed handsome flights 
of stairs for landing and procuring water, with seats for 
the accommodation of passengers. The carriage-way on 
this quay is from thirty to forty feet wide. AU that part 
of the quay which is to the westward of the Isaac Bridge, 
is known % .the name of the English Line, in consequence 
of its having originally been inhabited principally by 



THR ENGLISH QUAY. 


417 

English merchants. At present that is not tlie case. Very 
few English families live in this part of the city. The ge- 
nerality of them reside on the Vassileiostrow, or in some 
of the streets adjoining the English Line, or Quay. That 
part of the Quay which lies to the eastward of the Ad- 
miralty, is called the Great or Russian Quay. The sides 
of the Catherine Canal and the Fontanka arc likewise faced 
with granite, have a handsome foot-pavement of the same 
material, with a railing or fine balustrade, running between 
dwarf granite pillars. The quays of these canals arc lined 
witli very large and handsome buildings. Some of the other 
canals are faced with timber. 

The distinction between the fa.shionable and unfashion- 
able parts of the city is as strongly marked in St. Peters- 
biirgh, as in London. The four Admiralty districts, and 
])art of the Litteinoi, form what may be called the Court- 
end of the town. In those districts the most sumptuous 
palaces are to be found ; although, here and .there, a 
s])lendid edifice attracts attention in some other parts of 
the city. 

Having now endeavoured to lay before my readers such 
topographical details as may enablti them to understand ge- 
nerally the plan annexed to the present Volumes, and induce 
them to become better acquaint^ with a place so full of in- 
terest, I shall proceed to desexibe more particularly the ap- 
pearance of tlie most striking parts of the town, which pre- 
.‘«ent themselves to the stranger in the course of his walks. 
Walking is by no means fashionable in St. Petersburgh ; 
and yet during a clear frosty morning, late in the Autumn 
or in the Winter, I knoyr of few enjoyments for a stran- 
ger, that can be compared to that species of exercise, 
wliere wide and well-paved t^ttoirs, invite the pedestrian, 
and almost every step offers points of view and objects of 
interest, to encourage him in his rambles. Here neither 
horses nor carriages can endanger his limbs ; nor will his 
progress be interrupted by scaffoldings and palings project- 

VOL. I. 



418 


STRKETS OP RT. PETBRSBU RGH. 


ing to the very verge of the street, nor by sturdy crowds 
gathering around a ballad singer or an Italian polichineMa. 
The space allotted to the pedestrian is liable to no sucli 
trespasses or encroachments — the police takes care that each 
householder shall keep that part of the foot-pavenient 
which lies before his dwelling clear of mud, snow, and other 
incumbrances. Though last, not least, the advantage of 
not being pestered by beggars of all destiriptions, to 
whose tormenting importunities you are so much subjected 
both at home and abroad, is another source of encourage- 
ment to perambulation through the streets of St. Peters- 
burgh, where much less of art is required for that purpose, 
than through the streets of London. 

To a stranger, walking is decidedly the best mofle of 
becoming acquainted with St. Petersburgh. By this means 
he may penetrate where no carriage could convey him— ■ 
select the station that best suits the scenery which lio, 
wishes to contemplate — change his position as often as con- 
venience or caprice suggests, without the apprehension of 
a surly answer from an unwilling driver — and multiply 
his inquiries at different places, and of different individuals, 
without the trouble and risk of the in and out movements 
attendant on carriage excursions. 

To this great source, therefore, both of enjoyment and 
information, 1 betook myself, the day after our arrival, 
unaided by guide, ciceroney or valet de place ; performing 
my first panoramic promenade, with a view of becoming 
practically acquainted with the exterior before I proceeded 
to virit and examine the interior of the numerous and 
superb edifices which rose before mein so mahy direction^ 

I'he first architectural object that attracts the attention 
of the traveller, is the Admiralty, with its lofty and rich- 
gilt spire, glittering in the sun, and marking, as it were, 
the centre o£ the city, T^ imposing edifice, placed on 
the left bank of the Neva, extends from the Winter or 
Imperial Palace, eastward, to within a short distance of 



PANORAMIC SURVEY OF ST. PKTRR8BURGH. ‘Iil9 

the Isaac Bridge, westward. Its principal front is towards a 
large square, lined with stately buildings, among which 
the Colossal Palace of Prince Labanoff, and that of the 
Go\'erntnent Tribunals, and the Hotel of the Staff of the 
Guards, appear most conspicuous. The two lateral wings 
extend towards the river, and terminate in a splendid fliglit 
of steps of granite, leading to the water-edge. Between these 
is the space used as a dock-yard, where vessels of war of 
the first class are built, and from which the Alexjmder, of 
one-hundred-and-twenty guns, had been launched only a 
day or two before our arrival. The view of this handsome 
edifice from the river is not so striking as>from the square, 
from the circumstance of the ship-yard intervening, — an 
establishment which, though picturesque in itself, is not a 
fit associate for a building of such superior architecture. 
Around the land-sides of the Admiralty, is a promenade 
])lanted with trees, which resembles a Parisian boulevard, 
and which is much frequented both in summer and winter 
by all classes of persons. 

The next object which attracts attention, on account of 
its gigantic dimensions and princely purpose, is the Impe- 
rial or Winter Palace. This great and imprising pile is best 
seen from the top of the granite steps at the end of the 
eastern wing of the Admiralty, from which building it is 
separated by a handsome square. From this spot, not only 
the western, but the northern elevation of the Palace is 
seen with the noble Quay of granite in front of it, consi- 
derably wider in this than in any otiicr part of that 
superb range of Quays which line the left bank of the 
Neva. Altogether, this palace has a most imposing ap- 
))earance. 

Following the line of this buSding towards the East, 
the eye reposes successively dn an interrupted range of 
grand and beautiful. structures situated along the gentle 
sweep of the river, and forming an immense crescent. 
First the great and smaller Hermitage, two more modem 
2e2 



420 PANORAMIC SURVEY OP ST. PETERSBURGH. 

and tasteful buildings than the Imperial Palace, connected 
with it and with each other by covered ways, on bold 
arches, please for their Palladian style ; and next the stately 
Grecian theatre belonging to the Hermitage excites admira- 
tion. Beyond these, appear the barracks of the Guards 
Prcobrajcnskoi, the officers of which regiment, from the 
proximity of their quarters to, and ready communication 
with, the two Hermitages, have the facility as well as pri- 
vilege of visiting, whenever it suits them, the superb suite 
of apartments contmned in those palaces. Such a lounge 
equals in beauty that which ! the traveller enjoys in the 
Louvre, the gallery of Florence, or the Vatican. I’he 
house of the French Ambassador with its attractive exte- 
rior, and the I16tel des Appanages next to it in locality 
and beauty, succeed each other to the left of the Military 
Barracks. Farther on, the Marble Palace with its basiv 
ment of granite, and the superstructure of blueish marble . 
ornamented with marble columns and pilasters, seem to 
shine even amidst the neighbouring specimens of grand 
and varied architecture. It is in this palace that Stanis- 
laus Poniatowsky, the last of the Polish Sovereigns, ter- 
minated his existence. 

These various buildings, commanding a view of the Nova, 
being placed on its left embankment, which is cased with 
solid granite, present an uninterrupted frontage of upwards 
of a mile in length, unequalled in any city in Europe, 
extending from the eastern boulevard of the Admiralty, to 
the monument of Souvoroff, which terminates the superb 
vista near a large square now called the Champ de Mars, 
and formerly Tsaritsinskoiloug. Opposite this splendiaN 
range of buildings is the Citadel with its low bastions of 
solid granite, washed airround by the Neva, and forming 
one of the many beautiful objects seen on this river, not 
only on account of its structure, but for the tall, slender,' 
and richly gilt spire of its church. Looking tio the right 
of the citadel with our back to the Palace, the Neva is seen 



PANORAMIC SURVEY OP ST. PETERS BURGH. 421 

to spread into a wide expanse resembling much a sca-bay, 
on the distant shores of which sever^ other handsome 
buildings are discerned, particularly the great military and 
naval Hospitals ; while, a little to the left of the Citadel, 
the eye of the observer rests on a magnificent portico, 
appearing between two colossal rostral pillars, and belong- 
ing to the Exchange. This large edifice, of Grecian archi- 
tecture, is placed on a double granite key with bolil flights 
of steps, down to the water’s level. Extensive magazines, 
recently erected, stand on each side of it, and beyond tliem 
the house containing the museum of the Academy of Sci- 
ences, with the tower of the Observatory, and the palace of 
the Academy with its handsome colonnade, cover that point 
of land of Vassilciostrow which parts the stream of the 
Neva into a northern and southern branch, not far from 
the Citadel. 

Turning from this enchanting spot, so rich in architec- 
tural scenery, and retracing my steps to the Admiralty 
s<juare, I observed immediately opposite to the south 
facade of the Imperial Palace, a crescent of lofty buiklings 
with an extensive wing on one side, at right angles, all 
of uniform design. The whole of this range is designatetl 
by the general denomination of Etat Major, and is of very 
recent construction. The central portion of the crescent is 
occupied by a colonnade of the Corinthian order placed on a 
iiigh rustic basement, running along the principal story, 
and having in each intercolumniation a balustrade of solid 
bronze gilt before each window, similar to the balustrades 
that deporate the balconies which at fixed distances orna- 
ment three of the windows in the principal story. In the 
middle of this part of the edifice is seen an arch, which, 
with its frieze, reaches nearly to the upper pait of the 
lofty building, and has a span of seventy feet. The en- 
• tablature of this triumphal arch is sculptured with military 
trophies, and the soffits are enriched with Iwld fleurottt and 
^allegorical figures and groups in alto re/zevo. 



422 STATUE OF PETER THE GREAT. 

We will now follow the public promenade in front of 
the Admiralty, leaving on our left the finest street in 
St. Petersburgh, called the Nevskbi Prospekt ; and after 
having bestowed a moment’s attention on the exquisite 
portico of the Manage of the Horse-Guards, one of the 
happiest efforts of Guarenghi, in front, and a little to tlie 
left of us, proceed to the square opposite the Isaac Bridge 
at the western extremity of the Admiralty. Here the co- 
lossal equestrian Statue of the founder of this magnificent 
city, placed «)n a granite rock, seems to command the un- 
divided attention of the stranger. The history of this 
unique monument has been too <)ften told to require a re- 
petition in this place. The manner in which the huge 
idock of granite which forms the pedestal, upwards of 
fifteen hundred tons in weight, was conveyed, by a native 
of Cephalonia, from a marsh at a distance of four Englisli 
miles from St. Petersburgh, and two miles from the sea, 
has been related by every traveller, and net^ds no farther 
description. On approaching nearer to the rock, the simple 
inscription fixed on it in bronze letters “ Petro Prinio, 
Catharina Secunda, MDCCLXXXII” meets the eye. 
The same inscription in the Russian language appears on 
the opposite side. The area is inclosed within a handsome 
railing placed between granite pillars : a glance 'at tlie fron- 
tispiece of this Volume will give a correct idea of the design 
and effect of this monument. The idea of Falconet, the 
French architect, commissioned to erect an. equestrian 
statue to the extraordinary man at whose command a few 
scattered huts of fishermen were converted into palaces, 
was to represent the hero as conquering, by enterprizc 
and personal courage, difficulties almost insurmountable. 
This the artist imagined might be properly represented 
by placing- Peter on a fiery steed, which he is supposed to 
have taught, by skill, management, and perseverance, to 
rush up a steep and precipitous rock, to the very brink of 
a precipice, over which the animal and the Imperial 



STATUK OP PKTBR THE GREAT, 423 

pause without fear and in an attitude of triumph. The 
horse rears with his fore-feet in the air, and seems to be 
impatient of restraint, while the sovereign, turned towards 
the Island, surveys with calm and serene countenance his 
capital rising out of the waters over which he extends the 
hand of protection. The bold manner in which the group 
has been made to rest on the hind legs of tlie horse only, is 
not more surprising than the skill with which advantage 
has been taken of the allegorical figure of the serpent of 
envy spumed by the horse, to assist in upholding so gi- 
gantic a mass. This monument of bronze is said to have 
l)een cast at a single jet. The head was modelled by Ma- 
demoiselle Calot, a female artist of great merit, a contem- 
porary of Falconet, and is admitted to be a strong resem- 
blance of Peter the Great. 

The height of the figure of the Emperor is eleven feet ; 
that of the horse, seventeen feet. Tl»e bronze is in the 
thinnest parts, only the fourth of an inch, and one inch 
in the tliickest part the general weight of metal in tlic 
group is equal to 36,636 English pounds. 

I lioard a venerable Russian nobleman, who was living at 
St. Petersburgh when this monument was in progress, re- 
late, that as soon as the artist had formed his conception of 
tlic design, he communicated it to the Empress, togi*ther 
with the impossibility of representing to nature so striking 
a |)osition of man and animal, without having before his 
eves a horse and rider in the attitude he had devised. Ge- 
neral Melissino, an officer having the reputation of being the 
most expert as well as the boldest rider of the day, to whom 
the difficulties of the architect were made known, offered to 
ride daily one of Count Alexis OrlofPs best Arabians out 
of that nobleman''s stud, to the summit of a steep artificial 
mound, formed for the purpose ; accustoming the horse to 
gtillop up to it, and to halt suddenly, with his fore-legs 
raised, pawing the air over the brink of a precipice. This 
dangerous experiment was carried into effect by the general 



424 STATUB OF PETER THE GREAT. 

for some days, in the presence of several spectators and of 
Falconet, who sketched the various movements and parts 
of the group from day to day, and was thus enabled to 
produce perhaps the finest — certainly the most correct 
statue of the kind in Europe. 

It will be always a matter of regret to the admirers of 
the sublime in the fine arts, that the chisel of Falconet, 
which had been so successfully employed in giving to tlie 
world so |)erfect a group, should have interfered with the 
rude form and outlines of the gigantic block of granite 
selected for its support. The paring, and bevelling, and 
scooping out to which the original rock was subjected, 
have greatly injured the grand and imposing effect it 
would otherwise have had; have diminished the size of 
this unique pedestal to almost incorrect proportions, and 
given it the appearance of an artificial inclined plane, 
where a rude and broken rock with its natural and pictu- 
resque angles and fractures was required. Falconet, by 
this proceeding, has placed himself in contradiction with 
his own original conception. Instead of presenting diffi- 
culties, he has smoothed the way to the great hero, whose 
bold achievements he had been instructed to commemorate. 

The building represented in the engraving, near the iiio- 
nument, is the Palace of the directing Senate. Its archi- 
tecture is severe. Advancing a few steps farther, the 
English Quay opens on the view, with the opposite bank 
crowded with public buildings, amongst which appears 
conspicuous, the Palace of the Academy of Fine Arts, one 
of the most imposing structures in St. Petersburgh. The 
obelisk, which rises near it in the centre of a wide square, 
records the glory of Roumiantzoif, the conqueror of the 
Osmanlich race. If we direct our view to the left of this 
spot, the building of the Naval Cadet Corps, with its hand- 
some front, and the Barracks of the Guards of Finland. * 
arrest our atten^on ; while on the right, and fronting the 
bridge, the greatv^ile of buildings having a palace-lik^ 






THE EXGETSH QUAY AT ST. PETERSBURGH. 



panoramic survey of ST. PETERSBURCIT. 4*25 

aspect, belonging to the Military Cadet Corps, is seen to 
occupy a large extent of the Quay, and to reach nearly to 
the Palace of the Academy of Sciences. From this latter, 
however, it is separated by the numerous colleges of the 
Ht)ly Synod, now forming part of the buildings of the 
University of St. Petersburgh. 

When 1 beheld for the first time both banks of the Neva 
lined with such magnificent buildings, and their varied 
architectural beauties reflected in the unruffled mirror of 
the most majestic river I had ever seen, my 8uri)rize equal- 
led ray admiration. Numerous vessels were sailing down 
its stream, pleasure-boats and gondolas plied on the still 
surface ; and to give to the whole a still more interesting 
appearance, the hulls of a slup of war of three decks, and 
of a seventy-four, both launched at the time of our arrival 
at St. Petersburgh, were lying in front of the superb build- 
ing of the Academy of Arts. 

The charm of this scenery, and that of the still more 
imposing spectacle, presented by a range of stately palaces 
running westward for the space of a mile on the left bank, 
are not lost even on a winter’s morning when the weather 
is clear, and the sky of that deep azure which is alone to 
he seen in frosty regions. At an early hour on such a 
morning late in November, I directed my steps to the Eng- 
lish Quay, and taking my station a few paces from the 
Senate-house, 1 surveyed the numerous insulated public 
buildings which on the opposite bank present their fronts, 
with one of their sides gilt by the rising sun. Last of this 
range appeared the Grecian Portico of the Ecoh des Mitiesy 
showing its white front, as if to crown the vanishing point 
of the vista. I could not help contrasting this almost the- 
atrical perspective, with the more grave and imposing 
edifices standing in the dark shade on my left, with a hand- 
some and wide granite quay before them.^ As I w^ked by 
the side of its massive parapet, I succesfflvely admired the 
handsome Ionic portico of the northern froht of the Senate- 



426 PANORAMIC SURVEY OR ST. PETERSBUR6H. 

house, the princely palace of Count Laval, the newly 
erected and colossal edifice bequeathed by the late Chan, 
cellbr to the country for a public museum, and the hand, 
some elevation and colonnade of the English church, with 
fifty private houses, on all of which, architects have lavish, 
ed their best ornaments and designs. Occasionally, 1 
turned to the half-frozen Neva, lying between these two 
magnificent scenes, and beheld the few small and tortuous 
streams which yet remained free, struggling through nar- 
row channels of ice to get to the sea. Such are the striking 
and peculiar features which distinguish this part of the 
capital ; — ^features, the beauties of which, even the effects 
of >vinter catmot despoil. 

A few days after our arrival, the Count requested one of 
his aide-de-camps, the Prince Herheoulidzeff, a Circassian 
nobleman, whose amiable disposition and refined manners 
have won liiin the affections of a large circle of friends, to 
accompany a medical friend and myself to see the interior 
of the Admiralty. The elevated tower of this building 
offers an excellent opportunity of taking a periscopic bird's- 
eye view of the city ; we at the same time ascended to tlie 
external gallery placed around the lantern, which surmount- 
ing the dome, serves as a base to the beautiful and richly 
gilt spire that rises from this point, eighty-five feet high, 
in this situation, we found ourselves at an elevation of one 
hundred and forty-five feet above the level of the Neva ; 
and never did a more magnificent spectacle greet the eye 
of an inquiring traveller, than burst upon us, when we 
stepped out on the circular balcony. The day was one of 
the finest seen in this climate. An uninterrupted sunshine 
lighted up every part of the surrounding panorama, and 
there was a transparency in the atmosphere which made 
every object still more conspicuous. 

The first impression received on looking around, when 
hundreds of fine palaces, colonnades, statutes, and towering 
spires, with not a few specimens of the pure Grecian 



PANORAMIC VIEW OP ST. PETKRSJIURCH. 4iJ7 

of building, attract the attention, would lead one to ima- 
gine oneself suddenly transported to a newly erected city 
of Greece, in the time of Pericles. But when wc connected 
those different objects with the long, straiglit, and wide 
streets, flanked with houses of various but generally hand- 
some designs — when we marked the bustle of the multitude 
—the great and motley variety of costumes, most of them 
picturesque— the hiiarrtrit of the different vehicles that 
glided before us, some moving silently along the hand- 
some area that lay immediately below us, intersecting ouch 
other in a thousand directions ; others rapidly coursing on 
low wheels with horses that are taught antics and gaml)ols 
in their course — and now and then a stately carriage drawn 
by four horses, guided by a long bearded coachman, whose 
waist is compressed by a silken sash, with a square cap 
of crimson velvet placed diagonally on his head, and who 
was heard to urge the distant leaders under the control 
of a little urchin ; we were recalled in our imagination to 
present times and to reality, and we surveyed with admira- 
tion this youngest of the European capitals, and the capital 
of the largest empire in Europe. 

Tlie prevalence of the light and soft tints with which 
most of the public buildings are painted, give to the city 
a gay and refreshing aspect. Immediately in front of us 
three noble streets, diverging like rays from a centre, pene- 
trate into the heart of the city, and open to the view the 
facades of churches and palaces without number, and 
present lines of dwelling-houses of the first magnitude. 
These are mostly built 'of stone, or arc of brick stuccoed 
over. Timber houses are only perceived in a few of the 
distant suburbs of the Litteinoi, and Narfskoi districts, or 
in the more remote parts of the Vassiliefskoi* and Pctcr- 
hoursko’i Islands. Although higher than the houses in Lon- 
• don, those of St. Petersburgh have seldom more than two 
stories, the elevation of each of which is consequently con- 
siderable. These are frequently ornamented with handsome 



4:28 PANORAMIC VIEW OF ST. PETERSBUR6H. 

balconies, and light balustriules surround the flat roofs, 
which are generally covered with sheet iron, painted gruen 
or red. Columns are profusely introduced; but their 
application is mostly confined to the principal story, being 
seldom employed for the construction of porticoes before 
the principal entrance. 

The number of spipes, domes, and towers, with which 
the general map of the city is interspersed, give to the 
whole a pleasing variety. The Byzantine bulbous cupolas 
distinguish thosedcdicated to the Greco-Russian communion 
from the other churches. One of the principal ornaments 
of this modern Palmyra are indeed its churches. Scon 
from an eminence, the Greek churches appear, both far 
and near, with an imposing aspect, alike removed from 
the masterpieces of Gothic architecture and the modern 
temples. Five domes, the central one of which is higher 
than the others, and of larger proportions, in many instances . 
gilt with profusion, would remind one of the mos(|uos 
of Constantinople, but that the Greek Cross towers here 
in proud triumph over the Ottoman Crescent. We were 
struck witli tlie fine appearance of the several military bar- 
racks, and the riding-house adjoining those which belong to 
the several cavalry regiments of Guards stationed in tlie 
capital. The uniform beauty of these buildings, most of 
which have been erected by eniinent architects, is very re- 
markable. The squares and gardens, seen to interrupt the 
monotony of large masses of dwellings and streets, form at 
the same time a number of important openings in the great 
map of the city, on which the eye dwells with pleasure. We 
particularly noticed on the eastern side of our station, and on 
the bank of the Moika, the Imperial Mews, with the church 
l)elonging to it, one of the most superb specimens of archi- 
tecture existing in St. Petersburgh: its running portico 
witli Doric columns copied from those of Pmstum, is 
unequalled in beauty. The summer-gardens, and the 



PANORAMIC VIRW OK ST. PETKRSBCRGII. 429 

Castle of St. Michael near them, the pleasure-grounds 
belonging to the recently finished and magnificent 
Palace of the Grand-Duke Michael, are likewise seen 
grouped on this spot. The wide Fontanka, witli its 
many bridges of granite, marks the boundary of this 
district, beyond which the view stretches to the old and 
new Arsenal, to the Taurida palace and its park, and 
farther still to the splendid convent of Smolnoi. Turning 
gently round over the neighbouring scenery, the elevated 
church of St. Alexander Nevskoi with its monastery, 
cemetery, and cloister, caught our attention ; while in the 
intermediate ground we observed the long line of sliops 
of the Gostinoi'dwor, the tower of the Town-hall, the 
private palace of Anitchkoff, belonging to the Emperor, 
the semicircular front of the Cathwlral of our Lady of 
Ciisan, the Bank of Assignats, the handsome building of 
the Poor’s Hospital, and that of the Institute of St. 
(^itherine. Directing our attention to the south-western 
part of the city, new wonders offered themselves to our 
view. The colossal pile of marble forming part of the 
intended new church of St. Isaac, the Palladian struc- 
ture of the Post-office, the barracks and riding-house 
of the Gardes A cheval, the great and handsome portico of 
the Opera, with the picturesque church of St. Nicholas not 
fju' distant from it, successively presented themselves as ob- 
jects for our admiration. The scene, too, in this direction, 
is pleasingly varied by the many intersecting canals which 
meet to mingle their waters with those of the gulf placed 
at the extreme point of our picture, and forming its distant 
horizon. 

We left with regret our elevated station, where pleasure 
and surprise had riveted us for nearly an hour to the con- 
templation of a living panorama, to see which alone, it is 
'not too much to say, that a journey of 17^0 miles is not 
too great a sacrifice. 

But the inhabitants of London ^HU have shortly an op- 



430 MODEL OF ST. FKTRRSBURGH. 

portunity of forming an idea of the grandeur and beauty 
of St. Petersburgh, without going so far from home. A 
model of that city, on a scale never before attempted, in 
which every building is represented in all its various and 
most minute details, and the proportions, distances, and 
relative positions arc most strictly observed, is about to be 
imported by Signor Rossi, the ingenious artist who exe- 
cuted it. The space it occupies is more than sixty feet 
in breadth, and seventy-four in length, without including 
the monastery of St. Alexander Nevskoi, the College of 
the Demoiselles Nobles, and the Taurida Palace, which arc 
executed apart. When the model left St. Petersburgh for 
Paris, it filled five large waggons. 

It was exhibited in St. Petersburgh in 1826, and shown 
publicly for the last two years in the French capital, where 
it met with general admiration ; whence it will be brought 
to this country for public inspection. Such a mode of repre- 
senting large towns on an adequate scale, has many advan- 
tages over a painted panorama. The one is, in fact, the sub- 
stance of that of which the other is. the shadow. Illusion 
is the pride of the one, reality the boast of the other. 
Should the great Panorama of London, painted fur that 
magnificent building the Coliseum, in the Regent’s Park, 
be open to the public at the same time that the great model 
of St. Petersburgh shall be exhibited in this metropolis, 
a remarkable opportunity will offer itself of comparing the 
respective merits of the two systems of imitative repre- 
sentation applied to two of the most celebrated capitals in 
Europe. 



CHAPTER II. 


PICTURE OF ST. PETERSBURG H. 

Conveyances to and from St.Petersburgh — Posting regulations, Telegas, 
Kibitkas, Horses and tackle, Diligences, Steam-vessels. — Formalities 
to be attended to by Foreigners on their arrival at, during their residence 
in, and at their departure from St. Petersburgli ; Passports.— Cuslom- 
bouse.— -Permission to introduce books.— Hotels aud ready-furnisbed 
apartments.— Tnequais de Place and Servants.— F'lquipages.— Close 
Carriages, Droschkyes, Sledges.— Divisions of Society.— Dilferent 
classes of Nobility.— The great officers of the Court. — ^The Ministers 
of State and Foreign Ministers.— The Hereditary Nobility.— Heads of 
Imperial Departments. — Military officers of high rank. — ^Tlie titular 
nobility. — The liberal professions — The Employvis oi Govenimenl. 
— Tlie Merchants.- Numlier of Foreigners in St. Petersburgb.— Rus- 
sian inhabitants.— Remarkable feature in the character of the Russians. 
— Busy appearance of the population.— Privileges and new regula- 
tion respecting Foreigners. 

Il’ was a saying of Pope Ganganelli that he liked well 
to enter a large city, but still better to depart from it. 
Pt)r both these purposes some conveyances are necessary. 
Even those travellers who boast of having traced their 
lonely way to Kamtchatka on foot, have been glad to 
avail themselves of every opportunity which spared them 
• a part of that labour. A p^estrian tour to St. Peters- 
burgh is not the sort of pilgrimage I would recommend 
to my readers, though I am in the habit of urging the 



m 


POSTING. 


advantage of walking exercise to my patients. In no 
part of civilized Europe, excepting Sweden, can a traveller 
get himself conveyed to and from any part of the empire, 
and consequently to and from the capital, on such reason- 
able terms, as well as so expeditiously, as in Russia. The 
means of conveyance to and from St. Petersburgh, are as 
numerous as those to be found in any other country. 
Posting, stage-coaches, or diligences, voituriers, and steani- 
vesscls, or the more ordinary course of sea navigation, are 
all equally available for the purpose. 

Posting is under the immediate superintendence of Go- 
vernment, as i.s the case in most countries on the (Continent. 
There is, indeed, no printed tarif-book, as in France or 
Germany, to point out the roads and post-stations to tlu‘ 
traveller, together with the regulations respecting hi.s own 
and the post-masters’ conduct, which are found so conve- 
nient in the Parisian livres des pastes ; but on application 
at the general post-ofKce, a written march-route may be 
obtained by any respectable person ; and, moreover, tin? 
distances being, without exception, marked on the road, 
as well as at all the post-houses, such a book would be 
almost superfluous. The charges for fmsting consist in 
the fees or duty paid on obtaining the permission from 
the military governor of St. Petersburgh for post-horses, 
and in the tax paid to the post-masters for the horses them- 
selves. The first amounts to two kopeeks, or one-fifth 
of a penny, for each horse and verst, paid in advance 
for the whole distance. The second is equal to eight 
kopeeks a horse, or four-fifths of a penny, for every 
verst. Thus, for example, the distance of 564 versts 
from St. Petersburgh to Riga, with four horses, would 
cost 45^rouble8 32 kopeeks for the pennit or podoroschna, 
paid before starting, and 180 roubles 48 kopeeks paid on the 
road to the different post-masters. Strictly speaking, there 
is no regular or obligatory charge for the drivers. The sum 
paid to the post-master for the horses, is supposed to remu- 



POSTING. 


m 


ncrate his servant also ; but in general, foreigners are in tlie 
habit of giving at each stage a small coin of tlie value of 
twenty kopeeks in silver, which are equal to eighty kopeeks 
oF paper-money, or eight-pence. As there are twenty-eight 
stages from St. Petersburgh to Riga, the total charge for 
the drivers amounts to twenty-two roubles and forty 
kopeeks ; consec^uently, the entire distance would cost for 
tlic four horses and drivers, two hundreil and forty-eight 
roubles and twenty kopeeks, which is equivalent to ten 
pounds six shillings and eight-pence, being at tlie rate of 
sixpence-halfpenny a mile (English). Posting is therefore 
nearly one-half cheaper than in France, and two-thirds 
cheaper than in Germany, while the same mode (with four 
horses) of travelling in England, is six times dearer than 
in Russia. 

'I’o guard against any im|)osition on the part oi‘ the post- 
masters, it is ordered that they shall ketq) suspended in 
their office an abstract of tlie regulations and tarif, written 
in the Russian, and (jerman, and sometimes in the French 
language, with the chargeable distances marked thereon, 
for the guidance of travellers, who have a right to insist 
oil its being produced when any dispute arises. Notwith- 
standing these precautions, attempts are sometimes made 
to cliarge foreigners more than is due, and to compel them 
to take a greater number of horses than is reipiisite. In 
all such cases, the traveller may insert his complaint in a 
register kept for tliat purpose at bach post-house, which 
being examined, from time to time, by the inspector of the 
ilistrict, will inevitably lead to the punishment or repri- 
maud of the transgressing post-master. In this respect, 
the system is the same as that which obtains in Germany. 
I had occasion, on my return from S,t. Petersburgh, to in- 
siTt a complaint twice in this liber mal^icus^ and. 1 was 
much amused at the perusal of some of the entries 1 found 
hi it. In general, the alleged causes of complaint were 
not worth the time wasted in making them, and, for aught 

VOL. i. 2 F 



434 , RtJiSSIAN \EII10LKS. 

1 knoW) iiiy own were jjrobably of the same clescri|)tit)ij. 
Travellers are frequently, from fatigue and bad niglits, in 
that state of health wJiich induces feverish irritability and 
dissatisfaction. Wc are also apt to be over-jealous of our 
piwers of discrimination and knowledge of tlie customs of 
the country through which we travel, tmd to resist witli 
petulant itidignation the least apparent attempt- to question 
either. We embark in serious disputations on matters 
which, at a period of cooler reflection, would only excite a 
smile. 

'rravellers have mentioned with contempt the a|)])ear- 
ance of the Russian post-horses, and of the tackle belong- 
ing to them ; but these eye-sores ai*e fully compensated by 
the rapidity with which one is generally driven, wherever 
the state of the road will permit. It matters little to ns 
whether the animals which are to convey us through tliij 
interminable forests and lands of that country, are fresh 
taken from the plough, or gathered home from the neigh- 
bouring heath, wild and uncouth, and of all sizes and co- 
lours, if they do but carry us to the termination of tin' 
stage at the fate of twelve versts an hour. And I have 
been told by a gentleman, on whose veracity I can depend, 
that even twenty versts an hour is not a very extraordinary 
))crformance. 

Besides the usual vehicles for posting, such as chariots 
and dormeuses, berlines, britschkas, and calcches, which L 
saw used by the superior classes in the part of Russia that 
1 visited, the inhabitants are accustomed to post in light 
carts called Idegas^ built on four low wheels, without 
springs, having an open or a full railing all round, occa- 
sionally a bench sus[)ended inside, but more commonly 
nothing beyond a great c|uantity of hay, in which tin 
traveller lies down rather than sits ; so that the jolting w 
such a carriage must be dreadful. I never felt the inclina 
tion to try it. 

Another national carriage in use on the road, is a sligh 



RUSSIAN VRHICLES. , 4JJ5 

mollification of the former, and is called the kibitka. Tliis 
is indeed the more usual carriage to be met with at the 
post-houses in Russia. Sometimes those vehicles are hung 
upon springs, in which case it is said that they are neitlier 
ilisiigreeable nor inconvenient. 

These, as well as private carriages of all descriptions, 
are seldom drawn by fewer than three, and oftener by four, 
six, and eight horses. In tHfe first and second case, the 
horses are placed abreast, one of them in the shafts with 
an arched piece of wood, called Douga, immediately above 
his head, from which are suspended a number of bells ; some 
are driven by a coachman who sits in front of the carriage, 
making room for himself as he can, if no proper accommo- 
dation l)e provided in the construction of the carriage, and 
sometimes placing himself on a high pile of trunks or impe- 
rials, without ever complaining of his uncomfortable birth. 
In tlie third and fourth case, the horses are disposed in two 
rows, and a postilion rides one of those in the centre of the 
front row. 1 have, however, seen more than once a single 
coachman drive the two teams, and have admired the skill 
with which he held control over eadi of the eight animals, 
by means of the slender strings he grasped in his hands, 
and which performed the office of reins. ■ In order to put 
the horses in this manner to private travelling carriages, a 
very wide splinter bar is fixed to that which belongs to the 
carriage, and is made to project beyond it at least a fewt 
on each side. Hence the necessity of those extraordinary 
wide roads which are so common in Russia. 

Families who live at a^eat distance, and are indifferent 
as to time, when they have occasion to visit the capital, 
engage, in preference to posting, a lamsUliick or Voiturier^ 
who supplies the necessary number of horses for the journey, 
and performs a distance of ^bout sixty versts a day, stop- 
ping every night. I have met more than one party of this 
’description, both going to and returning from St. Peters- 
I understand that this manner of travelling is ex- 
2 F 2 



436 


.RUSSIAN DILIGENCE. 


ceedingly cheap, and is preferred by several on tliat ac- 
count. Foreigners have been known to arrive at St. 
Petersburgh, from Italy, Switzerland, and France, with a 
Swiss, a French, or an Italian Vetturino, who meets with 
no impediment at the frontiers ; and being once arrived in 
the capital, after resting his horses, will not unfrequcntly 
leave it on his return with a fresh party of travellers. 

The recent introduction of* diligences has been a great im- 
provement in traveUing for those who cannot afford, or likt* 
not to post. At present, these conveyances are under the 
direction of a private com])any, and under the protection 
of the Post-office: at least, the best regulated are so; but 
they are not to carry either letters or parcels, except those 
belonging to the passengers to and from St. Petersbiiigh. 
On the Riga and Moscow roads, these vehicles are kept in 
excellent order, and perform their journey with great regu- 
larity ; on the former road, in three days and three nights; 
on the latter, in four days and three nights, stopping only 
for refreshments. The carriages are of considerable length, 
and arc necessarily heavy, but their progress is not imicli 
impeded from that circumstance; and the speed is e({ual 
at least to any of the voitnres accelerees in France. The 
rate of going is about seven English miles an hour. The di- 
ligence to and from Moscow sets off eveiy day, carrying four 
inside, two in the arrive cabriolet ^ one passenger with 
the conductenr. The fare is the same for all, namely, 
seventy-five roubles in the winter, and one hundred and 
twenty roubles in the summer, when the cabriolet passen- 
ger pays only the half. The price for the refreshments, 
taken during the day, da fixed at two and a half roubles. 
The General Administration of the Posies established in 
the course of last year a similar means of conveyance from 
Revel to St. Petersburgh. The former is become a very 
fashionable watering-place ; and the accommodation thus 
afforded to travellers will prove of essential service. A 
second has been established, within the last few weeks, on 



STEAM-VKS8BL TO ST. PETER«BURGH. 437 

the line of roads to Radzivill, on the Austrian frontiers 
facing Bnnly. Before quitting the capital, 1 had ai^ o]ipor- 
tiinitjr of seeing several new public carriages built for the 
service of the Post-office and the conveyance of travellers 
on the Moscow road, and 1 thought them infinitely supe- 
rior to the Continental diligences in general. One or two 
friends of mine, much in the habit of travelling abroad, 
assured me that the Moscow diligence, or stage-coach, 
offers a very convenient and comfortable mode of travelling. 
In the winter the carriage is placed on two large sledges, 
and the journey is performed more speedily, and conse- 
(jiiently more economically. 

But by far the most tempting mode of travelling to St. 
Petersburgh ever offered to the English nation, is the spi- 
litcd undertaking of Messrs. Jolifte and Banks, who have 
ivstablislicd a quick and c.ertain mode of communic.'ition 
between London and that city, by means of a st(*am- vessel, 
thus bringing almost into immediate contact the ca])ital of 
the greatest maritime nation and that of the largest empire 
in Europe. The steam-vessel employed to perform the 
voyage to St. Petersburgh, began its operations in May 
1827, in which year, up to the end of October, she per- 
fi)rmcd four outward and four homeward voyages. She 
(Carries tons of merchandize, and can accommodate 
about a hundred passengers. She has two steam-engines 
of eighty-horse power, and since her last voyage has been 
newly fitted up and embellished. There are two classes of 
accommodation in her, called the best and second cabin. 
Each consists of several neatly furnished cabins, having 
two beds in each. There is a common or general sitting- 
room, and the ladies have, besides, a withdrawing-room 
solely appropriated to their use. There are also aljaft two 
large state cabins calculated to receive private families. 
Although each cabin contains two beds, it is seldom that 
'the vessel is so full as to make it necessary for two strang- 
ers to sleep in the same cabin. The fare for the best cabin 



43B STUAM-VESSKL TO ST. PBTBRSfiURGll. 


accommodations is twenty-eight pounds. This includes 
attendance, bedding, and provisions of all sorts ; and there 
is no other charge made. For the passengers of the fore 
cabin, the fare is eighteen pounds. The accommodations in 
this part, though equally good with the rest, are not so 
handsomely htted up ; neither is the table kept in the same 
.superior style. 

I learned from a gentleman who made a voyage in 
this vessel last year, that nothing can equal the liberal 
manner in which the table is supplied, or the excellence 
of the accommodations in general. Indeed, it is stated that 
unnecessary luxuries are to be found at the tables, such as 
Champagne and other choice wines, all included in the 
general price or fare. A great comfort, also, is that of 
having fresh provisions on board during the passage, the 
short duration of which admits of such an arrangement. 

The proprietors may ])erhaps find it to their interest 
hereafter to suppress all luxuri(?s and superfluities at 
the table, and in the fitting up of the cabins, so as to 
be able to lower the fares res})ectively to 25/. |ind 15/. 
by which reduction it is probable that the increased 
number of passengers will more than compensate for the 
amount reduced. 

The George the Fourth is longer than a first-rate 
frigate, and performs the voyage in nine or ten days. In 
saying that a naval officer is captain of her, it is almost 
unnecessary to add that she is commanded by an able and 
experienced individual.* 

Thus, then, a person having six weeks in the summer 
to spare, may, in that space of time, and for the sum of 

* Every passenger is allowed to have lOOlbs. weight of luggage free 
of expense j all extra quantities are charged as merchandize, namely) 
Is. 6d. per cubic foot. Carriages and horses are also shipped in the 
George the Fourtli for St. Petersburgh. The freight for a four-wheel^ 
carriage is twenty-five pounds, and for a two-wheel 
The passa|!;c-money for a horse is 20/. including forage. 



A QUICK WAY TO ST. PETKRSBU ftGH J^NU MOSCOW. 489 


sixty guineas, take liis passage iu.tlie steamer in Ijondon, 
get t<i St. Petersburgh, from thence proceed to Moscow by 
a post-coach, remaining in eacrh city a week, in oriler to 
examine tliem and their environs, and return by the same 
conveyance to St. Petersburgh, in sufficient time to embark 
once more on board the steam-vessei on his ret\irn to 
London. By land, the shortest distance to both those 
capitals, and back again, would he 4,300 miles ; anil the 
time employed, travelling night and day, without allowing 
for any stay in either city, could not be short of seven 
weeks, and the exj)ense for |x>sting alone, not far short 
of triple tfie sum . exjjendcd by the mode of conveyance 
which has just been dcscrilied. As an instance of 
the celerity with which the voyagi; hence to St. Peters- 
hurgh is jierforined by the steam-vessel, it may be men- 
tioned that on one occasion last year the (leorge the Fourtli, 
having left the Thames on the 20th ol July, arrived 
in the Neva on the 30tli, having only been nine days on 
its voyage, during which it stopped tw’o days at Copen- 
hagen and Christianstadt to take up passengers.* 

Foreigners are in every country obliged, on theii 
arrival, to submit to certain fornndilies, w^liicli, however 
annoying or troublesome they niay seem to the traveller, 
ought not to excite his irritability, or call fortli the ex- 
pression of his discontent, since they are of his own seek- 
ing, and probably not verj^ different from those which 


• Since writing this account of die steam-vessel, 1 learn lliul the 
Geonje the Fourth now plies only between St. Pcte,.hurg^, and 
I.ubeck, near the town of which it lands its ,)ti.ssen^rs. 
veynneys, of every description, with post-horses, iiu ai *in 
of about 23 or 30 marks, (2/.) will carry the pas^.ig.‘r o er for^ 
miles of the worst ro;d iu liuropo in eight hours to 

tbe n-ular steam-packet sails with ^‘Yeiiic free towns^ 

night or Saturday tnorning- Lubcck and Hamburg 

uo vexatious regulations has" been brought 

IJoiis. By the present amingeraent, J5t. rewrsoiub 

at least tijiree days nearer to l^ondou. 



440 * PASSPORT, OR TRANSIT-PAPER. 

he has left in fulloperation in his own country, in regard 
to the natives of that wliich he is about to visit. A fo. 
reigner has three things to attend to on his arrival in Rus- 
sia, if he intends to reside in it unmolested. He should 
prove first. his personal identity and character. 1’lji.s 
is done by presenting to the proper authority the pass- 
])ort, if the traveller has landed from a vessel, or tlie 
transit-pajier,* if he lias entered Russia by land. The lat- 
ter, it will be recollected, he received at the frontier, in ex- 
change for his passport. All foreign passports must have 
the counter-signature of a Russian ambassador or consul 
residing in the place whence the passport was obtained. 
The omkssion of tliis essential formality is generally fol- 
lowed by non-admission into the empire. 1 Have heard 
the Eiigli.sh minister who has lately left St. Feters- 
burgh, mention the case of some Englishmen who, in 
the course of last year, had arrived by the steam-ves- 
sel, without the signature of any Russian authority in 
England to tlieir passports. Tiiey were not permitted 
to land ; and that gentleman having already successfully 
interceded on two or three former occasions with tlie 
Emperor in favour of some of his countrymen, who had 
also omitted the same formality, felt that he could not 
with a good grace repeat his solicitations a fourth time,— 


• The wbrdiug of this document, as it was delivered to me at RigJi, 
and written in the Russian language, ran as follows “ Billet delivered 
for a free transit to St. Petersbnrgh, to the subject of Great Britain, 
surgeon in llis Majesty’s Navy, Doctor A. B. Granville, who arrived 
here with a passport from the Minister of Foreign AffaiA of Great 
Britain, dated the 25th of August, 1827, No. 219, sjgned at the 
Russian Embassy in London, No. 83, and who came 

to Russia the ^ of October, 1827. He is to be allowed to go 
through all the barriers without impediment; and on his arrival at 
St. Petersbnrgh, he must present himself ‘immediately to the local 
authorities, in order to receive anoUier permission for all tlic time of 
his remaining there or departing to another place.” 



PASSPORT, OR- TRAWSIT-PAJPER. 44] 

the more so, as it was found that no otlier class of torcigners 
transgressed so repeatedly with respect to this simple regu- 
lation.* I am, therefore, somewhat particular in my de- 
tails on this subject, with tlic view to ])revent farthiT dis- 
aj)pointinents. Having atrictly conformed myself to every 
existing regulation, and obtained all tlie ‘information 1 
wished at the Alien-office in St. Petersburgh, 1 am enabled 
to state every circumstance connected with the present sys- 
tem of police respecting foreigners. The pass])ort whicli 
has been retained on passing the land frontiers, or at 
Riga, as happened in my case, or at Cronstadt, wlieii a 
foreigner arrives by sea, is hirwarded through the Chan- 
cery of the civil or military governor, or chief magistrate 
of those places, to the military gwernor of 8t. Peters- 
i)urgli, and'* transmitted by him to the third section of 
till' Imperial Chancery. The transit-paper or permit re- 
. reived in exchange for that document, on entering Russia, 
must be delivered at the barrier to the officer on duty, 
who forwards it the same day to the military governor 
of St. Petersburgh, by whom, after having been registered 
and compared with the original passp)rt, it is sent to the 
Alien-office. 

The second thing to be attended to by a foreigner is, to 
gyt his effects cleared at the Custom-house.f 1 have al- 

• niis seems by no means an uncommon failinff with l%nulish Inivel- 
The lively writer of “Letters from the North of Italy,” has a 
whole chapter of lamentations against tlie Austrian Govemiiicnt for turn- 
ing ba<;k all foreigners whose passjiort had not been visto by some 
Austrian minister or diplomatic agent. Although furnished with a pass- 
port from Lord Csistlereagh, invalid as he was, the author, having 
omitted that formality, was com]»elIed to deviate from his cour.se, and 
hetake himself to Genoa, llieix* to obtain the necessary qualification for 
proceeding on his travels. 

t The following bill of expenses incurred at the Custom-house of St. 
" J’litersburgh, for two cases which I sent by sea from l^ondon, containiDg 
au Lgyptisui mummy, surgical instruments, and books, will convey an 
idea of tl^ trifling duties paid on the last two articles, and of the very 



442 


^;USTOM-IIOUSE DUES. 


ready, mentioned how this is done at the land frontiers ; 
when, however, a foreigner arrives at St. Petersbnrgh by 
sea, his Inggage is sent to the Custom-house situated on 
the Vassileostrow, to the left, and not far from the Exchange, 
a remarkable building already noticed. Few things likely 
to form part of a gentleman’s luggage are liable to any duty. 
But a fee for entry, amounting to ten or eleven roubles, is 
charged on the whole of the effects taken en rnmne. The ojw- 
ration of examining and clearing the luggage, is j)erfoniU‘d 
much in the same manner as at the King’s warehouses in 
London, and (X'cupics but a short time. 

The Establishment comprises a fine suite of rooms on the 
first floor ; in each of which a separate brancli of busini‘ss 
•is transacted, as the inscription written in French, Eng- 
lish, and German over the door of them infoi*ms the 
stranger. 1’he access to all these offices is perfectly frci* 
to all merchants and strangers. 

The third step to be taken concerns the Iwoks which the 


low freight at which masters of vessels, trading to St. Pelcrshiii’gli, wen; 
then compelled to ship goods for tliatport ; while it will aiiord uspeciuioii 
of the exorbitant charges called Sound dues, which miiritiine nalions 
submit to pay to the (jusirdiuu Sovereign of tlie Baltic, the King ol’ 
Denmark. 


Duty on various anatomical prcpirations (mummy) 

U none 

Do. on surgical instnimonts (four small cases) 

. . 9 

IB 

Do. on books (about tliirty in number) . . . 

. 5 

Ij 

Accidents . 

, . 2 

81 


R 17 

14 

Entry of Custom-house chargas 

10 

— 

Freight from London and lighterage . ... 

. 15 

— 

Sound dues 

68 

85 

Ijanding charges, Isvoschick (hired carriage) . 

4 21 


R 115 K 

20 


' Thus, on so small a sura as 4/. sterling, exjiended on tjis occa- 
sion, the English captain, who navigated the goods a disfcince of two 
thousand miles, safe to port, gets one-ei^ith only, while the Danish King 
touches nearly seven-ninths of the whole. 



CUSTOM-HOUSE AT ST. PRTERSBURCH. 44;3 

traveller may have with him. No foreij^n work is perniit- 
ti>d to be introduced without the previous sanction of tin* 
J3oard of Censure ; and for that ])urpose all hooks in the 
possession of a traveller arriving at St. Petershiirgh, are 
sent to that board or commission for inspection by the Cus- 
tom-house officers, and are returned to the ])arty if ap- 
proved of. I have been told that when a traveller of 
known respectability ha.s with him a large number of 
h(K)ks, which it would be too troublesome anti inconveni- 
ent to send to the Office of Censure, a list of the titles, 
faithfully copied, has been consideretl by the hoard as a 
sufficient document to judge of their admissibility. 

Such arc the formalities necessary to he attended to on 
arriving at St. Petershurgh : thost> which are necessary to 
enable a foreigner to reside in it, an^ the following. As 
soon as he has taken a lodging, or settled himself in an 
hotel, or within three days after his arrival, he should 
make his appearance before the princi])al officer of tlie 
Alien Department, situated near the bridge Torgovoi, on 
the Kroukof canal, where he will either find his transit- 
paper or permit, which he delivered at the barrier of the 
city; or if that document lie still in his possession, (for it will 
sometimes happen that the name only is asked at the gate,) 
he then and there presents it. On the same occasions, he re- 
ceives a billet from the officer, giving an account of his per- 
son and character, which the landlord of the house he resides 
in takes care to have entered at the |wlice-officeof his district, 
after which it is again returned to the Alien J)cpartment, 
where it remains. A permit of residence in ht. Petershurgh 
is lastly granted, written in three languages, Russian, French, 
and German, on a large sheet of blue paj)er, lor which the 
sum of ten roubles (paper) is charged to a male, and five 
roubles to a female. This permM must he renewal every 
year, in January, on paying the same tax. Foreign mer- 
chants are exempted from these regulations, if rcco^ized 
as such/by the guild ; and so arc foreign artists, mechanics, 



BILLET DE SEJOUR. 


servants, and professional persons resident in St. Peters- 
burgh, swell as physicians and apothecaries actually prac- 
tising, provided they have complied with certain oth<T 
prescribed formalities, which it is not my purpose to 
describe. The hilkt de sejour ought, strictly speaking, 
to be carried about the person wherever the stranger has 
occasion to go, as he is liable to be asked to produce it at 
any time by some one or other of the officers of the ])olice ; 
but I am told by persons who have resided long in St. 
Petersburgh, that such a proceeding is seldom had recourse 
to, and only in the case of suspicious persons. 

By the Ali(m Bill now in force in this country, passed 
26th May 1826, and entitled an Act for the Registration 
of Aliens, foreigners already resident in England for a less 
period than seven years, are to make a declaration in wri- 
ting, of their abode, name, rank, occupation, and descrip- 
tion, to be transmitted to the Alien-office, in Westminster, 
and rc|M?at the same twice in every year. Aliens arriving 
from abroad are to surrender their passports to the ofUccr 
of customs having the superintendence of aliens, and ri?- 
ceive a certificate in lieu of it, with which they are to present 
themselves to the Alien-office in London, to exchange tin- 
same for a permission to reside in England. The neglect- 
ing to make the declaration twice a year, subjects an alien 
to a 50/. penalty, or imprisonment for any time not ex- 
ceeding six months ; and aliens found to be without the 
certificate, or permission of residence from the Alien-officc 
in their possession, are punishable by a fine of 20/. 

Similar measures of police regulations in regard to 
strangers, are prevalent in other parts of the Continent, 
and Russia is by no means singular in this respect, or more 
strict than the rest. Nay, if we look back to the most 
outrageously democratic governments, they will be found 
t(> liave been the most severe in enforcing similar regula- 
tions in regard to foreigners, while they were preacljjing 
liberty all over the world. 1 have still in my recollection 



PASSPORT FOR DKPARTIJRK. 4,4.5 

the dismay and inconvenience 1 experienced in travelling 
through Republican France and Republican Italy, where 
not only foreigners, but even natives, were force(i to have 
constantly in their jacket a carte de sarele, which was re- 
(jiiired to be renewed every three months at some expense, 
and on which depended the personal liberty of the citizens 
of the “ free and indivisible” republics of those days. 

The foreigner who intends leaving St. Petersl)urgh and 
the country altogether, has other formalities to comply 
with, which it is proper to add in this ])lace. First, he 
must insert an advertisement either in the Russian or the 
German Gazette, published in the house and under tiie 
direction of the Academy of Sciences, stating his name and 
address, with his intention of departing. This insertion 
is to be repeated in three distinct numbers. As these 
Gazettes are published only twice a week, this formality 
alone will occupy at least eight days. An exception in 
favour of persons ariiving in tlic steam-vessel, and at once 
declaring their intention to return by the same, has lately 
been made in this resf)ect by an order from the Kjn])eror, 
who has shown throughout a great anxiety to encourage 
that praiseworthy undertaking. Such persons need only 
advertise once in the Gazette: they also enjoy another im- 
|)ortant advantage, if the steam-vessel proceeds to St. 
Fetersburgh, namely, that of having their luggage cleared 
immediately on board, without having to send it to the 
Custom-house. 

With the Gazette containing the third insertion, an ap- 
plication is made to the superintendent of the police of tlie 
district in which the foreigner resides, for a certificate that 
tliere exists no impediment against his departure; after 
which a petition accompanied with both these documents 
and the billet de sejour^ is sent, through tlie Alien-office, to 
the military governor of St. Petersburgh, who grants the 
passport in the name of the Emperor, written in the Rus- 
sian anc^erman languages. The petition is drawn up by 



44C PASSPORT FOR DKPARTURK. 

one of the clerks at the Alien Department, to whom a small 
present of four roubles is made for his trouble. The 
officiid fee for the petition is O^d., and the passport is dc- 
liverwl gratis.* At the Foreign-office in London, a pass- 
port costs 2/. 7s- 6d.-; but this is only given to Dritish 
subjects, on sufficient recommendation, and is not at all 
necessiiry to enable them to leave the country. 

It is necessary to state that most of the formalities 
I have so minutely detailed, and the various steps to 
be taken, may be accomplished without much trouble or 
personal interference. The landlord of the hotel, or the 
inlmdant of the household, where a foreigner resides, will 
transact the whole business for him; and excepting on two 
occasions, namely, when the billet of residence and the pass- 
port for departure are delivered, (in both of which cases a 
receipt must Iks signed,) the foreigner need not make his ajv 
pcarance. As far as I was concerned, however, I preferred 


* Tills laltcr document is valid for the term of three weeks only, afU'r 
the lapse of which it must be remed by the Governor. 

The form of tlie piussport is as follows. — By the authority of His lin- 
perial Majesty, Nicholas the First, Autocrat of all the Russias, &c. &c. 
'lo all and each who shall see or read these presents, it is made known 
that the bearer tliereof is permitted to tmvel throuj;h 

tlie ( Joveriimcnts of Novgorod, Twer, Moscow, 5tc. even into foreign paiis. 

In witness whereof, and in onler that he may pass onward freely and 
unmolested, this passport is granted to him, being in force during tlirec 
weeks, by the MiliUiry Governor-General of St. Petersburgh, under his 
Imperial Majesty’s seal. St. Petersburg!), laaf. 

(L. S.) 

G. Kiitii.soir, 

&c. &c. See. 

And in the margin the personal description of the traveller appears 
thus; — !)ge, make, hair, face, forehead, eyebrows, eyes, nose, moutli, 
chin, and other special marks. 

In some caae.s, a foreigner may also obtain from the third division 
of the Imperial Chancery his own original ])assport with which he 
crossed the frontiers of the empire. ‘ 



FODOftOSCHNA. 


447 

[foing through the whole routine in person, with a view to 
)btaiii positive information on all points, with tlie pre- 
cise nature of which 1 found even the inhabitajits of the 
La[)itJil but imperfectly acquainted. 1 must in justice to the 
parties state, that Ixith from the officers of the Imperial 
Ijhancery, and the superintendent of the Alien-office, I re- 
ceived .every possible facility in the pursuit of the measures 
just enumerated. The same observation has been made by 
nil anonymous writer, who published a “ Coup d’CEil sui* 
Fetersbourg'’ in 1821. That gentleman says, on the sub- 
ject of the oflice in question, “ L’ordre qui regne dans ce 
bureau, et Fexirtime politessse des employes ne laisscnt ])lus 
ricn a desirer.” 

It is with the passport that an order for post-horses is 
obtained from the governor-general, as already mentioned, 
when speaking of the podoroscliua.* Tliis formality is by 
no means peculiar to Russia. In France, Germany, Aus- 
tria in particular, and many of the States of Ittdy, the same 
regulation exists with regard to j)ost-horses. In Piedmont, 
for example, no post-horses can be obtained without a 
llnl/eitoiie from the general-direction of the post-office, 
which JioileUone contains the names and distances of the 
different places at which horses are to be jirocurcd. 

I’o a traveller, a bad inn or an indifferent liKlging is, 
perhaps, one of the most serious inconveniences attendant 
un his vocation. We can put up with a great deal that is 


* This document in English, runs thus 

By order of his Majesty NICHOLAS THE I' [RSI, 

Autocrat of all the llussias. 

I'lOtti St. Petcrsburijh to Warsw, in Poland. Outer to the 

post-offices to give Doctor , with his servant , four horses, 

with their drivers, at the price fixed by law. 

*3* u a u 1 f a/ilh November,) 1327. Distance,— verst. 
Petersburg!!, | December, f 


Signed G. Kutusoff, 



The seal of office. 



44(J nOTEIiS AT ST. PBTERSRURGir. 

uncomfortable on the rojul ; but when we arrive at our rest- 
ing-place, we like to be well housed and well fed. St. Pis. 
tersburgh in this respect wiU, if I aui not misiidbrmed, be 
likely to disappoint the stranger. I'lie hotels or principal 
inns are few, and those, I am told, not very good. .From 
experience 1 know nothing of them; but from the report 
of friends who have lived in those establishments, I have 
learned that there are no establishments of that class ecpial 
to those which are found in Berlin, Leipsig, Frankfort, 
Brussels, Paris, or London. 

The best among those that are freciuented by foreigners, 
are kept by English, French, or German landlords. The 
Hotel Dernuth, in the Kanoushny-street, leading out of 
the Nevsko’i Prospekt, is considered the first. This is kept 
by a Frenchman, wlio knows how to charge. Next conu s 
the Hotel (k JjOiidres^ placted at the corner of the last-men- 
tionwl street, and opp)site the Admiralty, in a cheerful 
but noisy situation. In each of these, a sitting-room, ami 
a bed-ohamber, with breakfast and diimer at the tahle 
d'hote^ will cost from ten to twelve roubles a day, (from 
eight to ten sliillings.) Wine, fuel, and attendance paid 
apart. There is a very respectable house in a street called 
the Back Line, behind the English Quay, kept by an 
Englishman of the name of Heay, which is frequented 
by merchants and captains of vessels ; and a fourth house, 
called the English Holely in the Nevskbi, is in good 
re])ute, from its excellently furnished apartments, and still 
more excellent table dhSte^ at which a dinner costs five 
roubles, without the wine. The proprietor pf this house 
is a person of the name of Gordon. 'I’here is also a fer- 
fnmed table dh6te in the Admiralty Prospekt, where 1 
once niet some of the first people in St. Petersburgh; but 
it is more for a frolic than from habit, that such a <ila$a of 
persons ever frequent places of this description. Page’s . 
hotel, which is mentioned in some late English travels, * 
exists no longer. 



LODGINGS. 


449 

Lodgings are plentiful in every part of St. Petersburgli. 
The best and most fashionable are in the Nevskoi' Prospekt, 
or on the English Quay. The cheapest, and those which 
are sdtii pretension^ are on the Island ot Vassileiostrow. 
In the former situation two hundred roubles a month are 
charged for a sitting-rcjom, with an ante-room, and a bed- 
chamber. In the latter situation, very little more than 
half that sum will he required. These hKlgings are hand- 
somely furnished ; but they are not carpeted, want a few 
essential conveniences, and have a common aeci‘ss, by a 
large staircase, with other apartments, as in Paris and 
Edinburgh. There are two or three very large houses in 
the Nevskoi*, with very imposing exteriors, looking like 
piilaces, which are divided and let into separate apartments 
or chambers, and are productive to the ])roprietor of the 
enormous annual sums of sixty, seventy, and eighty thou- 
sand roubles. 

Sufficient reasons for the want of g(K)d inns, and ready- 
furnished apartments in St. Fetersburgh, will be found in 
the situation of that capital, which forbids any great influx 
of foreigners, except on business ; in the disinclination on the 
part of the natives to dine at public tables; and in the 
ready hospitality of the upper classes of society, freipiently 
imitated by the wealthy merchants, and the middle classes 
of inhabitants. If a foreigner is but known or pro|)erly 
intrtxluced, he need not give himself the trouble of think- 
ing much about his dinner. He may reckon u[)on being 
asked to dine out almost daily ; or he will betxmie suffi- 
ciently intimate with some family of indejxmdent fortune 
to be considered as a constant guest at their table. This 
practice is perhaps not quite so general as it formerly used 
to be among the great ; but enough of it yet remains, and 
of this I have kbown a sufficient number of examples. 

St. Petersburg!! is also behind other great capitals in 
'iiiiother luxury, and that is a sharp, intelligent, honest, and 

VOL. I. ' 2(1 



450 HOSPITALITY OP THE RUSSIANS. 

well-behaved lacquais de place. Five roubles a day will 
procure something like one to whom no extra-payment is 
made on the score of board-wages, or lodging-money ; and 
if the master is in ready-fumisbpd apartments, the landlord 
is obliged to find a sleeping-room for the lacquey, who 
may then be required to remain in the house at night for 
the same wages. But few of these lacqmh de place speak 
French with sufficient fluency to be fully Serviceable; and 
most of them, from the nature of their attendance, are very 
idle, lying down in the ante-room to sleep {he best part of 
the day, or running into the nearest kahacky or public- 
house, to get muzzy. Part of the duty of these lacquah 
is to make their master^s bed, and that is the worst part of 
it ; attendance of female servants is confined to the ladies' 
apartments. 1 believe that most of the lacquais de place 
are honest, as far as to taking care of their master’s pro- 
perty ; but they are decidedly not trustworthy with re- 
gard to buying, for 1 have known them charge double' 
what they paid, and go hand in hand with shopkeepers, 
whom they allow to im|K)se on their master for a propor- 
donate remuneration. -It is in this manner that this class 
of servants are enabled to sport their handsome schoubs or 
fur pelisses, rings on their ten fingers, large cornelian seals 
and brooches, and a stiff cravat, with the small pittance of 
five roubles per day, and no board-wages! 

I have been assured by persons well acquainted with the 
fact, that the stjour at St. Petersburgli of the two Em- 
bassies Extraordinary from England within the last three 
years, has proved a most fruitful harvest to every sort of 
tradesman and shopkeeper' in that city. Not only because 
the known liberality of the two distinguished noblemen who 
represented the British Sovereign, and of their, superior 
attendant officers, led them to order freely,^ and pay hand- 
somely for cart-loads of articles, so tliat the market would, 
at times be emptied of them, as was. the cf^ with the* 



ROGUERIES OF LACQUAIS DK PLACE. 4f51 

I 

Tanjor Conschaks ; but also because of the dishonest con. 
uivance of the lacquais de place with certain shopkeepers, 
in imy)osing on those noblemen in respect to payment. Thus 
the fellow whom 1 engaged had decked himself out most 
sumptuously at the exjiense of a noble marquis who had 
last visited St. Petersburgh as Ambasaatlor Extraordinary, 
in whose service he had been for a short time. Hut such 
tricks are played off by lacquakor valets de place in almost 
every great capital, and nowhere more so than in Italy. 
None of the ^rvants here mentioned are Russians. A 
very few are Freneh— but most commonly they are tier- 
man, Poles, and Jews. 

Servants, in general, are under the immediate inspection 
of the police. Register-offices are apywinted by authority, 
where, at stated hours of the day, servants may be inquired 
for, and pi'ocured under fewer disadvantages than it they 
were engaged at random. No domestic should be eng»igcd 
■ who cannot produce a certificate of good conduct Irom the 
inspector of those establishments, and of being known in it 
as a professed servant. 

Tliere are some capitals in Euroyie in which a stranger 
may dispense with the luxury of a carriage without much 
inconvenience. In St. Petersburgh tliat is next to imyossi- 
ble. The town is sy)read over such an extent of ground, 
that the distances are necessarily great. Added to which, 
walking is not in fashion, and even the maitre d-hotel am 
the co()k of a ‘‘ grand seigneur” will, as in Nayilcs, go to 
market in some kind of vehicle. This was especial y t e 
case in the family of the nobleman with whom I resided ; 
and that it must have been so at all times, I have reason o 
klteve, from what the lady of a diatinguiahed ^neral 
officer, an EngUshman by birth, but in the aerviw of Ku^ 
sia, told me of her own tfstablishment, while residing m ht. 
. Petersburgh, in the -year IHO?. « My cook required a 
' droshky in^ummer, or a two^wred boat, to go to market, 



452 


RUSSIAN CARRIAGES. 


and a sledge in winter. The governess, as a matter of 
right, had a carriage, chariot, or berline, to pay her visits 
once a week, and in some families even twice a week. The 
nursery»maid had as often a droshky or sledge, in which 
she vouchsafed to ride without a lacquais—ihc isvostchick 
being our own servant. But no nursery-maid would con- 
descend to walk with the children in any public garden, 
unless conveyed thither with them in a carriage and four 
driven by a coachman and postilion, with a footman and 
female servant for each young female child ; while a single 
lacquais sufficed for the lioys.’’ 

The Russians display great magnificence in their equi- 
pages. They have excellent horses ; and the manufacture 
of carriages at St. Petersburgh has l)een greatly improved 
of late years. I know not on what data the calculation is 
founded, but the number of vehicles of all sorts used in the 
capital has been estimated at nearly 50,000. 

Persons of all ranks and stations in society keep some kind ’ 
of carriage, either for pleasure or business ; but as it is 
more common to hire the horses, few of the better sort arc 
to be seen about t;ht* town except on gala-days. A close 
carriage is mure commonly the distinguishing mark of su- 
perior rauk or wealth. These are drawn by four horses, 
the leaders being placed at such a distance from the 
wheelers, that in the intervening space, another horse might 
be harnessed. The oif-lcader is ridden by a boyish postilion, 
and the wheelers are driven by a coachman, mounted on a 
box or dickey, much in the manner of other Continental 
nations. The form and ornaments of the carriage resem- 
ble very closely senne of the liest Parisian carriages.. Now 
and then one of real English manufacture makes its ap- 
peari^ucCf and shows how infinitely soperior the art of 
coach-making is in England. It is said, however, that the 
varnish pf Russian carriages in an improvement upop that . 
of the English; but neither their durability qpr elegance* 



RUSSIAN CARRlAfiEf^. 453 

,)t’ form is equal to the latter. Although they manufat'- 
ture carriages in St. Pctersburgh in all their pjirts, from 
the simplest screw to the finest varnish, and the coai-h- 
makers* tr^eis in a very flourishing condition, I have been 
told that almost all the springs, particularly for the lighter 
Species of vehicles used in St. Petersbiirgh, are made in 
p]ngland. 

The duty on English and all foreign carriages inqwrtcd 
is very considerable : yet the ri(b and the noble will pre- 
fer to pay a larger sum for a foreign carriage, rather than 
have one of home manufacture, quite handsome enough, 
for two, three, or four thousand roubles. This, however, 
is not so much the case now as before the late French 
invasion. The costume of a Russian coachman is very 
picturesque. It consists of a caftan or tunic of fine blue, 
crimson, or green cloth, closely drawn over the (best, 
reaching only as high as the lower part of the neck, which 
is generally left iincoverwl, and either buttoned down the 
middle, with small round-headed gold biittons, or the 
two front plaits laid one over the other obliquely, clasj>cd 
at the upper part with a gold clasp, and as low down as 
the loins, wberc it expands in folds, which are gathered 
together by a rich silk waistband, called a Komhnk. The 
tunic reaches to the middle of the leg. The slaves are 
tight, and at the wrist have a vertical row of gold buttons. 
Wide trowsers generally of the same, or of some fancy 
colour, with boots, complete the dress. The heail in 
summer is covered with a round hat, low in the crown, and 
with a wide brimj which is curled up sidc-w^ays. The 
upper part of the crown is very large, and the lower part 
surrounded by a wide band of velvet, buckled in front 
with a gold buckle. At this season, too, the coachman’s 
caftan is folded baiik on both sides, from the neck down- 
wards, in such a manner as to show the silk lining of a 
different ortour from the outside; the hntishnh being 



454 


PRUSSIAN COACIIMKN. 


fastened below it, round the vest. In winter, the head- 
dress is different. Instead of a hat, an expanding four- 
cornered turban, very high, and mostly of rich crimson 
velvet, with a gold band and a rim of fur, is generjilly 
worn. To complete the picture, this important personage 
wears a busliy beard, of which he is exceedingly careful, 
and his hair is cut stjuare all round level with the eyebrows. 
The postilion’s dress is uniform with that of the coachman. 
This handsome livery costs about four or five times as 
much as an ordinary Europan livery, and is the only part 
of the native costume which the great preserve among their 
servants; for, with regard to the footmen, their dress is 
much the same as that of the same class of Parisian or 
London domestics. Even foreign ministers at St. Peters- 
burgh seem to prefer the national costume for their coach- 
men, who are of course natives of the country. I ohservoci 
a few carnages driven by a coachman in an ordinary . 
bvery and cocked hat, and on the other hand some few 
equipages had a footman behind in the national costume. 
The Russian coachmen have the reputation of being ex- 
cellent drivers ; I cannot say whipsy for they seldom use 
that weapon, whicli, instead t)f being held up in a me- 
nacing attitude, is suffered to hang indolently by the side 
of the box, suspended by a loop passed through the little 
linger of the right hand. Another distinction between a 
Russian and an English coachman, consists in the manner 
of holding the reins with both hands considerably apart, 
and with the |ialm turned upwards. The harness is as 
peculiar as the dress of the driver. Its various parts are 
made of narrow and flat twists of leather, fiilly ornamented 
with yellow or coppr-coloured brass, or plated. The 
length of the traces, one would feel inclined to suppose, 
must give rise to great inconvenience,' if not to ^idents ; 
hut such is not the case, owing, no doubt, to the great 
width of the streets. Yet 1 have seen them '^frequently 



RUSSIAN COACHMEN. 


455 


entangled between the feet of the leaders, when suddenly 
checked by the crossing of another carriage, or any other 
impediment, particularly in turning a corner. The liorses, 
liowever, are accustomed to such cfmtrdems, quickly ai- 
range themselves de novo, under the directing voice of tlie 
coachman and postilion, and the tiling proceeds excel- 
lently well. It would, indeed, puzzle a London coach- 
man to get up to the door of one of the mansions of the 
great, during a grand rout, where probably from four 
to six hundred carriages and four arrive, and many of 
them remain in waiting. Yet all this is done very cle- 
verly, and with no m^cidents from poles struck throiigli 
the back of preceding carriages, which are protected by 
the intervening leaders, as well as by.the regulation's and 
presence of the police. But whether an atidogc of four 
liorses he inconvenient or not, few would like to drive up 
to the gate of a great house to a party in a carriage and 
pair. Very little resjiect is paid to such an ccpiipage on 
those occasions ; and a per.son often prefers going with four 
miserable-looking jtulcs, tackled to a handsome caiTiage, 
rather than be seen in a modest equipage drawn by a pair 
only, however fine and show^y the horses may be. 

In some of, the fashionable parts of St. Petersburgh, and 
particularly on Sundays and gala-days, many of the coach- 
men of hired carriages are dressed in the hand.some costume 
just described ; and I have witnessed no little dandyism 
among them. 

Of late years, cabriolets, and English stanhopes, and 
tflburys, have been introduced into St. Petersburgh , but 
the re^ nation^ carriage for the town is the Droshky. A 
glance at die sketch here annexed will convey at once a 
corrwjt. idea of. this curious anpght vehicle, and the man- 
ner in which it. js drawn, either by one or two horses. 



A UKOSlllwY. 


45() 



A Drosliky. 


There are single and double Droshkyes : in the foroier, 
one person only rides astride, and the cotehroan either 
sits in front or on the ofi-side. There is, hdw^yer^ room 
enough, between, for a third person to sit sid^ays ; but 
his situation is not a very enviable *me. In the double- 
drosliky two persons sit abreast, fronting the horses. 
There is a circular low back attached to the carriage to 
support them. Although the body of the droshky is sus- 
pended on four springs, and is placed on low wheels, the 
jolting is excessive, and the noise over the stones very 
considerable. 

Some of these carriages have a head er cover. Much 
magnificence is displayed in their manufacture and pmar 
ments, as well as in the cilice of horses and harness.!,. A 
hand^nne carriage of this kind may be procured ;fpr..onc 
thousand roubles; but some at double that supn by 
no means uncommon. . The harness and the dresa,pf the 
drivers are as splendid as those of a clp^ cajxh#« . . "i 

On the approach of winter, and as soon as the ground is 



A SLEDGR. 


457 

tolerably covered witli snow, the Droshky gives place to 
the Sledge (Sany), the number of which soon become 
quite astonishing; for not only all the proprietors or 
drivers of hired Droshkyes produce their sledges in lieu of 
them at that.aeason, but country people, from the neigh- 
bourhood ^f St. Petersburg!!, suddenly make their ap 
p(>araitc& in the streets with vehicles of the latter descrip- 
tion^ a primitive state of simplicity, for 

t)ie pf that class of people who can afford 

hut a few kopeeks for it. 





A Sledge. 


Some of the private Sledges, of one of which I have 
endeavoured to give a sketch in this place, are^ mag- 
nificent, and objedts of great luxury. The Iwdy is fr^ 
(luently made of handsome wood, richly carviri, painted in 
gay colburs, «id' highly varnished. ITie livery is of the 
finest doth, ahd at the feet is spreatl a costly hear’s-skin. 
The apron, dso of leather or clotli, is lined with fur 
equally expensive, the sides of it hanging down with rich 
. tassels. Behind the Sledge a projecting platform, a Uttle 



458 


. RUS81AN SLBDGES. 


raised from the ground, serves for the footman to stand 
upon. The form of the Sledge improves or changes every 
year. Some of them are very fine, and cost not less than 
two hundred roubles ; but more common ones may be had 
for one>fourth of that sum. 

The same luxury prevails on the score of horses and har- 
ness in regard to Sledges, that has been noticed in speaking 
of the Droshky, and Imth carriages are aitelts in the same 
manner. If drawn by a single horse, it is in shafts whieli 
are terminated by a graceful and high bow crossing from 
one side to the other, through the centre part of which, at 
the top, the bearing-reins arc j)assed. If drawn by two 
horses, the second is fastened to an outrigger on the nt‘.ar 
side, its head kept down in a graceful curve, and turned 
outwardly by an additional rein fastened to the lower part 
of the carriage. I'his horse is taught to prance and gallop 
by the side of the shaft horse, which as invariably trots, 
and has, in fact, almost the whole of the draught to him- 
self. The former liors'e is called the pmtiashnaya^ and the 
shaft-horse corenmifa. The cfiect of several real handsome 
equipages of this kind, going with a rapidity which in any 
other coimtry would be considered dangerous, is r^ly very 
striking, and forms a very interesting sight for a foreigner. 
Of late, double and even single Droshkyes, driven by two 
horses, liave a pole instead of shafts, and the cantering 
horse is dispensed with. 

The sensation ex|)erienced on first riding in a Sledge is 
of tlite most pleasing descri])tion ; its quick agd dumb mo- 
tion through magnificent streets, and between two ranges of 
palaces ; the {lassing, crossing, and recrossing of similar 
vehicles in all directions; the near approach of some of 
them, almost to, contact ; the level slide and the soft; undu- 
lating motion over the waved surface ; the frequent warning 
cry of Pad) / Pad ) ! * of the driver, or its directing halloas • 

* ( »et on 1 Take care ! Get ont of the way \—Gare of the Taxisian 
cabs. 



RUSSIAN SLEDUKS, 


459 

of Na prava! Naleva!* which serve to keep him clear 
of vehicles coming in an opposite direction, strongly rc- 
inind one of Venice, and its rapid, agile gondolas moving 
through streets and avenues of stately, mansions, carrying 
the gay, the fashionable, and the busy, and ])rotected in 
their course by the peremptory tone of the gomiolicr cry- 
ing out Stalihscialf 

But the land gondolas of St. Petcrsburgh are not (piite 
so agreeable as their analogous vehicles of the Adriatic 
Queen ; for the face is exposed to a nipping cold, and, what 
is worse, to the spatterings of snow and mud tlirown up by 
the kicking hoof of the gambling near horse, notwithstand- 
ing the intervention of a species of splashing-lcather. Ini- 
])atient to escape such a pitiless pelting, the passenger 
urges his coachman with the encouraging words of Vasholl 
PphoUX and is glad when he finds himself safely arrived 
a| his destination. 

^Both Droshkyes and Sledges are to be had for hire in 
every street or part of the city. They arc seen clustered 
together, or standing in a row close to. the foot- way before 
some convenient or movable mangers of w(K)d filled with 
hay. The driver, or isvostchick^ habited in the costume of 
the country already described, is recognized by a square 
tin plate hanging between his shoulders, on which is en- 
graved the number of his vehicle, and the date of the year. 
Before engaging him, it is necessary to bargain for the 
payment, however short the distance may he, for which 
iiis services are required, as there is no tarif or fixed price, 
or fare, for any of the public vehicles in St. Petcrsburgh. 
The isvostchick will frequently ask double what he is glad 
to take. From the Russian shops in the Nevskoi Pros- 
pekt to about midway on the English Quay, a distance of 

* To the fiffhti To the left t 

t Rack wa^ ! Kwp close !— (Venetian dialect). 

i Expressions corresponding in meaning to the French Allont done ! 
Allans dime ! 



460 FAKF. OK I^USSIAN SLKDgKH AND DKOSIIKIF. 

two versts (one mile and one-third) aDroshky may be tti- 
gaged for sixty or eighty kopeeks (from6d. to8d.) and 
a Sledge for forty kopeeks. A Droshky with two horses 
may be hired for the day for the sum of fifteen roubles, 
every charge included; and if with a single horse, for as 
small a sum as six or eight roubles, (from 5s. 6if. to 7s. ^.) 
Much will depend on the sort of style of the equipage ; 
those of an inferior description maybe hired for less than 
the fares above quoted. The same is the case with re- 
gard to Sledges. 1 have paid six roubles a day fop a 
very excellent Sledge, which I used rather Unsparingly, 
and till late at night, making amends to the ihosichick 
with a trifle for his trouble. 

There are three or four stations only for hai^kney close 
carriages witli four horses in the fashional)lc quarter of tlie 
town. The fare of these is pro|x)rtionably greater, p!h(l 
not fixed. But as a foreigner can scarcely do witliout a cloje . 
carriage, if he intends to frei^uect society and the ynibli^' 
places of amusement, the preferable mode is to engage 
one with four horses, whicli may be had, in a tolerably gocxl 
style, for four hundred roubles (I 7 /. IOjj.) a month, the 
wages of the coachman and postilion included ; or, haying 
a carriage of his own, he may hire two pair of good-l(X)k- 
ing horses for two hundred roubles (8/. 15s.) a month. 

Having now become acciuainted with the locality and 
extent of St. Petersburgh, its external aspect and tojxj- 
graphical divisions, and the accommodation it offers to the 
stranger ; the next point which seems to recpiire a few ob- 
servations is the division of society into which he is about 
to he introduced. 

Although the facilities of an immediate introduction to 
a few of the select circles afforded me through the kind- 
ness of Count and Countess Woronzow, and of a few 
friends whom I happened fortunately to find in St. Peters- ^ 
burgh; and my intercourse with persons in office, phy- 
sicians, artists, and merchants, enabled me, even in the 



DIVISION OF SOCIKTV. 


m 

siiort space of time I remained there, to film some idea of 
the society to be met with in that city ; my personal 
experience is but limiteilj and the information I can give 
rather supcrfiqal. Still it may afford some useful hints 
to persons who might otherwise arrive in tliat capital 
totally unacquainted with the subject. 

It is psual to say of Russian society, that it consists of 
only two great divisions, the Nobles and tlie Seifs. How 
far this may be true, in a political pint of view, it is not 
tlie purpose of the present work to discuss. Spaking of 
the accessible society, or in other words, of the persons of 
whom good society is composed, there can bo no doul)t, 
but that as many classes exist in St. Petcrshiirgli, as in 
any other hirge capital in Euro])e. The families of prsons 
liolding high situ^itions at Court, the Ministers of State, 
and Foreign Ministers, military officers of high rank having 
iijfcortant appointments, or licing attached to the jierson 
^#tlie Emperor, the hereditary nobility not coimt'cted with 
flie Court or the Ariny may be considered as forming one 
group, of the first or highest class of society: another 
gi-oup consists of persons who are not distinguished by any 
lieroclitary title, but who belong to the first four classes of 
nobility, on account Of their rimk in the civil or military 
service.* The supericir emploj/ts under Government, and 

• I’ersons who have no hereditary title, but who hold certaiu situa- 
tions ill the Army, Navy, or Civil Service, sire considered as nobles^ aiul 
:no divided into thirteen classes. Tliey arc as follows : 

1st (’lass. Tlie Chancellor of the Em])ire, Ceueral Field Marshal, 
Admiral ini ehirf, Actual Privy Councillor of tlie first class. 

2nd Class* Genetal of Infantry, Cavalry, or itrtilleiy; Admiral, 
Actual Privy Councillor. 

3rd Class. ]yicutei»nt General, Vice Admiral, Privy Councillor. 

4th Class. Major General, Hear AdtiiinU, Actual Councilloi- of 

Suite.' 

Mh Class. Brigadier; CcfiinfodorC, Councillor of State. 

6tli Coioiiel, Post Captein, C^mncillor of College. 

ClMjtM .IiaitenaotrCpJoucl, Captain in the Navy, Couiicillor of 
Court. ^ . 



462 CLASSKS OP SOCIRTY OF ST. PETERSBURGH. 

the heads of tlj| great Imperial Establishments or institu- 
tions, may be included in this second group. 

The mutual intercourse among these various denomina- 
tions of persons in high life, and their families, apj)eai’ed 
to me frequent, and distinguished by the same cose and 
elegant manners which characterise the corresponding 
classes in the first capitals of Southern Europe. A foreigner 
can only judge of them by what they appear in the midst 
of their friends and their guests. On such occasions, their 
deportment is free from hauteur, and their address engaging; 
what they may be with their inferiors I know not. Much 
has been said of their hospitality, particularly to strangers. 
As far as I have had an opportunity of seeing it, 1 a(% 
knowledge that there is no exaggeration in placing it alx)vc 
that of the higher classes in other countries. To persons 
well recommended and pro|)erly introducid, he they Kos- 
sians or foreigners, it is unbounded ; neither is it, as 
where, limited to a mere matter of form invitation to a d%y 
ner or a mrk, but extends to many friendly offices, and I 
frequent repetition of kindness. With regard to the ladies 
of thisS class of society, it i.s the least to say, that in point of 
manners, politeness, and unaffected dignity of deportment, 
they yield to none of the most distinguishetl of the fair ^sex 

8th Class. Major, Licutensuit ('onunander, Assessor. 

Qtii (Jlass. Captain in the Army, Lieutenant in tlie Navy, Titular 
Councillor. 

10th Class. Captain of second rank, Secn^tary of College, Inter- 
preter in the (College of Foreign affairs. 

11th Class. lAeutenant in the Army, Midshipmai^i IProvincial 
ilecretary. 

12th Class. Second Lieutenant,- Senate, or of the Synod Registrar. 

13th Class. Ensign and Comet, Regi.strar of Colleges. 

Tliere is a peculiar general title by which these different classes 
should be addressed ; but with the*excei)tion of the titles of Your^High 
Excellency, by which the two first classes are distinguished, and that ^ 
of Your Excellency which, belongs to the third and fourth ^classes, 1. do ^ 
not think that such general distinguishing titles are familiarly uiied, 
unless it be in addres.siiig letters. 



SOCIETY OF ST. FKTERSBt'llCH. 463 

I 

in other countries in Europe. Nay, constkutoil as society 
is at this moment in other capitals, it is impossible not to 
admit, that in regard to accomplishments, and the more so- 
lid advantages of education, some of the Russian ladies of 
rank are superior to those of other nations. There are few 
indeed among them, who do not s}x;ak with ecpial facility 
French, Gmnaii, and English, besides their own native 
language* Many of them write these languages with ccpial 
ease and correctness. This is the case, particularly with 
regard to the younger branches of the nobility, owing to 
the new and happy direction given to their education, by 
the successful efforts of the late and much lamented Em- 
press-mother. Nor is a knowledge of languages the only 
prominent qualification which tliese ladies bring into so- 
ciety ; but varied and useful information also ; an exten- 
sive acquaintance^'with the literature and history of Eu- 
ixA ; an exquisite jinem d'esprit displayed in an easy and 
jPl-support^ conversation ; and a number of agreeable 
Iklents which tend to embellish their existence. 

An introduction to' the society of these distinguished 
persons is not a matter of very great difficulty to a stran- 
ger, whose qualifications and character, or rank, are such 
as to entitle him to. that advantage. Mere acqiKiintance 
with a single individual of the class irt question, will fre- 
(jiicntly afford a foreigner the means of a general intnKluc- 
tion to the houses of the great After the first presentation 
at Court, a ceremonial, visit, paid to the highest officers of 
the state, has occasionally been followed by an invitation to 
dinner frolta one of them, which has, at once, proved a source 
of multiplied and most agreeable connections. The intro- 
duction to an evening party by. a foreign minister is suf- 
ficient to ensure a flattering reception and a succession of 
inyitations. 

That which in other countries is calletl the tiers etat^ 
. doeis not, properly speaking, exist in St. Petersburgh ; hut 
there is a class of persons distinct from that just described. 



m 


MKKCIIANT8 OK ST. KKTKKSfilIKGH. 


and composed dT the next five classes of nobility, the liberal 
professions, the second order of mg/oj/w under Government, 
and the bankers, which may well stand in lieu of the tiers 
etat Within this circle, a stranger, for whom the magni- 
ficoice of the great and the splendour of their establish, 
ments may have little attraction, , or whose station in so- 
ciety precludes all access to the higher- classes, will be sure 
to find the most friendly disposition, together with un- 
reserved affability and the exercise of great hospitality. 

The foreign merchants in St. Petersburgh form a distinct 
class. Formerly many of them, especially the English 
merchants, used to live in a style of splendour etjual t(» 
that of many noblemen. The intercourse between them 
and the best classes of Russian society w^a^, at that time, 
much more general and frequent than it is at present : yet 
even now, persons of the highest station accustomed to ^e- 
ceive every body at their houses, will not unfrtHjuently accAt 
from and give invitations to respectable merchants. 
English merchants at St. Petersburgh live with that cautio\it 
reserve which everywhere distinguishes them. They do not 
visit generally, or maintain an unlimited sodal JntercQurse 
among themselves, as the French merchants^ and those 
from Germany settled there, are in the habit of doing. 
They are more usually divided into and a line is 
drawn around each circle of acquaintances^ whic^ is seldom 
passed or infringed upon. If an exceptioii is to be made 
to this general description of the constitutiqp of society 
among the English merchants at St. Petersburgh, it is in 
regard to the young and unmarried, particularly those of 
go^ address and pleasing manners. For such tl^re is no 
limitation. Their field of action is everywhere. They fre- 
quent equally the houses of their own countrymen, and 
those of merchants of other nations. Majgiy of them are 
welcome at the tables of the great ; and it is not unusual to 
see intimacies between them and the junior branifiies of the 
nobility, creditable fo both parties. ^ 



MKRGHANTS OP ST. PRTERSBURGn. 465 

To be a bachelor seems mdeecl an enviable qualification 
amongst many of the English merchants at St. Petcrs- 
burghj and not long ago they showed how they gioried 
in their unble$sed state, by a magnificent fete and bali 
at the fourth verst on the Peterhof road to the rest of their 
countrymen. 

The foreign merchants in St. Petersbiirgh, — I speak of 
the English in particular, because 1 came more frequently 
in contact ^th them,— enjoy a character for integrity and 
punctuality; which commands respect. They have ne- 
cessarily accommodated themselves, in a great measure, to 
the customs of the country in which they live; but the 
more prominent features of their nations aa* perceptible 
in their domestic circles. They do not pretend, however 
<*onsiderable their wealth, to vie with the great and the 
nojhle, but are satisfied with showing that they are not 
b^nd them in genuine hospitality ; although unattended 
' .ch that parade which is only becoming among people 
rank. A person recommended to the house of an Eng- 
lish merchant is sure of being wdtreceived, and of partaking 
of tj^eir good offices. I owe a debt of gratitude to one 
liouse in ^rtknlarj which einjoys a very respectable rank 
in the GoM^al world at St. Petersburgh,— that of Messrs. 
Andjj^ag^iind Mbberly. From every member of the fa. 

form^ gentleman, and froin his partner, 1 have 
recced 'many acts of kindness and of disinterested ser- 
vice, which were the more valuable to me, as they were not 
called fortl^. by any claim nidiich I had to their friendship. 

The Russian or native merchants resident in St. Peters- 
burgh, can scarcely be said to form any particular class of 
scKsiety, since they seldom, if evCT, keep up any intercourse, 
excepting in the way of business, either among themselves, 
or amon^ merebams of other nations. Still they have, on 
•particular' oocaskmS) didr holiday-keeping, imd thdr up- 
roars, like 'the rest, to which th©y will <»casibnally invite 
Strangers. 1 once gladly accepted aiif invitation to one 
VOL. 1. 3 H 



466 MERCHANTS OF ST. PETERSBURGH. 

of their fites. What struck me most was the near ap- 
proach to the manners of the better classes, which was 
Tisible in several guests invited to the rejoicing. Many 
of tliesG merchants bad given up. their native costume, and 
assumed the more European garb of other nations. The 
younger part could not well be distinguished from persons 
of the ^me age and class to be found in Germany, and 
many of the provincial towns in France. They spoke 
French, talked with the familiarity of equals to military 
and civil oflicers assembled in their suite of rooms, and 
seemed acquainted with that routine of ceremonies which 
is supposed to distinguish the welUbred and the fashion- 
able. Among the female portion of the company the 
change which must have taken place since their manners 
and dress have been described by Storch, Georgi, and 
Clarke, was still more strikingly manifest. They sat wth 
perfect nonchalance in any part of the room — stood umn 
groups v/ith many of the other sex, or promenaded up aM 
down the apartments, sporting their tight laced figurfi 
and tapering waists, withes little gaucfierie and mquvaise 
honle as possible. Of course among these some seemed 
rather uncomfortable in their new character; and their 
latest Parisian dress appeared not always to have been im- 
ported for their persons. The conversation too, of those 
few who spoke French, betrayed the very limited use to 
which their fashionable accomplishments had been appUed. 
Nevertheless, taken as a whole, and considered as a fair 
example of the present state of society among the Russian 
merchants, on extraordinary occasions, the assembly in 
which I mixed proved to me that a great change is taking 
place in their manners; but whether indicative of the 
progress of civilization or not, I leave to modern philoso- 
phers to determine. 

A great part of the population of St. Petersburgh con- 
sists of foreigners. The Germans are the most numorous t 

■# 



FOREIGNERS AT ST. PETE|lSBURfill. 4CJ 

many of these, it will be recollected, are subjects of Rus- 
sia. The French are the next as to number ; the English, 
Swiss, Swedish, and Italians come in succession. But 
almost all these foreigners are attracted to the capital 
by business and interested motives, and not as in other 
capitals, by the pursuit of pleasure, or by mere curiosity. 
Few come on simple speculation, and most of these are 
generally disappointed. With the exception of the Kng- 
li^, who, I may say, are all connected with trade, or 
employed in the- manufactures of the country, the rest of 
the foreigners exercise almost every calling, profession, and 
handicraft. This influx of foreigners in St. Petersburgh 
cannot but influence the general character and manners of 
its inhabitants; nay, a few of the natives whom 1 have heard 
converse on this subject, and who are staunch Russians 

f heart, pretend that the ‘‘ Imperial Residence” does not 
liibit a single lineament of the character of their coun- 
trymen— in fact, that St. Petersburgh is not Russia. Be 
this as it may, and making every allowance for the presence 
of such a large proportion of foreigners, it is absurd to 
deny, that in St. Petersburgh one can see the real Rus- 
sian, and even the very best classes amongst them. It is 
not, surely, pretended that the Imperial Court is sur- 
rounded by the less ancient and least important families 
of the empire ; or that if any of the more weighty of their 
nobility are to be found in St. Petersburgh, they have 
divest^ themselves of the character and exterior of Rus- 
sians. The facts tend to gainsay both assertions. Most 
undoubtedly the Volkonsky (I speak at random, and from 
recollection), the Dolgorouky, the Kourakine, the Galitzne, 
the Narischkine, the StroganofFs, the Lieven, the Kot- 
choubey, the Nesselrode, the Woronzow, the Benck- 
endorf,' the StcherbatofF, and fifty others, may without 
hesititfion be admitted to represent what the upper classes 
of Russians are in reality. Nor is the display of Rus- 
2h2 



468 


CHARAXJTBR' of THB RUSSIANS. 


sian manners and character in the middle and inferior classes 
of people less striking, notwithstanding the great mixture - 
of foreigners. Almost every custom connected with the 
religion, habits, amusements, and peculiar mode of living 
of the Russian, is to be met with as strongly illustrated in 
every part, and on every occasion, at St. Petersburgh, as 
in the second capital of the Russian Empire. 

The notion that St. Petersburgh is not Russia is far- 
ther shown to be incorrect by the numerical predominant 
of the Russian inhabitants in the whole population of the 
city. According to Krafft, the proportion of Russians to 
the whole population, fifty years ago, when foreigners 
flocked to St. Petersburgh from every quarter at the in- 
vitation of Catherine, was as seven to one. As the po- 
pulation increased, the proportion was even considered by 
Geqrgi, several years after, to have become greater. Itfs 
now supposed to be as nine to one, a proportion obviousll 
large enough to constitute St. Petersburgh a genuine KuO 
sian city. There can be no doubt that the real character 
of the Russians at large ought not to be deduced from 
what a stranger sees among the proportion of Russian 
inhabitiuits of the capital, large as that proportion is ; and 
more particularly if such a stranger has resided in it but 
a short time ; and there is as little doubt that he can form 
a correct opinion of what that character will be, when 
those changes which have taken place in that of the Russians 
of St. Petersburgh shall have extended to the populatimi of 
the whole empire. 

In my preface to these volumes 1 disclaimed all ideas of 
describing and estimating the character of the people whose 
numerous and useful institutions 1 have had an opportu- 
nity of examining. The reason is obvious. Th^ diccuni- 
stances in which I was placed afforded me but little 
for judging of the national, cbuacter. This, m 1 before * 
remarked, can only be studied in the interior of the coun- * 
try, where it is unmodified by contact with strangers, and 



WRITERS ON RUSSIA. 


can be observed on a large scale. It should be studied too, 
with the assistance of an intimate acquaintance with the 
language, and a gradually acquired knowledge of the 
natural as well as artificial dispositions, habits, and man- 
ners of the people. Those among foreign travellers who 
visited Russia with the rapidity of a posting /c/egff, and 
have assumed at the same time the task of sitting in judg- 
ment over the people they had just leisure to lo<3k at ; or 
who having conversed through the means of an interpreter, 
or in a foreign language, with, perhaps, a dozen Russians, 
hesitate not to define with the boldest precision the na- 
tional character, the virtues, and defects of fifty millions of 
inhabitants — ^like the Frenchman whojudgwlof the whole 
English nation by the conduct of a drunken sailor whom he 
saw emerging from a pot-house at Dover — such travellers 
nfty reconcile to themselves a practice so inconsistent with 
iJbtions of candour and veracity : 1 care not to follow 
their example. Again, there have been strangers, who 
after a long residence in Russia, and with the |x>sscssion of 
a sufficient knowledge of the language, having employed 
their whole time in the pursuit of wealth, honours, and 
distinction, in which they have been foiled, mistake their 
rancour and spleen for the genuine expressions of an impar- 
tial observer, and revenge themselves on the character of 
the nation for the caprice of fortune, or the natural con- 
sequence of their own misconduct. The opinion of such 
travellers may be trusted as much as that of the Irish 
culprit who, finding his hopes dashed to the ground by 
the passing of his sentence, turned to his judge and ex- 
claiihed,'** Bad luck to your honour ! you are a d— d bad 
judge !” There is a third class of visitors who have un- 
dertaken, to write bn Russia, and among whom I hope not 
to l)e found. Their peculiar vein is to split history into 

■ epigrams, and biography mto itoand^^ sacri- 

ficing to this vein of humoui* every other consideration. 
It would be an easy task to mention works of this charac- 



RUSSIAN PATRIOTISM. 


470 

ter even among the latest publications on Russia. Eng. 
land, France, Germany, and Italy, have supplied examples 
of these various kinds of writings on that nation ; and my 
aim has been not to add to their number. 

But although I hold myself unqualified to speak of the 
Russian character in general, tliere is one striking feature 
belonging to it, which the history of recent events has con- 
secrated, and cannot, therefore, be passed over in silence; 
even by the superficial observer. I mean that unbounded 
devotion to the cause of their country displayed by the 
whole population during the unprovoked aggression of the 
late ruler of France, affording the striking example (one 
which is unparalleled in the records of the numerous con- 
quests of foreign countries made by that extraordinary 
man) of not a single inhabitant, high or low, either of the 
towns or provinces occupied by his legions, joining his f^. 
tune and party ; and by cither words or deeds promoting tnc 
scheme of plunder and devastation then executing against 
the Russian territory. When Napoleon sent his eagles to 
Holland, conquered Prussia, penetrated into Austria, and 
took possession of its capital ; when he entered Italy, decu- 
pled Spain, and found reasons, in diplomatic sophistry, for 
ejecting the House of Braganza from Lisbon, he ever met 
with a number of high and powerful individuals, and not 
unfrequently with a great portion of the population, who, 
unmindful of their duties as citizens, and unmoved by the 
more general example of patriotic resistance, or the dis- 
tresses entailed on their countrymen, espoused and assisted 
his cause. But in the vast empire of Russia, no such hu- 
miliating occurrence took place from the day in which 
Napoleon set his foot on that territory, to that in which he 
bid a hasty adieu to the skeletons of his few surviving 
regiments. It is a curmus fact, which the historians of 
modem times have failed to remark, that in none of those 
studied compositions called' the Bulletins of the Grand 
Army of the North, with which Buonaparte endeavoured 



^POPULATION OF ST. PETKRSBURGH. 471 

to keep up the prestige in favour of his great enter- 
prise among the people of his good city of Paris, has 
the writer boasted (as he invariably had done in similar 
despatches written from other foreign countries which he 
had invaded) of having been joined by any part of the 
people or, by a single Hussian individual of note. True it is, 
that when propitious fortune had once more, af ter that 
disastrous campaign, restored him to his capital and his 
palace on the 18th of December 1812, he declared to the 
surrounding senate, wlio had gone to greet his return, ~- 
“ Qu’il aurait pu armer la plus grande ])artie de sa popu- 
lation (meaning Russia) contre elle ancme en proclamaiit 
la libert6 des esclavcs (lu’un grand nombre de villages lui 
avaient demande.” But such a declaration is too absurd 
in itself to deserve credit : for what liberty could a flying 
enemy grant to the Serfs, which these could for a iiionient 
look upon as permanent in regard to their masters P 

I am, therefore, entitled to conclude that the Russian 
character has this striking feature in it, which has not been 
observed in a degree equally remarkable among the other 
Continental nations, previously to the last great and suc- 
cessful struggle against the aggressions of France — an un- 
qualifled and unbounded patriotism which admits of no 
compromise. 

The population of St. Petersburgh is stated at 330,000 
by Weydemeyer in his statistical tables published in 1828. 
His authority, however, is questionable ; the more so as 1 
find, by the returns published in the St. Petersburgh 
Gazette, that the population of the capital amounted i^ 
1828 to 422,166, including the military; and to 366,115 
without them. In 1801 the population was 230,000, 
according to Storch. It has, therefore, increased upwards 
of one hundred and thirty-six thousand inhabitants in the 
course of twenty-seven years. Yet I have seen the 
returns of' the Holy Syrnde, containing the yearly num- 
ber of births and deaths in - St. Petersburgh, for 1825 



472 POPULATION OF ST. PfiTERSBUROH. 

and 1926 , among the inhabitants professing the GrecotRus. 
sian religion^ in which the latter exceed the former by 
about one-tenth. But probably this may be owing to the 
number of foundlings sent before baptism to the hospital 
of reception for the enfan$ trwvisf not being taken into 
account. 1 have not been able^ however^ to ascertain this 
point, as no specification is made in those reports of the 
sources of information from which they are drawn up, and 
of the data on which the calculations are made. In a table 
published by the same Department, of the progress of the 
whole population of the empire for the year 1825, the num- 
ber of deaths in tht Government of St. Petersburgh, is 
stated to be 23,644, and that* of births 24,947* From 
which it appears that a difference of one-eighteenth in 
favour of population has been observed in the whole go- 
vernment; but the same table does not mention what part, 
if any of this balance, applies to the population of the 
capital. 

The same degree of difficulty exists in another statistical 
table, published in the Jtrurml de St Petersbourgf pur- 
porting to give an account of the casual losses which the 
general population of the empire sustained during the 
years 23-24-25-26-27 and 28. It is stated in that table 
that the losses in question have been as follows 

1823. 1824. 1825. 1826. 1827 . 1828 . 


Accidental deaths 12,146 12,542 13,363 12,929 14,825 16,700 

Murders 1,099 1,287 1,110 1,095 1,226 1,230 

Suicides 086 1,069 1,066 966 1,176 1,245 


Children born Monstrous .. . 14 7 6 12 11 2 

Total.....l4^45 14,905 15,545 15,002,17*238 19,177 

But what proportion of these belongs to. the population of 
St. Petersburgh, I have not had. the .means of ascCTtaining. . 

I had been led to expect, before my arriM at St. . 
Petersburgh, that I should find the streets and squares 



POPULATION OP ST. PETBRgRURGH. 473 

nearly deserted, and that the bustle and activity of the 
population seen in Ijondon, Paris, Vienna, and Naples, were 
not to be observed in that capital. 1 felt, therefore, some 
surprise in witnessing most of the principal streets thronged 
with people of all ranks and degrees ; many of them intent 
on business-others in search of pleasure ; some on foot, 
and many more in some sort of carriage, flying, running, 
or walking, in every possible direction during the best part 
of the day, but particularly from twelve to three o'clock. 
Placed for an hour on the Isaac Bridge to see the multi- 
tudes of every class and degree which passed and repassed 
incessantly over it, 1 soon felt convinced that the popula- 
tion of St. Petersburgh was neither idle nor insignificant. 
Doubtless there are parts where few people are to be seen 
abroad beyond their own habitations at any period of the 
day but so it is likewise with many of the streets and 
districts of liondon removed from places of business and 
public resort. The great extent of ground on which St. 
Petersburgh stands is likely to make a population, equal 
only to one-fourth of that of Ijondon, appear insignificant ; 
whereas, were it crowded together as it is in such towns 
as Naples or Milan, which have nearly the same number 
of inhabitants, it would be looked upon as considerable. 
However, the small proportion of the population of St. Pe- 
tersburgh, in reference to the magnitude of the city, is ra^ 
ther an advantage, than a circumstance to be deprecated ; 
and I imagine, that no farther gratuitous temptations vdll 
be thrown in the way of foreigners to induce them to setde 
in Russia, except as Colonists, for the mere purpose of in- 
creasing its population. Nay, some recent regulations re- 
specting forcigners would seem, almost, to indicate a wish 
of throwing impediments in the way, of their setdement in 
any large tmmbers. Among the various privile^ and 
^ immunities formerly enjoyed by foreigners settled in Rus- 
sia, that of being exempt from taxes was not the least im- 
portant. But by an Vkase published in November 1827, 




CLIMATB OP 8T. PETBKSBCHGH. 


475 


CHAPTER 111. 

|1GTURK OF ST. PBTEllSBURGH. 


C limate.— Facts respectlug it.— Personal Observations of tlie Author in 
November and December 1827. — Nature of tlic prevailing Diseases.— 
Necessary precaution against 'cold in and out of doors— Stoves.— Their 
construction and management.— Clotlung.—Ratlis.— Their description 
and effect,- Falls of Snow.— Snow drifts.— High winds.— Freezing of 
the River and Canals.- Removal of tlie Isaac and otlier Bridges on the 
Neva.— Incooveuience resulting from it.— Aurora Borealis^— Summer 
Sca.son. —Rapid Vegetation.- Summer nights. — Emigration to the 
neighbouring Islands and Villages.— Autumn.— rnundalions.— Account 
of the Inundation of 1824.— Philanthropy of the Emperor Alexander. 
— Charity of the Russians. 

The consideration of the climate of a large capital is 
important on more accounts than one. The most obvious 
of these is the influent^e which it exerts on the health of 
tlie inhabitants. . Another is its effect on their disposition^ 
manners, and intellect. To determine in what mode and 
to what degree such an effect is produced is a problem un*- 
(]uc3tionablly full of interest, but too complicated, .and em- 
bracing too vast a field of inquiry, to be discussed in this 



476 OtlMATB OP ST. PKTBhSBOltOH. 


place. Neither can I be expected in the present instance 
to spAk of die former part of the subject, namdy, the 
f OT B ce t inn of the climate of St. Petersbui^ with the 


health of its inhabitants, in that aMjjdh manner which its 
importance demands, and the Frofessibn have a right to 
expect from one of their brethren. I have already re- 
marked that in a work purposely intended for general 
reading, I can only present to the public, general and po- 
pular observations on those branches of the medical science 
which form necessarily a part of the narrative of my tra- 
vels. To this determination I must adhere even at the 
risk of appearing superficial. At a future period I may 
perhaps find leisure to throw together the documents, facts 
and information striedy profesaonal, which I have col- 
lected in the course of my excursions, and particularly at 
St. Petersburgh, and offer them to the considafmtion of my 
brethren at a fitter opportunity. 

The climate of St. Petersburgh has been the theme of 
many different opinions. Kach may have had some 
foundation on facts; but in general, opinions respecting 
climates are loosely given, and without data. Inferences, 


too, have often been drawn from very scanty premises; 
and the observations of a few years have been assumed 
as concluMve in regard to the character of recurring at- 
mospherical variations. Thus, at the beginning of the 
present century, the observations of Krafft, which extend 
to the previous ten years only, were considered as suflident 
to authorize the opinion that the climate of the Imperial 
tmh^diyi and'isjuritMe to thC human con- 


ims uajr. , 

Subtequtnt observations, however, have tmded to show 
tiiaf such unqualified assertions are not striedy correct: 
and the Meteorological Beports published ftojn time tc 
time iireviously and si